Gum Disease And Dry Mouth
Although these arent sores, gum disease and dry mouth are common problems.
Gum disease causes the gums to swell, and can be painful. In severe cases, it can lead to gum or teeth loss in as quick as 18 months. Gum disease may also be an indication of inflammation, which increases the risk for heart disease and stroke.
Dry mouth occurs when a person doesnt produce enough saliva. Saliva can help protect the teeth as well as prevent infections. Without saliva, the teeth and gums are vulnerable to plaque development. This can also make gum disease worse.
If dry mouth persists, ask a healthcare provider about saliva substitutes.
Simplified Life Cycle Of The Human Immunodeficiency Virus
Like all viruses, human immunodeficiency virus reproduces using the genetic machinery of the cell it infects, usually a CD4+ lymphocyte.
Drugs used to treat HIV infection were developed based on the life cycle of HIV. These drugs inhibit the three enzymes that the virus uses to replicate or to attach to and enter cells.
HIV also infects other cells, such as cells in the skin, brain, genital tract, heart, and kidneys, causing disease in those organs.
Opportunistic Infections With Rash In Hiv
When the immunity of a person is lowered, an opportunity for other organisms such as bacteria, other viruses, fungus and parasites to cause an infection opens up. In a person having HIV infection, the immunity can fall leading to opportunistic infections with the development of AIDS .
The rash characters and features are those of the rashes caused by the causative organism. You can find the details and characters of different rashes at Atlas of Rashes with Fever.
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Is It Safe For Children With Hiv To Receive Routine Immunizations
MMR, or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, is safe to give to children with HIV, unless they have a severely weakened immune system.
DTaP/Td vaccine is safe to give to infants and children with HIV.
Hib and Hep B vaccines are safe to give to children with HIV.
Hepatitis A and B vaccines are safe to give to HIV-positive children.
VZIG should be considered for known HIV-positive children, depending on their immune status.
A yearly influenza vaccine is recommended for children with HIV, as well as any individual living in the same household as a child with HIV. There are two types of influenza vaccine; children and adults with HIV should receive the “shot” form of the vaccine–not the nasal spray form, as it contains a live virus.;Pneumococcal vaccine can be safely administered to age-appropriate HIV-infected children.
Always consult with your child’s;doctor regarding immunizations for an HIV-infected child.
Where To Find Support
The key to managing HIV is to see a healthcare provider regularly and take medications. Having mouth sores may make taking medication more difficult. Consider talking to a healthcare provider if there are any concerns that interfere with medication.
Also consider contacting the CDC National AIDS Hotline at 800-232-4636, if interested in having a conversation. Someone will answer the phone and be able to offer accurate information about HIV and healthcare obstacles. They can also share their experiences.
Or check out other available hotlines at Project Inform. There are hotlines for people in nearly every state, for women, for people with disabilities, and more.
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Rashes Caused By Another Infection Or Condition
Rashes associated with HIV can develop indirectly as the virus weakens the immune system. HIV destroys the cells of the immune system that are designed to fight infections, so if you are exposed to another virus, you may be more likely to become infected. If youre susceptible to rashes due to other conditions, you may experience more of these rashes because your immune system is already compromised.
- Insect bites or stings
The severity of your rash may depend on how healthy your immune system is. People with HIV need to monitor their health very closely, so its wise to make an appointment with your medical provider if you notice a rash developing. In addition, try to avoid itching the skin where the rash is since broken skin could increase the risk of infection.
Transmission Of Hiv Infection
The transmission of HIV requires contact with a body fluid that contains the virus or cells infected with the virus. HIV can appear in nearly any body fluid, but transmission occurs mainly through blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk. Although tears, urine, and saliva may contain low concentrations of HIV, transmission through these fluids is extremely rare, if it occurs at all.
HIV is not transmitted by casual contact or by close, nonsexual contact at work, school, or home. No case of HIV transmission has been traced to the coughing or sneezing of an infected person or to a mosquito bite. Transmission from an infected doctor or dentist to a patient is extremely rare.
HIV is usually transmitted in the following ways:
HIV is more likely to be transmitted if skin or a mucous membrane is torn or damagedeven if minimally.
In the United States, Europe, and Australia, HIV has been transmitted mainly through men who have sex with men and the sharing of needles among people who inject drugs, but transmission through heterosexual contact accounts for about one fourth of cases. HIV transmission in Africa, the Caribbean, and Asia occurs primarily between heterosexuals, and HIV infection occurs equally among men and women. In the United States, fewer than 25% of adults who have HIV infection are women. Before 1992, most American women with HIV were infected by injecting drugs with contaminated needles, but now most are infected through heterosexual contact.
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Hives Caused By Infection
Heather L. Brannon, MD
Hives;are considered to be idiopathic, meaning that an outbreak can happen spontaneously and the cause isn’t always known.;If a cause can be found, the most common cause is an infection. This photo is an example of hives caused by a viral infection.
Other possible causes include an allergic reaction, stress, exercise, sun exposure, pressure on the skin, scratching, and chemical exposure.
How Can You Tell If You Have Hiv
The only way to know for sure if you have HIV is to get tested. You cant rely on symptoms to tell whether you have HIV.
Knowing your HIV status gives you powerful information so you can take steps to keep yourself and your partner healthy:
- If you test positive, you can take medicine to treat HIV. By taking HIV medicine daily as prescribed, you can make the amount of HIV in your blood very lowso low that a test cant detect it . Getting and keeping an undetectable viral load is the best thing you can do to stay healthy. If your viral load stays undetectable, you have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.
- If you test negative, there are more HIV prevention tools available today than ever before.
- If you are pregnant, you should be tested for HIV so that you can begin treatment if you’re HIV-positive. If an HIV-positive woman is treated for HIV early in her pregnancy, the risk of transmitting HIV to her baby can be very low.
Use the HIV Services Locator to find an HIV testing site near you.
HIV self-testing is also an option. Self-testing allows people to take an HIV test and find out their result in their own home or other private location. You can buy a self-test kit at a pharmacy or online, or your health care provider may be able to order one for you. Some health departments or community-based organizations also provide self-test kits for free.
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Preventive Treatment Before Exposure
Taking an antiretroviral drug before being exposed to HIV can reduce the risk of HIV infection. Such preventive treatment is called preexposure prophylaxis . However, PrEP is expensive and is effective only if people take the drug every day. Thus, PrEP is recommended only for people who have a very high risk of becoming infected, such as people who have a partner who is infected with HIV.
PrEP may also be recommended for people who engage in high-risk sexual activities, such as the following:
Men who have anal sex with men without using a condom
Heterosexual men and women who do not regularly use condoms during sex with partners whose HIV status is unknown and who are at increased risk of HIV infection
People who use PrEP still need to use other methods to prevent HIV infection, including consistent use of condoms and not sharing needles to inject drugs.
This Hiv/aids Specialist Explains Its Similarities And Differences To Covid
Few viruses have instilled as much fear as HIV. Although it was discovered nearly 40 years ago, we still do not have a vaccine or a cure. But the COVID-19 pandemic has rivaled that level of fear as researchers race to find a vaccine for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes this disease. The largest question at hand: will developing a vaccine prove to be just as vexing?
The answer to that question remains to be seen, but there may be a lot we can learn by comparing the two viruses. As we think about vaccine development, however, its important to remember that HIV and SARS-CoV-2 are very different viruses. They are transmitted differently. They replicate differently. They cause disease differently.
So how similar are HIV and SARS-CoV-2?
A few recent studies on the effects of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 indicate that they do have some similarities. Shanghai-based researchers provided evidence that SARS-CoV-2 can infect T lymphocytes, the same cells targeted by HIV. Other researchers have documented that individuals with severe COVID-19 may exhibit lymphopenia, or an atypically low number of lymphocytes in the blood. Likewise, HIV infection results in this abnormality, eventually causing the immunosuppression associated with AIDS. But these findings should not cause us to assume that SARS-CoV-2 is like HIV.
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How Can A Woman Reduce Her Chances Of Contracting Hiv
HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids like blood and semen. Using injection drugs, having unprotected sex and having multiple sex partners increases the chances of acquiring HIV. The only way to be absolutely certain you do not become infected with HIV is to not have sex and not use injection drugs. You also can avoid infection by only having one sex partner as long as your partner does not have HIV and has sex only with you. According to the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention , using a male or female condom every time you have vaginal or anal sex can greatly lower your risk of infection. Using condoms for oral sex will reduce your risk for other STDs as well. It also is important not to douche, since douching removes some of the normal vaginal bacteria that can protect you from infection.
Acute Hiv Infection Rash
A rash is one of the earliest symptoms of HIV. It develops during acute HIV infection, which occurs just after contracting the virus. A rash is just one of the many possible symptoms of acute HIV infection, which include:
- Swollen tonsils or mouth ulcers
These symptoms may begin a few days after being exposed to HIV, but they typically become most noticeable about;two to four weeks after infection;occurs. They can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks or months.
An acute HIV infection rash and other symptoms of this stage of infection can easily be confused for other ailments or conditions, like the flu or a cold. As a result, many people dont realize that they have HIV.
If you experience an unexplained rash and you have potentially been exposed to the virus,;get tested for HIV;as soon as possible. Be extra cautious about having safe sex since if you do have an acute HIV infection the viral load is very high during this stage, and youre more likely to pass the virus on to your partners. If youve been;taking PrEP;and find out you have HIV, you need to stop taking it right away to avoid other health complications.
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Through Needles Or Other Instruments
Health care workers who are accidentally pricked with an HIV-contaminated needle have about a 1 in 300 chance of contracting HIV unless they are treated as soon as possible after exposure. Such treatment reduces the chance of infection to less than 1 in 1,500. The risk increases if the needle penetrates deeply or if the needle is hollow and contains HIV-contaminated blood rather than simply being coated with blood .
Infected fluid splashing into the mouth or eyes has less than a 1 in 1,000 chance of causing infection.
Screening And Diagnostic Tests
If doctors suspect exposure to HIV infection, they do a screening test for HIV. Doctors also recommend that all adults and adolescents, particularly pregnant women, have a screening test regardless of what their risk appears to be. Anyone who is concerned about being infected with HIV can request to be tested. Such testing is confidential and often free of charge.
The current combination screening test tests for two things that suggest HIV infection:
Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system to help defend the body against a particular attack, such as that by HIV. Antigens are foreign substances that can trigger an immune response.
The body takes several weeks to produce enough antibodies to be detected by the test, so results of the antibody test are negative during the first few weeks after the virus enters the body . However, results of the p24 antigen test can be positive as early as 2 weeks after the initial infection. The combination tests can be done quickly by a laboratory. Also, a version of these tests can be done in a doctor’s office or clinic . If results are positive, doctors do a test to distinguish HIV-1 from HIV-2 and a test to detect the amount of HIV RNA in the blood .
Other, older rapid bedside tests are also available. These tests can be done using a sample of blood or saliva. If results of these rapid screening tests are positive, they are confirmed by ELISA or by repetition of one or more other rapid tests.
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Who Is At Risk For Hiv Infection
Anyone can get HIV, but certain groups have a higher risk of getting it:
- People who have another sexually transmitted disease . Having an STD can increase your risk of getting or spreading HIV.
- People who inject drugs with shared needles
- Gay and bisexual men, especially those who are Black/African American or Hispanic/Latino American
- People who engage in risky sexual behaviors, such as not using condoms
A Detailed Look At Hiv In Action
The human intestinal tract, or gut, is best known for its role in digestion. But this collection of organs also plays a prominent role in the immune system. In fact, it is one of the first parts of the body that is attacked in the early stages of an HIV infection. Knowing how the virus infects cells and accumulates in this area is critical to developing new therapies for the over 33 million people worldwide living with HIV. Researchers at the California Institute of Technology are the first to have utilized high-resolution electron microscopy to look at HIV infection within the actual tissue of an infected organism, providing perhaps the most detailed characterization yet of HIV infection in the gut.
The team’s findings are described in the January 30 issue of PLOS Pathogens.
“Looking at a real infection within real tissue is a big advance,” says Mark Ladinsky, an electron microscope scientist at Caltech and lead author of the paper. “With something like HIV, it’s usually very difficult and dangerous to do because the virus is an infectious agent. We used an animal model implanted with human tissue so we can study the actual virus under, essentially, its normal circumstances.”
The team came to this conclusion by identifying single infected cells using electron microscopy. Then they looked for HIV particles at different distances from the original cell and saw that the groups of particles were more mature as their distance from the infected cell increased.
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Stage : Acute Hiv Infection
Within 2 to 4 weeks after infection with HIV, about two-thirds of people will have a flu-like illness. This is the bodys natural response to HIV infection.;
Flu-like symptoms can include:
- Swollen lymph nodes
- Mouth ulcers
These symptoms can last anywhere from a few days to several weeks. But some people do not have any symptoms at all during this early stage of HIV.
Dont assume you have HIV just because you have any of these symptomsthey can be similar to those caused by other illnesses. But if you think you may have been exposed to HIV, get an HIV test.
Heres what to do: