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What Are The Consequences Of Hiv

Effect On Taxable Population

Long Term Consequences of HIV Infection and Chronic ART

By killing off mainly young adults, AIDS seriously weakens the taxable population, reducing the resources available for public expenditures such as education and health services not related to AIDS resulting in increasing pressure for the state’s finances and slower growth of the economy. This results in a slower growth of the tax base, an effect that will be reinforced if there are growing expenditures on treating the sick, training , sick pay and caring for AIDS orphans. This is especially true if the sharp increase in adult mortality shifts the responsibility and blame from the family to the government in caring for these orphans.

On the level of the household, AIDS results in both the loss of income and increased spending on healthcare by the household. The income effects of this led to spending reduction as well as a substitution effect away from education and towards healthcare and funeral spending. A study in Côte d’Ivoire showed that households with an HIV/AIDS patient spent twice as much on medical expenses as other households.

With economic stimulus from the government, however, HIV/AIDS can be fought through the economy. With some money, HIV/AIDS patients will have to worry less about getting enough food and shelter and more about fighting their disease. However, if economic conditions aren’t good, a person with HIV/AIDS may decide to become a sex trade worker to earn more money. As a result, more people become infected with HIV/AIDS.

Using Barrier Protection And Prep

Using a method of barrier protection, such as a condom, during every sexual act can drastically reduce the chances of contracting HIV and other STIs.

In their 2019 guidelines, the Preventive Services Task Force advise that doctors only recommend PrEP to people with recent negative HIV tests.

They also approve a PrEP formation: a combination of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine. They advise people who take PrEP to do so once a day.

The have also approved a second combination drug tenofovir alafenamide and emtricitabine as PrEP.

Economic Impact Of Hiv/aids

HIV/AIDS affects economic growth by reducing the availability of human capital. Without proper prevention, nutrition, health care and medicine that is available in developing countries, large numbers of people are falling victim to AIDS.

People living with HIV/AIDS will not only be unable to work, but will also require significant medical care. The forecast is that this will probably cause a collapse of babies and societies in countries with a significant AIDS population. In some heavily infected areas, the epidemic has left behind many orphans, who are cared for by elderly grandparents.

The increased mortality in this region will result in a smaller skilled population and labor force. This smaller labor force will be predominantly young people, with reduced knowledge and work experience leading to reduced productivity. An increase in workers time off to look after sick family members or for sick leave will also lower productivity. Increased mortality will also weaken the mechanisms that generate human capital and investment in people, through loss of income and the death of parents. As the epidemic progresses, the age profile of those infected will increase, though the peak is expected to stay within the working age population. HIV disproportionately infects and impacts on women, so those sectors employing large numbers of women e.g. education, may be disproportionately economically impacted by HIV

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Hiv Effects On The Digestive System

More than half of people who have AIDS report digestive symptoms as the virus or an opportunistic infection targets the walls of their intestines. Diarrhea is the most common one. Over time, the virus can change how your digestive tract works and even how it looks.


Some HIV medications can damage your liver. Many people with HIV also have a form of inflammation called hepatitis.

Limit how much alcohol you drink, and don’t use recreational drugs. Having diabetes, high cholesterol, or triglycerides and being overweight can lead to fatty liver disease, so keep an eye on the carbs, fats, and calories you eat each day.

Talk to your doctor about getting the hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccines. Thereâs no vaccine against hepatitis C, but you should get tested for it.

Get regular blood tests to catch any liver problems early.


Your mouth might be one of the first places where you notice signs of HIV. Things like dry mouth, fungal infections, gum disease, cold sores, and canker sores can make chewing or swallowing painful. If they go on too long, you might not be able to take your HIV medication or get the nutrients you need.

Good dental habits can help prevent these issues, so brush and floss regularly. See your dentist for checkups, and tell them if youâre having problems. Most mouth conditions tied to HIV are treatable.

The Ten Consequences Of Aids Treatment Delayed Deferred Or Denied

What are the Important Effects of HIV on The Body?

Over the last decade, antiretroviral treatment scale-up to millions of people living with HIV/AIDS in developing countries has been possible thanks to a massive mobilisation of resources and political will, the simplification of ART, and the competition among drug manufacturers that has pushed prices for AIDS medicines down by more than 99% since 2000.

More than four million people are alive today who without treatment would not be, and epidemiological trends show crucial progress in the battle against the epidemic. MSF currently provides ART to more than 162,000 people in 25 countries.

The World Health Organization has recently made important changes to treatment guidelines, and now recommends that people be provided with treatment earlier, before the disease is allowed to progress. This would bring clinical practice in developing countries closer to standards long adhered to in wealthy ones. In addition, new evidence shows that wide-scale and early treatment may be an effective way to curb transmission of the virus at population level.

This document illustrates ten consequences of the funding retreat for people living with HIV/AIDS in developing countries, drawing upon data from MSF field research released at the XVIII International AIDS Conference 2010 in Vienna, and experience providing ART over the last ten years.

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Hiv Effects On The Skin

Many people get a skin rash in the first stage of an HIV infection. It usually goes away without treatment in days or weeks. Over time, a number of things might cause more rashes. Itâs always important to let your doctor know about a rash, because it might be a sign of a serious problem, or an HIV medication could be causing it.

People who have HIV are more likely to get viral infections. Herpes zoster, herpes simplex, and Molluscum contagiosum can cause rashes or blisters.

Kaposiâs sarcoma causes lesions, patches, or nodules that are a different color from your skin. Sometimes, you can also get lesions on your internal organs. These may be life-threatening.

Changes In The International Market For Antiretroviral Drugs

In 2001 the TRIPs agreement of the Doha round of World Trade Organization negotiations formalized trade rules governing patented goods. This is highly relevant for the international market in pharmaceutical products: because research and development costs in the pharmaceutical industry are high, companies can only recover these costs by charging sizable markups over production costs while the products are under patent. Importantly in the context of HIV/AIDS, the TRIPs agreement formalized rules whereby a country facing a public health emergency could grant a compulsory license, requiring a foreign pharmaceutical firm to license a domestic producer to produce generic versions of its patented medicines for domestic consumption. However, many African countries do not have any domestic pharmaceutical industry to speak of. Partly reflecting growing international concern over the escalating HIV/AIDS crisis, the agreement was therefore subsequently extended to allow countries without domestic production capabilities to import generic versions of patented drugs.

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From Hiv Entry Into The Brain To Development Of Mcmd/had

Soon after infection in the periphery HIV penetrates into the CNS where the virus primarily resides in microglia and macrophages., Viral load in brain can be measured by quantitative PCR, and the highest concentrations of virus are detected in those subcortical structures most often affected in patients with HAD., However, infection of macrophages and microglia alone does not seem to initiate neurodegeneration, and it has therefore been proposed that additional factors associated with advanced HIV infection in the periphery, thus outside the CNS, provide important triggers for events leading to dementia. An elevated number of circulating monocytes that express CD16 and CD69 could constitute one such factor. These activated cells tend to adhere to and transmigrate through the normal endothelium of the brain microvasculature and might then initiate processes deleterious to neurons.

General Characteristics Of The Selected Papers

Side Effects Of HIV Drugs

Table shows the characteristics of 52 selected quantitative papers . The papers used randomized, nonrandomized, and descriptive methods. These studies were published between 1994 and 2019. About 60% of these papers reported studies conducted in Southern and East Africa. Most of the papers used attendance, enrollment, correct grade for age, and years of schooling as measures of schooling. In some cases, studies used multiple educational outcomes. Regression analysis was the most common form of analysis applied in these papers .

Number of publications
42 14, 17, 42,44
  • Summary of educational outcomes of HIV-affected children

et al

  • Summary of gender comparisons of all children affected by HIV
  • Summary of intergenerational transmission of education

Grant’s mixed-methods study of mothers who were tested for HIV found that these parents were dedicated to ensuring that their children obtained their schooling, while they were still in control of their children’s matters. Additionally, qualitative studies showed that caregivers reported that children were frequently out of school due to financial problems .

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Effects Of Hiv/aids On The Body

The human immunodeficiency virus seeks and destroys CD4+ cells, a type of T lymphocyte . T cells are critical to the immune system. Theyre responsible for warding off diseases and most infections, including viral infections.

HIV targets the type of cells that would normally fight off an invader like HIV. As the virus replicates, it damages or destroys the infected CD4+ cell and produces more virus to infect more CD4+ cells. Without treatment, this cycle continues in most infected people until the immune system is badly compromised, leaving them open to many serious infections and illnesses. Many of the illnesses that people compromised immune systems get are rare in people with functioning immune systems.

How quickly the virus progresses varies from person to person. Factors like your age, overall health, and how quickly youre diagnosed and treated can make a difference.Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is the final stage of HIV. At this stage, the immune system is severely weakened, and the risk of contracting opportunistic infections is much greater. Not everyone with HIV will go on to develop AIDS.

Importantly, many of the effects described here are related to the failure of the immune system in progressing HIV and AIDS. Many of these effects are preventable with early antiretroviral treatment, which can preserve the immune system. However, for anyone without access to effective antiretroviral treatment, these effects remain possible.

Assessment Of Publication Quality

The quality of the papers selected for the review was assessed using the Mixed-Methods Appraisal Tool . The MMAT is used for complex systematic literature reviews that include quantitative, mixed-methods, and qualitative studies. It accounts for five common methodologies, qualitative , quantitative randomized , quantitative nonrandomized , descriptive , and mixed . Each section is composed of three to four questions related to data sources, data collection, and outcome data. A quality score between 0% and 100% is assigned for each study component. An answer of âyes,â âno,â or âI can’t tellâ is assigned for each question in the corresponding study component . Papers of good quality met all criteria and papers of poor quality did not meet any criteria . We also checked the quality of our review by using the PRISMA 2009 checklist .

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Many Young People Engage In Sexual Risk Behaviors

Many young people engage in sexual risk behaviors and experiences that can result in unintended health outcomes.

CDC data show that lesbian, gay, and bisexual high school students are at substantial risk for serious health outcomes pdf icon related to sexual behaviors, violence, substance use, and poor mental health as compared to their peers.

Emergency Hiv Pills: Pep

Visual Anthropology of Japan

72 hours should speak with a healthcare provider about PEP. This medication may be able to stop the infection, especially if a person takes it as soon as possible after the potential exposure.

A person takes PEP for 28 days, and a doctor monitors the person for HIV afterward. PEP is not 100% effective, so it is important to use prevention techniques, such as barrier protection and safe injection practices, including while taking PEP.

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Restrictions On Entry Travel And Stay

As of September 2015, 35 countries have laws that restrict the entry, stay and residence of people living with HIV. In 2015, Lithuania became the most recent country to remove such restrictions.39

As of 2015, 17 countries will deport individuals once their HIV positive status is discovered, five have a complete entry ban on people living with HIV and four require a person to be able to prove they are HIV negative before being granted entry.40

Deportation of people living with HIV has potentially life-threatening consequences if they have been taking HIV treatment and are deported to a country that has limited treatment provision. Alternatively, people living with HIV may face deportation to a country where they would be subject to even further discrimination – a practice that could contravene international human rights law.41

List For Quantitative Mixed

  • Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude, & Turan, Belgi. . Left Behind: Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital in the Midst of HIV/AIDS. Journal of Population Economics, 26, 1523â1547.

  • Anabwani, Gabriel, Karugaba, Grace, & Gabaitiri, Lesego. . Health, schooling, needs, perspectives and aspirations of HIV infected and affected children in Botswana: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Pediatrics, 16, 132â132.

  • Aspaas, Helen Ruth. . AIDS and orphans in Uganda: Geographical and gender interpretations of household resources. The Social Science Journal, 36, 201â226.

  • Bandason, T., Langhaug, L. F., Makamba, M., Laver, S., Hatzold, K., Mahere, S., ⦠& Ferrand, R. A. . Burden of HIV among primary school children and feasibility of primary school-linked HIV testing in Harare, Zimbabwe: a mixed methods study. AIDS Care, 25, 1520â1526.

  • Bele, Samir D., Valsangkar, Sameer, & Bodhare, Trupti N. . Impairment of nutritional, educational status and quality of life among children infected with and belonging to families affected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Vulnerable Children & Youth Studies, 6, 284â292.

  • Bhargava, Alok. . AIDS epidemic and the psychological well-being and school participation of Ethiopian orphans. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 10, 263â275.

  • Cohen, J., Reddington, C., Jacobs, D., Meade, R., Picard, D., Singleton, K., Hsu, H. W. . School-related issues among HIV-infected children. Pediatrics, 100, E8âE8.

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    Do People Living With Hiv Have Other Health Conditions

    Yes. Its common for people living with HIV to have other health issues.

    Some of these issues may be directly related to HIV or its treatment. Others may be completely unrelated.

    These health conditions can mean more doctors visits, lab tests, and medications to keep up with.

    Taking HIV medication daily as prescribed, and staying in regular medical care is the best way for people living with HIV to stay healthy.

    The Effects Of Hiv On The Body

    The Effects of HIV in the Eye

    Most people are likely familiar with HIV, but they may not know how it can affect the body.

    HIV destroys CD4 cells , which are critical to the immune system. CD4 cells are responsible for keeping people healthy and protecting them from common diseases and infections.

    As HIV gradually weakens the bodys natural defenses, signs and symptoms will occur.

    Find out what happens when the virus enters the body and interrupts its systems.

    Once HIV enters the body, it launches a direct attack on the immune system.

    How quickly the virus progresses will vary by:

    • a persons age
    • how quickly theyre diagnosed

    The timing of their treatment can make a huge difference as well.

    HIV targets the types of cells that would normally fight off an invader such as HIV. As the virus replicates, it damages or destroys the infected CD4 cell and produces more virus to infect more CD4 cells.

    Without treatment, this cycle can continue until the immune system is badly compromised, leaving a person at risk for serious illnesses and infections.

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is the final stage of HIV. At this stage, the immune system is severely weakened, and the risk of contracting opportunistic infections is much greater.

    However, not everyone with HIV will go on to develop AIDS. The earlier a person receives treatment, the better their outcome will be.

    Early on, HIV symptoms may be mild enough to be dismissed.

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    Impact Of Hiv On Parenthood And Children

    The development of HAARTs has had an impact on pregnancy planning among people living with HIV. In the pre-HAART era, HIV-positive women were faced with their HIV status and the expected bleak outcome of death. The number AIDS-related deaths, however, has drastically gone down in women living with AIDS due to HAART they now live longer healthier lives. Among the women in the reproductive age who are living with HIV, the decision about pregnancy is becoming an important one this due to reduction of the risk of vertical transmission of the virus to the newborn . Gains in prevention of mother to child transmission have led to emergence of new dimensions in the way communities view parenthood. Parenthood in HIV infected people is still eliciting many physical and social effects especially due to stigma and discrimination associated with the virus. Noroski outlines that concerns that might determine parenting decisions among people living with AIDS are the aspiration for parenthood, religious beliefs, children one had before, the position of spouse and health care providers, and apparent spouse capacity to parent successfully.

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