Is It Safe For Children With Hiv To Receive Routine Immunizations
MMR, or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, is safe to give to children with HIV, unless they have a severely weakened immune system.
DTaP/Td vaccine is safe to give to infants and children with HIV.
Hib and Hep B vaccines are safe to give to children with HIV.
Hepatitis A and B vaccines are safe to give to HIV-positive children.
VZIG should be considered for known HIV-positive children, depending on their immune status.
A yearly influenza vaccine is recommended for children with HIV, as well as any individual living in the same household as a child with HIV. There are two types of influenza vaccine children and adults with HIV should receive the “shot” form of the vaccine–not the nasal spray form, as it contains a live virus. Pneumococcal vaccine can be safely administered to age-appropriate HIV-infected children.
Always consult with your child’s doctor regarding immunizations for an HIV-infected child.
When Do The Symptoms Appear
The initial signs of HIV can be noticed in as early as 2 weeks from the time of contracting the infection. It is the stage where one may misinterpret it as common cold, or other common illnesses. These symptoms may last for a few weeks or months, after which they stop. If you suspect it to be an HIV infection, it is highly recommended to get tested for the same. It is the only way to know if a person is infected or not.
The disease can be caused through blood transfusion, unprotected sex with an infected person, sharing contaminated needles and syringes, injection drug usage, or can be transferred from mother to child while giving birth. The only way to escape from the clutches of this fearful disease is to take precaution.
Disclaimer: This HealthHearty article is for informative purposes only, and should not be used as a replacement for expert medical advice.
Dos And Donts For Hiv
HIV-positive women who are expecting to give birth can avert the risk of transmitting the infection to their babies by following a doctor-prescribed treatment and certain precautionary measures.
- The efficacy and success rate of the currently available treatment plan designed for this purpose is such that it reduces the risk of mother-to-fetus transmission to less than 1 percent, even in the case of normal delivery. Conversely, in the absence of this safeguard, the mother is 25 percent likely to pass on the virus to her baby.
- Moreover, some women might have to opt for a cesarean delivery regardless, due to certain unrelated reasons. It is best to enlist the advice of the more informed practitioners at your HIV clinic.
- Also, the mothers milk is another medium through which the virus can be passed on to the baby therefore, breastfeeding in most cases is not recommended in HIV-positive mothers.
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What Should I Do If I Think I Could Have Hiv
Only an HIV test can tell you whether you have HIV.
Try not to guess based on any symptoms you may or may not have, or on the HIV status of a person you have had sex with.
If you test, tell whoever tests you if youve recently taken risks or had symptoms similar to seroconversion illness, as this will affect the kind of HIV test you should have.
To be on the safe side, and until you know your test result, use condoms to protect anyone you have sex with.
You can also call THT Direct on 0808 802 1221.
Can Hiv Be Prevented
To reduce the risk of getting HIV, people who are sexually active should:
- use a condom every time they have sex
- get tested for HIV and make sure all partners do too
- reduce their number of sexual partners
- get tested and treated for STDs having an STD increases the risk of HIV infection
- consider taking a medicine every day if they are at very high risk of getting infected
- Do not inject drugs or share any kind of needle.
- Do not share razors or other personal objects that may touch blood.
- Do not touch anyone else’s blood from a cut or sore.
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Early Signs And Symptoms Of Hiv In Men
Early symptoms of HIV in men are often vague and unspecific.
In men, initial HIV symptoms are typically unspecific. Early symptoms are usually bearable and frequently mistaken for flu or another mild condition. People may easily underestimate them or mistake them for minor health conditions.
Men can experience flu-like symptoms some days to weeks after contracting the virus, which may include:
- pain in the joints
- swollen lymph nodes
Men may undervalue initial symptoms and put off seeing a doctor until the symptoms worsen, by which time the infection might have advanced.
The fact that some men do not seek timely treatment may be why the virus affects men more severely than women.
Although scientists and researchers have made significant progress in the prevention and treatment of HIV over the last decades, it remains a serious health problem in most countries around the world.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , in 2016, an estimated 39,782 people were diagnosed with HIV in the U.S.
Although the number of new diagnoses fell by 5 percent between 2011 and 2015, there were still around 1.1 million people in the U.S. living with HIV in 2015.
A higher number of men than women are living with the virus. By the end of 2010,
In 2016, 44 percent of new HIV diagnoses were among African Americans, compared with 26 percent among white people and 25 percent among Hispanics and Latinos.
Symptom : Night Sweats
Many people will get night sweats during the early stages of HIV. These can be even more common later in infection and arent related to exercise or the temperature of the room.
With such a vast array of symptoms, HIV testing is vital to ensure a proper diagnosis. If you think youve been exposed to HIV, or have an active sex life with casual sex partners, regardless of whether you are showing symptoms of HIV or not, its important to get tested as soon as possible.
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What Are Symptoms Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Early symptoms of the human immunodeficiency virus are referred to as primary or acute HIV infection. These symptoms usually occur two to four weeks after a person is infected with the virus and include:
- Eye infections that cause trouble seeing and blurred vision
- Candidiasis of the mouth that can cause soreness and raise, white patches
When Is Hiv Contagious
In the early stage of HIV transmission, the levels of the virus in the blood and semen are high. A person can easily transmit the virus during this time, and transmission is more likely during this primary acute stage than during the following stage.
During the clinical latency stage, a person living with HIV experiences fewer symptoms. However, they are still able to transmit the virus to another person.
According to the , a person with an undetectable viral load cannot transmit HIV to someone else. It is not possible because the HIV treatment suppresses the virus, leaving a low presence of HIV in the blood.
When HIV is not detectable in a test, it is not transmissible.
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How Hiv Affects The Body
HIV attacks the immune system. It specifically attacks the CD4 cells, which are a subtype of a group of cells called T cells. T cells help the body fight off infections.
Without treatment, HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells in the body, increasing a persons risk of getting infections. If HIV develops to stage 3, the person will also have a higher chance of developing cancer.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provide information on where people can find their nearest HIV testing center.
How Does The Hiv Test Work
The HIV test is done using your blood or saliva samples to detect the presence of HIV specific antibodies in the body. These antibodies are proteins produced by your body in response to an active HIV infection that help to fight the culpable virus.
The detection of such antibodies is taken to be a conclusive sign of an ongoing infection, except in cases where these antibodies might be passed on by infected mothers to their newborns who then carry them in their system for as long as 18 months.
Such diagnostic tests do not provide the complete picture, however. They simply indicate if you are infected or not, without highlighting the possibility of AIDS, nor the extent or the progression of the disease.
What Can I Expect When I Get Tested For Hiv
Getting tested for HIV requires a blood sample, which will look for evidence of the virus. Usually at least 10 days need to pass between infection and testing for this to be accurate. If this test is negative but you still suspect you could have HIV, a repeat test should be done. If the HIV test is positive, an additional blood test may be needed to confirm the results.
With Priority STD Testing, simply select the HIV test from our online catalog, find the closest testing facility, and stop by at your convenience. Tests take only a few minutes and most people are in and out in under a half hour. In most cases, youll have your results in as little as 24-72 hours.
If you believe you have been exposed to HIV within the last 72 hours, seek immediate medical treatment at the nearest emergency room. They will test you for HIV and you may be eligible to take PEP, medication to reduce your chances of getting infected.
British Columbia Specific Information
Human Immunodeficiency Virus causes an infection that damages the immune system. The immune system is the part of the body that fights infection and disease. If untreated, HIV infection will lead to a serious disease called Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome .
For information on HIV infection and care in British Columbia, visit BC Centre for Disease Control and BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS. For information on HIV drug coverage in B.C., please visit the Ministry of Health BC PharmaCare website.
In B.C. HIV testing guidelines recommend that everyone have an HIV test at least every 5 years. They recommend more frequent testing for people who belong to populations that have a greater chance of having HIV, are pregnant, experience a change in their health that suggests HIV, or if someone requests a test. For information on HIV testing, see HealthLinkBC File #08m HIV and HIV Tests and HealthLinkBC File #38a HIV Testing in Pregnancy.
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When Do Symptoms Occur
Some people have flu-like symptoms within two to four weeks after infection, but others may not feel sick or not develop symptoms at all until later.
See a healthcare provider if you have symptoms of HIV and think you may have been exposed to HIV. Getting tested for HIV is the only way to know for sure.
In the United States, HIV is spread mainly through having anal or vaginal sex or sharing needles or syringes with an HIV-positive partner. Anal sex is the highest-risk behavior.
You can prevent HIV by using condoms correctly every time you have sex pre-exposure prophylaxis, a prevention method in which the HIV-negative partner takes daily HIV medicine to prevent HIV and treatment as prevention, a method in which the HIV-positive partner takes daily HIV medicine to achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load.
Only antigen/antibody tests or nucleic acid tests can diagnose acute HIV infection. NATs look for actual virus in the blood, and antigen/antibody tests look for HIV antibodies and antigens. Antibodies are produced by your immune system when youre exposed to viruses like HIV, and antigens are foreign substances that cause your immune system to activate.
However, no test can detect HIV immediately after infection. NATs can usually tell if you have an HIV infection 10 to 33 days after exposure, while antigen/antibody tests can tell 18 to 45 days after exposure.
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Mouth ulcers or sores
How Is Aids Treatment Done
The treatment of AIDS is done with a cocktail of medicines provided free of charge by the government, which may include the following remedies: Etravirina, Tipranavir, Tenofovir, Lamivudina, Efavirenz, plus others that can be combined according to the Ministry of Healths protocol.
They fight the virus and increase the amount and quality of the immune systems defense cells. But in order for them to have the expected effect, it is necessary to correctly follow the doctors guidelines and use condom in all relationships, to prevent the contamination of others and help control the disease epidemic. Learn more about
The use of the condom is important even in the sexual relations with partners already infected with the AIDS virus. This care is important as there are several types of HIV virus and so partners can be infected with a new type of virus, making it difficult to control the disease.
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How Often Should A Man Get Tested
Sexually active men should get routine tests for HIV.
Men who are sexually active should get tested for HIV at least once in their lifetime as part of their routine health care.
The CDC recommend that everyone between the ages of should take an HIV test.
The CDC also recommend that people with specific risk factors should take a test at least once a year . This recommendation applies to gay and bisexual men, and men who have sex with men, and users of injectable drugs.
Besides these formal recommendations, everyone who may have been exposed to HIV or had sex without a condom should also take a test.
Diagnosis In Men Vs Women
Doctors diagnose HIV in both men and women by testing a blood or saliva sample, although they could also test a urine sample. This test looks for antibodies produced by the person to fight the virus. The test typically takes around 3 to 12 weeks to detect antibodies.
Another test looks for HIV antigens, which are substances that the virus produces immediately after transmission. These antigens cause the immune system to activate. HIV produces the p24 antigen in the body even before antibodies develop.
Usually, both the antibody and the antigen tests are done in labs, but there are also home tests that people can take.
Home tests may require a small sample of blood or saliva, and their results are quickly available. If the test is positive, it is essential to confirm the results with a doctor. If the test is negative, a person should repeat it after a few months to confirm the results.
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Common Questions About Hiv Transmission And Aids
Q: How is HIV transmitted from person to person?
Persons are infected by HIV by sharing body fluids, including blood, seminal and vaginal fluids, and even breast milk. The virus can enter into the surface cells, and then make its way into the bloodstream and spread.
Q: What type of virus is HIV?
HIV is a lentivirus with a long incubation period before it causes illness. It is also classified as a retrovirus. Once individuals are infected, similar to herpes viruses, they are infected for life.
Q: Is AIDS a disease?
AIDS isnt really a disease its a syndrome. AIDS is the last stage of an HIV infection. The immune system is so damaged that people begin to get opportunistic infections.
How Do I Know If I Have Hiv
Its basically impossible to self diagnose HIV just by observing your symptoms. In many cases, infected individuals remain asymptomatic for some time, and those who arent may experience flu-like symptoms that are not unique to an HIV diagnosis. The only way to know for sure if youve contracted HIV is to take a reputable test from a credible STD testing services provider.
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Testing For Drug Resistance
HIV often changes or mutates in the body. Sometimes these changes make the virus resistant to certain medicines. Then the medicine no longer works.
Medical experts recommend testing the blood of everyone diagnosed with HIV to look for this drug resistance.footnote 8 This information helps your doctor know what medicines to use.
You also may be tested for drug resistance when:
- You are ready to begin treatment.
- You’ve been having treatment and your viral load numbers stop going down.
- You’ve been having treatment and your viral load numbers become detectable after not being detectable.
Swollen Lymph Nodes Aching Muscles And Pain In The Joints
The lymph nodes form part of the immune system and are responsible for protecting the blood by eliminating viruses and bacteria from the body. In case of an infection, they get inflamed. The lymph nodes are usually found under the armpits, neck and groin regions and may be responsible for muscle aches and joint pains.
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