Tuesday, October 4, 2022

What Body Fluids Transmit Hiv

What Bodily Fluids Transmit Hiv Your Answer

hiv transmission: what three fluids can transmit hiv ?

It is possible for someone to become infected with HIV if they have the virus. Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, or breast milk are the main ways in which the disease is transmitted. In order for blood to be contaminated with sweat, tears, saliva, urine, and feces, they must be visibly contaminated.

List Of Bodily Fluids

Bodily fluids are liquids that come from inside human bodies and help transport nutrients and expel waste from human cells. A short list of bodily fluids includes:

  • Blood. Blood plays a major role in the bodys defense against infection by carrying waste away from our cells and flushing them out of the body in urine, feces, and sweat. Blood also supplies the body with essential substances such as hormones, sugar, and oxygen that the body needs to function and survive.
  • Saliva. Mostly made of water, saliva contains proteins and minerals that prevent gum disease, tooth decay, and helps you chew and swallow comfortably.
  • Semen. In males, semen is released during ejaculation and contains protein, fructose, and catecholamines.
  • Vaginal fluids. Biological fluids that are within or expelled from the vagina and contain carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, and other acids produced by the normal lactobacillus bacteria.
  • Mucus. Mucus contains antibodies, enzymes, and proteins that help fight bacteria and viruses and prevents the mouth, nose, throat, sinuses, and lungs from drying out.
  • Urine. Made of 95% water, urine flushes out chemicals and dead blood cells from the body and is a way for your body to get rid of extra water that it does not need.

Bites That Break The Skin

A bite that opens the skin and causes bleeding can lead to the transmission of HIV. However, according to the

goes up with increasing viral load.

Viral load is highest both during the early phase of HIV and without treatment with antiretroviral medications. Taking antiretroviral medications every day can reduce a persons viral load to very low levels that cannot be detected through testing.

In this way, antiretroviral medications are not only a treatment, but an important tool for prevention. When HIV cannot be detected in the blood, a person living with HIV cannot sexually transmit the virus to a partner without HIV.

This principle is called Undetectable = Untransmittable .

It can take up to 6 months of taking antiretroviral medications each day to achieve an undetectable viral load.

A persons viral load is said to be durably undetectable when all test results are undetectable for at least 6 months after the first undetectable result.

There are a couple reasons that STIs can raise HIV risk. First, the symptoms of many STIs include genital inflammation, sores, or ulcers. These can all increase the chance of transmitting the virus from one person to another.

Second, like HIV, transmission of STIs is associated with some of the same types of behaviors, such as engaging in sex without a condom or other barrier method.

Some research has also indicated that certain STIs may be more with HIV transmission than others. These STIs include:

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How Is Hiv Spread From Person To Person

HIV can only be spread through specific activities. In the United States, the most common ways are:

  • Having vaginal or anal sex with someone who has HIV without using a condom or taking medicines to prevent or treat HIV. Anal sex is riskier than vaginal sex.
  • Sharing injection drug equipment , such as needles, with someone who has HIV.

Less common ways are:

  • From mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. However, the use of HIV medicines and other strategies have helped lower the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV to 1% or less in the United States.
  • Getting stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle or other sharp object. This is a risk mainly for health care workers. The risk is very low.

HIV is spread only in extremely rare cases by:

  • Having oral sex. But in general, the chance that an HIV-negative person will get HIV from oral sex with an HIV-positive partner is extremely low.

Means And Requirements For Hiv Transmission

HIV AIDS

People may become infected with HIV if they engage in specific risk behaviors or if they are exposed through needlestick injuries . Other blood contact with mucous membranes or non-intact skin provides a possible, but not probable, chance of transmission.

HIV is transmitted through:

  • Unprotected anal, vaginal, and oral intercourse
  • Sharing needles or other injection equipment
  • A mother passing the virus to her baby either before or during birth
  • An infected woman breastfeeding her infant
  • Accidental needlestick injuries, or infected body fluid coming into contact with the broken skin or mucous membranes of another person
  • A transfusion prior to 1986 of HIV-infected blood or blood products

In extremely rare cases, HIV can be transmitted by sharing razors or toothbrushes, if infected blood from one person was deposited on the toothbrush or razor and the blood entered the bloodstream of another person.

The transmission of HIV depends upon:

  • The availability of the infectious agent in sufficient quantity
  • The viability of the infectious agent
  • The virulence of the infectious agent
  • The ability of the infectious agent to reach the bloodstream, mucous membranes, or broken skin of a potential host

One of the predictors of the infectious level of an HIV-positive person is viral load, which is how much HIV is present in the bloodstream. Studies show a clear connection between higher viral load in the blood and increased transmissibility of HIV.

Test Your Learning

Answer: d

Blood Transfusions

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Ways Hiv Is Transmitted

HOW IS HIV PASSED FROM ONE PERSON TO ANOTHER?

Most people get or transmit HIV through one of the following ways:

  • Anal sex
  • Sharing needles, syringes, or other drug ejection equipment
  • Perinatal transmission

Not every exposure to HIV carries the same risk and some activities are riskier than others. Many factors increase or decrease HIV risk. In addition, there are many effective ways you can reduce your risk of getting or transmitting HIV. Read more about HIV prevention.

WHAT BODY FLUIDS TRANSMIT HIV?

Only certain body fluids from a person who has HIV can transmit HIV. These fluids include

  • Blood
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Breast milk

These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream for transmission to occur. Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, vagina, penis, and mouth.

SEXUAL ACTIVITIES

Some sexual activities are riskier than others for getting or transmitting HIV. The most common way to get or transmit HIV through sexual activity is from having anal or vaginal sex without using protection . There is extremely low to no chance of getting or transmitting HIV through activities such as oral sex, touching, and kissing.

Anal Sex

Anal sex is when a penis is inserted into an anus. The person inserting the penis is called the insertive partner and the person receiving the penis is called the receptive partner .

Vaginal Sex

Remember!

SHARING NEEDLES, SYRINGES, OR OTHER DRUG INJECTION EQUIPMENT

PERINATAL TRANSMISSION

Can Hiv Be Transmitted Through Oral Sex

Yes, but the risk is relatively low.

HIV is transmitted through seminal and vaginal fluids, including menstrual fluids. The virus can enter the body through the bloodstream or by passing through delicate mucous membranes, such as inside the vagina, rectum or urethra.

If a person gives fellatio and has bleeding gums, a cut, or an ulcer inside their mouth, HIV could enter their bloodstream through infected fluid. This could also happen if infected fluid from a woman gets into the mouth of her partner during oral sex.

Using a condom during sex, including oral and anal sex, is the best way to prevent sexually transmitted infections , including HIV. Avoid using an oil-based lubricant, such as Vaseline or baby oil, because they can weaken the condom and increase the risk of it splitting.

You can use a dental dam to cover the anus or female genitals during oral sex. A dental dam is a latex or polyurethane square, measuring about 15cm by 15cm. It acts as a barrier to help stop STIs passing from one person to another.

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Can You Get Hiv From A Blood Transfusion

Receiving a blood transfusion or other products made from blood is safe in the UK as all blood products have been screened for infections such as HIV since 1985.

In countries that dont have strict checks on the safety of their blood supply, receiving contaminated blood can pass the virus on. This can also happen in countries that dont screen other blood products, organs or sperm.

Giving blood has never been a risk.

Do Condoms Stop Hiv Being Passed On

HIV Infection, Ways that can transmit , and ways that cannot

Yes.Using a condom correctly prevents contact with semen or vaginal secretions , stopping HIV from being passed on. The virus cannot pass through the latex of the condom.

Condoms should only be used with a water-based lubricant as oil-based lube weakens them.

People with HIV who are on effective treatment and have an undetectable viral load cannot pass on HIV through any of their body fluids.

Its also important to remember that if you have sex without a condom other sexually transmitted infections can be passed on.

Sex without a condom can also result in pregnancy if other contraception is not being used.

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Body Fluids That Transmit Hiv

What body fluids transmit HIV?

Only certain body fluids from a person who has HIV can transmit HIV. These fluids include

  • blood,
  • vaginal fluids, and
  • breast milk.

These fluids must come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or be directly injected into the bloodstream for transmission to occur. Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, vagina, penis, and mouth.

How To Be Safe When Coming Into Contact With Infected Blood

A condom will act as a barrier against any contact with blood during sex.

As well as sex, sharing equipment for injecting drugs is a way blood can get into someones body. This can be avoided by using fresh needles and not sharing needles, syringes and other equipment.

If a woman has HIV, her menstrual blood also carries a risk of transmission if she has a detectable viral load.

If youre HIV negative and taking pre-exposure prophylaxis youll be protected against getting HIV if you come into contact with infectious blood.

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Hiv And Maternal Transmission

HIV can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or through breastfeeding. If left untreated throughout these stages, there is a 15-45% chance of an HIV positive mother transmitting the virus to their child . However there are treatment options to prevent this from happening.

If pregnancy occurs and there has been potential HIV exposure, ask a healthcare provider about getting tested for HIV as early as possible. Taking medications called antiretroviral therapy as prescribed can reduce the viral load so that the baby has a very low chance of contracting HIV .

A person with HIV should not breastfeed their child, as breast milk can transmit HIV. Even if a person is taking ART and their viral loads are undetectable, they should still not breastfeed.

What Happens Once Hiv Gets Into The Body

Prevention Of HIV/AIDS

Once HIV gets into the body, it needs to infect immune cells and make copies of itself to cause a permanent infection.

HIV cannot replicate on its own it needs to take over cells within the body to replicate. To do this it targets specific immune cells called CD4 T cells as well as other immune cells. HIV enters and takes control of the cell and starts to replicate. New copies of the virus are released into the blood that can then infect more immune cells.

If the virus can replicate for one to three days without being stopped, it can then spread to other parts of the body and establish a permanent infection. The bodys immune system defences are sometimes able to defeat HIV before it spreads and causes a permanent infection. Taking pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis can also stop HIV from replicating and being able to establish a permanent infection.

About two-thirds of people newly infected with HIV experience symptoms of acute infection such as fever, chills, a rash, muscle aches, sore throat, swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, night sweats and mouth ulcers, which may last from a few days to a few weeks.

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How Is Hiv Not Transmitted

Insects such as mosquitoes, ticks, and other insects are responsible for the spread of disease. Saliva, tears, or sweat are all common ways to expel saliva. If you are HIV positive, you can hug, shake hands, share toilets, share dishes, or kiss someone in a closed-mouth or social manner. Other sexual activities that do not involve the exchange of body fluids .

Occupational Exposure To Bloodborne Pathogens

Occupational exposure means reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infected materials that may result from the performance of an employees duties.

Exposure incident means a specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or OPIM that results from the performance of an employees duties. Examples of non-intact skin at risk include skin with dermatitis, hangnails, cuts, abrasions, chafing, or acne.

Occupational groups that have been widely recognized as having potential exposure to HBV/HCV/HIV include, but are not limited to, healthcare employees, law enforcement, fire, ambulance, and other emergency response, and public service employees.

The compliance directive of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration on occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens, CPL 2-2.69, may be consulted for guidance. For more information or assistance, contact a Department of Labor and Industries consultant in your area. Check the blue government section of the phone book for the office nearest you.

Test Your Learning

Answer: d

Bloodborne Pathogens

Blood and OPIM

Bodily fluids that have been recognized and linked to the transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV, and to which Standard Precautions apply, are:

  • Blood
  • Amniotic fluid
  • Saliva in dental procedures
  • Specimens with concentrated HIV, HBV and HCV viruses

Exposure Control Plan

Bloodborne Pathogens Training

Online Resource

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Ways Hiv Can Be Transmitted

How is HIV passed from one person to another?

Most people who get HIV get it through anal or vaginal sex, or sharing needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment . But there are powerful tools that can help prevent HIV transmission.

Can I get HIV from anal sex?

You can get HIV if you have anal sex with someone who has HIV without using protection .

  • Anal sex is the riskiest type of sex for getting or transmitting HIV.
  • Being the receptive partner is riskier for getting HIV than being the insertive partner .
  • The bottoms risk of getting HIV is very high because the rectums lining is thin and may allow HIV to enter the body during anal sex.
  • The top is also at risk because HIV can enter the body through the opening at the tip of the penis , the foreskin if the penis isnt circumcised, or small cuts, scratches, or open sores anywhere on the penis.

Can I get HIV from vaginal sex?

You can get HIV if you have vaginal sex with someone who has HIV without using protection .

Can HIV be transmitted from a mother to her baby?

HIV can be transmitted from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. However, it is less common because of advances in HIV prevention and treatment.

Can I get HIV from sharing needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment?

You are at high risk for getting HIV if you with someone who has HIV. Never share needles or other equipment to inject drugs, hormones, steroids, or silicone.

How Can Hiv Be Passed Through Infant Feeding

HIV can be transmitted only in certain body fluids from a person who has HIV.

HIV can be passed to an infant through breast milk, and HIV has also reportedly been passed to young children through food that was prechewed by a parent or caregiver who has HIV.

We know that breast milk can contain high levels of HIV but we dont perfectly understand how HIV transmission happens through breastfeeding . Transmission of HIV through breastfeeding is thought to occur when HIV in breast milk enters an infants body through the mucous membranes that line the back of the babys throat and gut. Newborn babies are vulnerable to getting HIV in this way because of the frequency of their exposure to HIV in their parents breast milk and the fact that their immune systems and their bodies are still underdeveloped.

There is a 5% to 20% chance that a baby will get HIV through breastfeeding if the lactating parent is not on successful HIV treatment. In addition, there is still a small chance of transmission even with an undetectable viral load.

Feeding an infant prechewed food has been reported as a possible route of HIV transmission in only three cases where young children acquired HIV after being born HIV negative. Although none were breastfed, all three were fed food that had been prechewed by a parent or caregiver with HIV . Oral bleeding was reportedly present in two of these cases, which may have increased the risk of transmission.

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What Should I Do If I Need To Clean Up Blood

HIV does not usually survive long outside of the body, but contact with blood should be avoided.

Hepatitis C can survive in dried blood at room temperature for several weeks, and hepatitis B can survive in dried blood for around a week outside the body.

To clean up blood that has been spilled, wear rubber gloves and mop up the liquid using bleach and warm water . Use warm, soapy water to clean away blood spilled on someones body.

Put the waste, used gloves and bloodied clothes in a plastic bag, seal and throw away.

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