Intended Feedback On The Study
The study was requested by the COVID-19 Ministerial Advisory Committee to inform both the modelling of the disease and other decisions that will be taken by the government of South Africa to mitigate the impact of the epidemic on the country. Results will be reported to the Minister of Health, the COVID-19 MAC, and the National Department of Health. It will also be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented to both national and international conferences.
Principal investigators : Leickness Simbayi, Sizulu Moyo
Co-PIs: Khangelani Zuma, Nompumelelo Zungu, Edmore Marinda, Sean Jooste , Adrian Puren , Lynn Morris
Can I Bring A Friend With Me
Yes, provided you take into account that whoever you choose to accompany you will be privy to some highly sensitive information about you. It is also a safeguarding requirement that all patients be seen alone, for at least part of the consultation. We will ask to see you by yourself at some point in the consultation.
Sti/hiv Infection Prevention Counseling
After obtaining a sexual history from their patients, all providers should encourage risk reduction by offering prevention counseling. Prevention counseling is most effective if provided in a nonjudgmental and empathetic manner appropriate to the patients culture, language, sex and gender identity, sexual orientation, age, and developmental level. Prevention counseling for STIs and HIV should be offered to all sexually active adolescents and to all adults who have received an STI diagnosis, have had an STI during the previous year, or have had multiple sex partners. USPSTF recommends intensive behavioral counseling for all sexually active adolescents and for adults at increased risk for STIs and HIV . Such interactive counseling, which can be resource intensive, is directed at a persons risk, the situations in which risk occurs, and the use of personalized goal-setting strategies. One such approach, known as client-centered STI and HIV prevention counseling, involves tailoring a discussion of risk reduction to the persons situation. Although one large study in STI clinics demonstrated that this approach was associated with lower acquisition of curable STIs , another study conducted 10 years later in the same settings but different contexts did not replicate this result .
You May Like: Does Hiv Medication Cause Weight Gain
Sti And Hiv Infection Risk Assessment
Primary prevention of STIs includes assessment of behavioral risk and biologic risk . As part of the clinical encounter, health care providers should routinely obtain sexual histories from their patients and address risk reduction as indicated in this report. Guidance for obtaining a sexual history is available at the Division of STD Prevention resource page and in the curriculum provided by the National Network of STD Clinical Prevention Training Centers . Effective interviewing and counseling skills, characterized by respect, compassion, and a nonjudgmental attitude toward all patients, are essential to obtaining a thorough sexual history and delivering effective prevention messages. Effective techniques for facilitating rapport with patients include using open-ended questions understandable, nonjudgmental language and normalizing language . The Five Ps approach to obtaining a sexual history is one strategy for eliciting information about the key areas of interest . In addition, health care professionals can consider assessing sexual history by asking patients such questions as, Do you have any questions or concerns about your sexual health? Additional information about gaining cultural competency when working with certain populations is available in sections of these guidelines related to these populations.
Box 1 Factors Underlying The High Prevalence Of Stis In Developing Countries
Urban migration with accompanying sociocultural changes
Migration and displacement
Increase in levels of prostitution through economic hardship
Multiple and concurrent sexual partnerships
Lack of access to effective and affordable STI services
High prevalence of antimicrobial resistance for some pathogens
Read Also: How Long Can Hiv Survive Outside The Body
Stis In Developing Countries: The Extent Of The Problem
The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 340 million new cases of the four main curable STIs occur every year, 7585% of them in developing countries . STIs impose an enormous burden of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, both directly through their impact on reproductive and child health, and indirectly through their role in facilitating the sexual transmission of HIV infection. The high prevalence of STIs has contributed to the disproportionately high HIV incidence and prevalence in Africa. Conversely, HIV may have contributed to some extent to STI increases, especially of viral agents such as herpes simplex virus or human papillomaviruses . The greatest impact is on women and infants. The World Bank has estimated that STIs, excluding HIV, are the second commonest cause of healthy life years lost by women in the 1544 age group in Africa, responsible for some 17% of the total burden of disease.
Estimated new cases of curable STIs among adults, 1999. Global total 340 million.
Prevalence of STIs and RTIs among women in sub-Saharan Africa in the 1980s and 1990s
Individual Community And Targeted Intervention Strategies And Structural Approaches
An important consideration in STI control is to decide on strategies that target the individual, the community, or special groups of individuals at higher risk of, or more vulnerable to, STIs. Clearly, a number of strategies target the individual such as screening, case management, and partner notification while community strategies will include mostly primary prevention activities, such as behavioural change and communication campaigns, or vaccination programmes. Interventions targeted at individuals may fail to identify or influence behaviours of people who do not identify themselves with the target group. On the other hand, although general population or community measures deliver a less intensive dose of intervention to each individual, it is distributed across a large population that includes many individuals at low risk Clearly, HIV/STI control programmes need a mix of individual and general population interventions. The challenge is how best to use and combine them and how to make sure policy and political support help to change the social or physical environment in which risk takes place.
Also Check: Can You Get Hiv By Kissing Somebody
Ner Notification And Management
Partner notification and management comprises those public health activities in which sexual partners of individuals with STI are notified, informed of their exposure and offered treatment and support services. Partner management aims to reduce the prevalence of asymptomatic infection, and to shorten the average period of infectiousness. This in turn is expected to reduce disease transmission. However, while bacterial STIs can be identified and cured, thus breaking the chain of transmission, viral STIs such as HSV-2 and HIV are incurable, and the rationale for partner management is less clear. In the context of syndromic management, it is even more difficult to decide which partners should be treated, and for what. The most practical approach has been to give the same treatment as for the index case, but this will obviously result in over-prescription of antibiotics, especially in the case of partners of women with vaginal discharge, most of whom do not have an STI. In such circumstances, partner notification could potentially lead to serious social and physical consequences for the female index case.
Will Treating Stds Prevent Me From Getting Hiv
No. Its not enough.
If you get treated for an STD, this will help to prevent its complications, and prevent spreading STDs to your sex partners. Treatment for an STD other than HIV does not prevent the spread of HIV.
If you are diagnosed with an STD, talk to your doctor about ways to protect yourself and your partner from getting reinfected with the same STD, or getting HIV.
You can add this content to your website by syndicating.
You May Like: Is Hiv And Std Or Sti
Box 2 Public Health Package For Sti Control: The Key Elements
Promotion of safer sexual behaviour and primary prevention
Condom programmingfull range of activities from condom promotion to supply and distribution
Promotion of appropriate healthcare seeking behaviour
Integration of STI prevention and care into primary health care, reproductive healthcare facilities, private clinics, and others
Comprehensive STI case management
Specific services for populations at high risksuch as female and male sex workers, adolescents, migrant populations, uniformed forces, and prisoners
Prevention and care of congenital syphilis and neonatal conjunctivitis
Early detection of symptomatic and asymptomatic infections
These recommendations remain valid several years after such a package was first promoted, as few developing countries widely implement even the minimum component of comprehensive STI case management. Possible reasons for this are shown in box 3.
Learn About The Types Of Sti Tests What To Expect And Where And How To Get Tested
Sexually transmitted infections are very common. Unfortunately, many STIs dont have symptoms. That means that many people who have an STI dont know it. The only way to know is to get tested.
Getting tested ensures you receive prompt treatment if you test positive. This prevents serious health issues from developing. The sooner you know, the better off youll be.
The good news is most STIs are treatable and many are curable.
Don’t Miss: Is Hiv Transmitted Through Sex
How Long After Unprotected Sex Should I Be Tested
We recommend leaving a minimum of two weeks after having unprotected sex before testing for Chlamydia and Gonorrhoea. This gives the best chance to get an accurate result. . Tests for HIV will be accurate four weeks after unprotected sex and for syphilis, itll be three months.
It can take up to a month for HIV to develop and up to 3 months for syphilis.
Free Testing And Treatment
- In the Netherlands, we want everyone to be properly informed about sexual health
- If you come from Ukraine, you can get free testing for sexually transmitted infections and HIV in the Netherlands
- Go to your own doctor or a GGD clinic for an STI test
- If the test shows that you do have an STI, you will be given free medication
- Are you living with HIV? Then your medication is also free in the Netherlands
Don’t Miss: Where Can You Get Hiv Tested
Why Does Having An Std Put Me More At Risk For Getting Hiv
If you get an STD, you are more likely to get HIV than someone who is STD-free. This is because the same behaviors and circumstances that may put you at risk for getting an STD also can put you at greater risk for getting HIV. In addition, having a sore or break in the skin from an STD may allow HIV to more easily enter your body. If you are sexually active, get tested for STDs and HIV regularly, even if you dont have symptoms.
Where To Get Tested
If you want to be tested for STI, find a sexual health service near you, such as:
- your health care provider
- a local public health unit
- a walk-in clinic
This way, they can monitor the health of the whole community.
Some clinics that offer anonymous HIV testing report results to their public health unit. They do not include any identifying information about you.
No one will know you have the infection except:
- the public health nurse
- your health care provider
A public health nurse may contact you and offer to help with telling your current and past partners that they need to be tested.
Don’t Miss: How Many People Are Infected With Hiv In The Us
North Bay Parry Sound District Health Unit
Sexually transmitted infections , also known as sexually transmitted diseases and venereal disease , are infections that are transmitted during sex. They are very common and are usually passed on during unprotected sex.
If you are having sex, or are thinking about becoming sexually active, it’s important to learn about STIs and how to protect yourself. Some STIs can be cured and some cannot. Herpes, Hepatitis B, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus are STIs that cannot be cured. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis and syphilis are STIs that can be cured if treated.
Sexually Transmitted Infections And Human Immunodeficiency Virus
The numbers of sexually active individuals who have sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV are still increasing despite the education that is available regarding lowering your risk. Chlamydia, for example continues to be the most common STI amongst those who are 14-25 years of age. Fortunately at present this STI is treatable and curable. The health unit offers a wide range of services to help you.
If you choose to have sex, Get Tested! Learn more about STI testing.
When should you get an STI test done?
- Before you have sex with a new partner
- If you or your partner have been sexually active and have not been tested or do not know your results
- If you know your current or past partner has or had an STI
- If the condom breaks or you have sex without one
- If you or your partner have shared needles for drugs, tattooing or piercing
- If you or your partner have any STI symptoms
How is an STI test done?
- Your healthcare provider will ask you a lot of questions about your sex life. With your consent they may do some or all of the following based on your history:
- Ask for a urine sample
- Check the external parts of the genitals
- Use a cotton swab to take samples from the throat
- Request you to use a cotton swab sample of your genitals
- Take a blood sample
- *Click on individual STIs for specific testing and treatment
- P.O. Box 570, SimcoeONN3Y 4N5
Recommended Reading: Can You Sue Someone For Infecting You With Hiv
What Is Prep And How Can I Get It
PrEP is similar to PEP but is taken before potential exposure to HIV and is highly effective at preventing a person from catching it. PrEP is recommended for people whose sex lives place them at higher risk of acquiring HIV and can be purchased online from reliable sources. For more information visit the Terrence Higgins Trust website.
PreP is available to patients who meet the national criteria for prescription.
Finding A Cure For Hiv
HIV Cure Center
David Margolis, MD, and J. Victor Garcia, PhD, lead a team of investigators focused on the cure of HIV infection. Eradicating HIV is a complex challenge because the virus lives persistently in the body, hiding in latently infected cells that are able to escape the bodys immune system. Our researchers work closely with academic and industry partners in unique public-private ventures on the quest for a cure. The HIV Cure Center research portfolio is focused on reactivation of the latent virus combined with clearance strategies to effectively purge the HIV reservoir. Margolis and his team are recognized as the worlds experts, having been at the forefront of HIV latency reactivation and clearance research for decades.
HIV Prevention Trials Network
The network is a worldwide collaborative clinical trials network that develops and tests the safety and efficacy of interventions designed to prevent the transmission of HIV. The HPTN has more than 50 ongoing or completed clinical trials in over 15 countries at more than 80 research sites. The HPTN strives to evaluate and implement cutting-edge biomedical, behavioral, and structural interventions to reduce the transmission of HIV. Institute Director Myron Cohen serves as co-Principal Investigator of the network along with Wafaa El-Sadr, MD, MPH, MPA.
Center for AIDS Research
Also Check: Which Cells Are Destroyed By Hiv
Sti Testing And Treatment
The TBDHUs Sexual Health Clinic provides STI testing including anonymous HIV/AIDS testing free of charge. We also provide information and support, no matter what the results.
Many STIs do not show any symptoms, so regular testing is important. You should get routinely tested after every new partner, or if you have multiple partners, every three months. Some infections can be cured using medications while others can be managed with medications. We will discuss your options with you during your follow-up appointment.
To book an appointment or for more information about STI testing and treatment, please contact the Sexual Health Clinic. You may also talk to your family doctor or other healthcare professional about STIs and their treatment. To learn about the symptoms, testing, and treatment methods for specific STIs, check out SexandU.ca.
New River Health District Free Hiv And Sti Testing
New River Health District is offering FREE and CONFIDENTIAL testing for several sexually transmitted infections at offsite locations in the community each month! New River Health District serves the counties of Floyd, Giles, Montgomery, and Pulaski as well as Radford City. We are currently offering testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus , Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis.
Recommended Reading: What State Has The Most Hiv Cases
Screening And Case Finding
Universal serological testing of antenatal clinic attenders for syphilis is recommended by the WHO and is one of the most cost effective health interventions available, although programmes are poorly implemented in many countries. Simple, point of care tests for syphilis, in a dipstick format, are now commercially available. Although currently more expensive than the rapid plasma regain test, they are simpler to perform, and some do not require separation of serum. They have been shown to be highly sensitive and specific.
Blood donors should be screened for at least hepatitis, syphilis, and HIV to protect recipients, and it may be possible to screen populations such as military recruits and company employees. In all cases, careful attention should be paid to patient confidentiality, counselling, and treatment.
Behavior Change Through Technology
The Institutes Behavior and Technology Lab, or BATLab, seeks to facilitate health behavior change by conducting technology-based research on all aspects of sexual health including factors that impact the acquisition and transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. The BATLab is led by Domestic Division Director Lisa Hightow-Weidman, MD, MPH, and Global Division Director Kate Muessig, PhD. Current projects include AllyQuest, HMP Stigma, P3, Tough Talks, and Ending the HIV Epidemic: Integrated Technology.
The UNC/Emory Center for Innovative Technology is also housed under the BATLab. iTech is part of the Adolescent Medicine Trials Network for HIV/AIDS Interventions and is co-led by Lisa Hightow-Weidman, MD, MPH, and her Emory colleague Patrick Sullivan, DVM, PhD. iTech is the first NIH-funded center to use technology in innovative ways to engage youth living with or at risk for HIV. The NIH awarded iTech $18 million in 2016 to fund six studies. An additional $13 million was awarded in 2017 to support another four trials. iTech continues to grow, currently operating 12 studies and partnering with 22 institutions. The BATLab also serves as an enrollment site for several iTech studies that focus on HIV prevention or intervention: ATN 138: YouTHrive, ATN 142: PrEPared, Protected, empowered , ATN 143: COMPARE, and ATN 159: ePrEP.
Also Check: When Should I Get Tested For Hiv After Exposure