Thursday, December 1, 2022

What Does Hiv Reactive Mean

Question 10 I Am Treating My Hcv

What is the meaning of HIV reactive? – Dr. Ramakrishna Prasad

If HCV RNA is detectable at week 4 of treatment, per AASLD guidelines, it is suggested to repeat quantitative HCV RNA viral load testing after 2 additional weeks of treatment. If quantitative HCV RNA testing at week 6 of treatment shows an increase of greater than 10-fold , discontinuation of HCV treatment is recommended. The cause of a positive HCV RNA test result at week 4, with decreasing levels at week 6 or week 8, is unknown. There is no recommendation to stop therapy or extend therapy for these patients.9

References

  • AASLD-IDSA. HCV guidance: recommendations for testing, managing, and treating hepatitis C. . Accessed September 2017.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for the identification of chronic hepatitis C virus infection among persons born during 19451965. MMWR. 2012 61 :1-32.
  • US Preventive Services Task Force. Final Recommendation Statement: Hepatitis C: Screening. U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. December 2016. www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/Page/Document/RecommendationStatementFinal/hepatitis-c-screening.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1998 47:1-39.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Testing for HCV Infection: an update of guidance for clinicians and laboratorians. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2013 62:362-365.
  • What Does A Hiv Reactive Result Mean

    A reactive result means that the test has reacted with something in your blood. It could be a sign of HIV infection, but its not the same as a positive result.

    We follow the World Health Organisation’s guidance on HIV testing. This says that HIV can only be diagnosed after completing 3 separate tests. These tests look for 3 different parts of the HIV virus or its antibodies.

    With our tests, youll only take a small sample of blood. And the laboratory only has enough blood to do the first of the 3 tests. If your blood is taken in a clinic, there’ll be enough to do all 3 the tests.

    If you have a reactive result on the first test then we’ll ask you to go to a sexual health clinic so that they can complete the second and third tests. About a third of reactive results will be confirmed as positive in a clinic.

    If you’re worried about a reactive result or are anxious about waiting for another test, contact our clinicians. We can talk you through the process and answer your questions.

    Who Should Get Tested

    You should consider getting tested for hepatitis C if youre worried you could have been infected or you fall into one of the groups at an increased risk of being infected.

    Hepatitis C often has no symptoms, so you may still be infected if you feel healthy.

    The following groups of people are at an increased risk of hepatitis C:

    • ex-drug users and current drug users, particularly users of injected drugs
    • people in the UK who received blood transfusions before September 1991
    • UK recipients of organ or tissue transplants before 1992
    • people who have lived or had medical treatment in an area where hepatitis C is common high-risk areas include north Africa, the Middle East and central and east Asia
    • babies and children whose mothers have hepatitis C
    • anyone accidentally exposed to the virus, such as health workers
    • people who have received a tattoo or piercing where equipment may not have been properly sterilised
    • sexual partners of people with hepatitis C

    If you continue to engage in high-risk activities, such as injecting drugs frequently, regular testing may be recommended. Your doctor will be able to advise you about this.

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    Hepatitis C Virus Antibody Confirmation Serum

    Confirming the presence of hepatitis C virus -specific IgG antibodies in serum specimens that are reactive by HCV antibody screening tests

    Distinguishing between true- and false-reactive HCV antibody screening test results

    This test is not intended for use as an HCV antibody screening test for blood or human cells/tissue donors

    This assay is not usefulfor detection of early or acute hepatitis C as immunocompromised patients may not develop detectable HCV antibodies in blood until 6 months after infection

    This assay is not useful for differentiating between past and chronic hepatitis C

    What Do The Hiv Test Results Mean

    HIV tests in adults and children

    A confirmed, positive test result means you have been infected with HIV. Being infected with HIV does not necessarily mean that you have AIDS. It can take many years for people with HIV to develop AIDS.

    A negative test result means that no signs of HIV infection were found in your blood. A negative test does not always mean that you do not have HIV. Signs of HIV may not show up in the blood for several months after infection. For this reason, you should be tested again if you could have been exposed to HIV or are at risk for HIV infection.

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    Discusses Physiology Pathophysiology And General Clinical Aspects As They Relate To A Laboratory Test

    AIDS is caused by 2 known types of HIV. HIV type 1 is found in patients with AIDS, AIDS-related complex, and asymptomatic infected individuals at high risk for AIDS. The virus is transmitted by sexual contact, by exposure to infected blood or blood products, or from an infected mother to her fetus or infant. HIV type 2 infection is endemic only in West Africa, and it has been identified in individuals who had sexual relations with individuals from that geographic region. HIV-2 is similar to HIV-1 in viral morphology, overall genomic structure, and its ability to cause AIDS.

    Antibodies against HIV-1 and HIV-2 are usually not detectable until 6 to 12 weeks following exposure and are almost always detectable by 12 months. They may fall to undetectable levels in the terminal stage of AIDS when the patients immune system is severely depressed.

    Routine serologic screening of patients at risk for HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection usually begins with a HIV-1/-2 antigen and/or antibody screening test, which may be performed by various FDA-approved assay methods, including rapid HIV antibody tests, enzyme immunoassays, and chemiluminescent immunoassays. In testing algorithms that begin with these methods, supplemental or confirmatory testing should be requested only for specimens that are repeatedly reactive by these methods.

    Hiv And Health Insurance Among Black People

    Despite increased access to healthcare under the Affordable Care Act, 1 of every 9 Black people is without insurance. Black trans people, especially Black trans women, often experience hostility in health settings. Black transmasculine people are often excluded from HIV discourse despite testing positive at higher rates in comparison to the general population.

    Poor community access to health insurance, provider hostility, and lack of provider knowledge about trans communities may increase a person’s likelihood of testing HIV-positive. Among Black MSM, the lack of insurance increases the risk of HIV by 2.5 times compared to those who have insurance.

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    Will My Partner Have The Same Results As Me

    Dont assume that if you are positive, or negative, your partner will have the same result. It may be that your partner has a different test result to you. This is why its a good idea to encourage your partner to get tested too, whether your results are positive or negative. If youre worried about telling your partner that you are positive or asking them to take a test, speak to your healthcare advisor. They can often help you with ways to do this.

    Why Should Pregnant Women Be Tested For Hiv

    Is 4th generation HIV test with non reactive conclusive after 17 month? -Dr. Ramakrishna Prasad

    Doctors recommend all pregnant women get tested for HIV. Medications are available to prevent the spread of the virus to your unborn baby. In addition, steps can be taken during delivery to prevent spreading the infection. Some studies show women can further reduce the risk of spreading the virus to their baby by having a cesarean section before their water breaks, if their viral load is high or unknown. Moreover, your health care provider can take steps to help you stay healthy longer.

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    What Is An Hiv Test

    An HIV test shows whether you are infected with HIV . HIV is a virus that attacks and destroys cells in the immune system. These cells protect your body against disease-causing germs, such as bacteria and viruses. If you lose too many immune cells, your body will have trouble fighting off infections and other diseases.

    There are three main types of HIV tests:

    • Antibody Test. This test looks for HIV antibodies in your blood or saliva. Your immune system makes antibodies when you are exposed to bacteria or viruses, like HIV. An HIV antibody test can determine if you have HIV from 312 weeks after infection. That’s because it can take a few weeks or longer for your immune system to make antibodies to HIV. You may be able to do an HIV antibody test in the privacy of your home. Ask your health care provider about at-home HIV test kits.
    • HIV Antibody/Antigen Test. This test looks for HIV antibodies and antigens in the blood. An antigen is a part of a virus that triggers an immune response. If you’ve been exposed to HIV, antigens will show up in your blood before HIV antibodies are made. This test can usually find HIV within 26 weeks of infection. The HIV antibody/antigen test is one of the most common types of HIV tests.
    • HIV Viral Load. This test measures the amount of the HIV virus in the blood. It can find HIV faster than antibody and antibody/antigen tests, but it is very expensive. It is mostly used for monitoring HIV infections.

    Can I Change My Mind About Hiv Testing

    Yes. If after giving the blood sample you decide against testing, inform the attending nurse or doctor. Patients who are not hospitalized can withdraw their consent up until they leave the facility. Hospital patients can withdraw their consent up until one hour after the blood sample has been drawn.

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    The Treatment Programs Role In The Screening Process

    Medical staff members at substance abuse treatment programs might assume the primary role for screening individuals for and explaining the screening process and test results. Opioid treatment programs with medical staff members should screen for and C at intake and periodically as indicated. In programs without onsite medical staff, clients may be referred elsewhere for screening with minimal involvement of the substance abuse treatment program.

    Regardless of the type of program, counselors should have a basic understanding of the importance of screening, the screening process, and the meaning of the results. Counselors can encourage clients referred for screening to follow through and complete the screening and evaluation process . Clients might feel anxious about being diagnosed with hepatitis, and they might delay or avoid getting screened.

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    What Do Your Hiv Test Results Mean

    STATUS

    If youve just had an HIV test, you may be wondering what a positive or negative test result means. If you were tested in a health care providers office, a clinic, or a community setting, the provider or testing counselor will explain what your result means and talk to you about the next steps. If you used a rapid HIV self-test at home or another private location, the package materials will provide this information, along with a phone number you can call.

    Below are answers to some of the most common questions.

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    What Are The Three Different Types Of Hiv Testing

    There are three main types of HIV tests: antibody tests, RNA tests, and a combination test that detects both antibodies and a viral protein called p24 . All tests are designed to detect HIV-1, which is the type of HIV in the United States. Some antibody tests and the combination test can also detect HIV-2 infections, which are usually limited to West Africa. No test is perfect tests may be falsely positive or falsely negative or impossible to interpret .

    Positive test results are reportable to the health department in all 50 states and include the patient’s name. This information is then reported to the CDC so that the epidemiology and infection spread rates can be monitored. The names sent to the state remain confidential and will not be reported to employers, family members, or other such people. Some states allow anonymous testing in which the patient’s name is not recorded.

    HIV antibody tests: HIV possesses many unique proteins on its surface and inside the virus itself. When someone is infected with HIV, their body produces proteins designed to tag the virus for elimination by the immune system. These proteins are called antibodies, and they are directed against the unique proteins of HIV. Unfortunately, these HIV antibodies do not eliminate the virus, but their presence serves as a marker to show that someone is infected with HIV. HIV antibody tests are the most commonly used tests to determine if someone has HIV.

    How Can My Hiv Test Results Be Kept Confidential

    Though HIV tests performed at most doctors offices become part of the patient’s medical record, there are places you can go that provide confidential HIV testing. These places will perform HIV tests without even taking your name . An anonymous HIV test does not become part of your medical record.

    Should you discover that you have HIV, inform your medical providers so that you can receive proper care.

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    How Is Hiv Diagnosed

    Healthcare providers typically use an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, or ELISA test, to test for HIV. This test detects and measures HIV antibodies in the blood. A blood sample via a finger prick can provide rapid test results in less than 30 minutes. A blood sample through a syringe will most likely be sent to a lab for testing. It generally takes longer to receive results through this process.

    It usually takes several weeks for the body to produce antibodies to the virus once it enters the body. The body typically generates these antibodies three to six weeks after exposure to the virus. This means that an antibody test may not detect anything during this period. This is sometimes called the window period.

    Receiving a positive ELISA result doesnt mean that a person is HIV-positive. A small percentage of people may receive a false-positive result. This means the result says they have the virus when they dont have it. This can happen if the test picks up on other antibodies in the immune system.

    All positive results are confirmed with a second test. Several confirmation tests are available. Typically, a positive result must be confirmed with a test called a differentiation assay. This is a more sensitive antibody test.

    How Does Hiv Testing Work

    Diagnosing HIV – Concepts and tests | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

    In the early stages of HIV infection, the virus itself is difficult to detect. Rather than looking for the virus, HIV testing usually involves looking at the bodys reaction to the presence of the virus. The measure of the amount of virus in an individuals blood stream is called the viral load.

    Antibodies are produced by the body in reaction to the presence of a virus. An HIV antibody test measures the presence of antibodies in response to the presence of HIV. The most common HIV antibody tests are ELISA and Western Blot. These tests can now be performed on samples of oral fluid.

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    There Are Three Main Tests:

    • Fourth Generation: The 4th generation test, is a type of blood test which takes about 3-5 days to get the results. This test is sensitive enough to detect HIV in your blood 2 weeks after a possible exposure. Offered almost everywhere.
    • Rapid test :Both tests take about 20 minutes to get the results. This test will provide you with results 6 to 8 weeks after an exposure.
    • Blood test is a finger stick a small amount of blood is taken from the tip of the finger and mixed in a solution. There are both 4th and 3rd generation rapid tests.
    • Oral test a small amount of saliva from a persons mouth is obtained using a cotton swab that looks like a toothbrush. You can buy this test at a pharmacy. We strongly encourage people to get tested in a clinic or at your primary care providers office for additional support and education.
  • Confirmatory Testing detect HIV the fastest by looking for HIV in the blood. It can take 7 to 28 days for NATs to detect HIV. This test is not as readily available .
  • If any preliminary test is positive, the NAT blood test is done to confirm that the person is HIV positive.

    Its important to know there are three types of results that can come from a rapid test: invalid, non-reactive and reactive.

    The third and last part of testing is getting your results and talking about what those results mean for the future. No matter which test a person chooses to do, its very important to always get your results!

    What Do Hiv Test Results Mean

    If an HIV antibody test is negative, no antibodies were detected. A negative test can indicate that a person is not infected with HIV , or that s/he has been exposed but their immune system has not had time to produce antibodies. Antibodies to HIV may take up to six months to develop after the initial exposure.

    A positive HIV antibody test means that the body has been exposed to HIV . A person with a positive HIV test will need to have further testing done to confirm this diagnosis. When a person has a positive HIV test, it does not mean that the person has AIDS or that the person will have AIDS in a certain amount of timeit only means that the person is infected with HIV.

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