You Have Just Received Very Difficult News But You Can Still Have A Healthy Pregnancywe Hope That This Information Helps Answer Some Of Your Questions
What does my result mean?
My HIV Test is Positive Your baby may have been exposed to HIV Your doctor will talk to you about getting medicine to help prevent passing HIV from you to your baby during labor and delivery You will need to have a second test to confirm that you have HIV Your doctor will discuss treatment options for you and your baby, and other services available to you, after delivery
When an HIV positive mom and her baby receive medicine, the risk for the baby getting HIV goes form 25% down to less than 2%
HIV and Pregnancy
Labor and Delivery Go to the hospital as soon as you are in labor or your water breaks. If you are not sure if your water broke or not, call your doctor. If you see blood, go to the hospital or call 911.
Signs of labor include:
Contractions happening every 3-5 minutes Contractions getting stronger or more painful over 2 hours
Passing HIV Infection to Others
HIV can be passed through shared bodily fluids, such as blood or semen . HIV can be spread through unprotected sex and injection drug use. HIV can ALSO spread from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, delivery or from breastfeeding. To protect yourself and your partners, use condoms when having vaginal, anal, or oral sex, even during pregnancy. You could get other sexually transmitted infections that can cause problems with your pregnancy. Dont share items that can pass blood or bodily fluids from one person to another, like a toothbrush, a razor or sex toys.
Types Of Condomless Sex And Risk Of Hiv
During condomless sex, HIV in the bodily fluids of one person may be transmitted to the body of another person through the mucous membranes of the penis, vagina, and anus. In very rare cases, HIV could potentially be transmitted through a cut or sore in the mouth during oral sex.
Out of any type of condomless sex, HIV can most easily be transmitted during anal sex. This is because the lining of the anus is delicate and prone to damage, which may provide entry points for HIV. Receptive anal sex, often called bottoming, poses more risk for contracting HIV than insertive anal sex, or topping.
HIV can also be transmitted during vaginal sex without a condom, although the vaginal lining is not as susceptible to rips and tears as the anus.
The risk of getting HIV from oral sex without using a condom or dental dam is very low. It would be possible for HIV to be transmitted if the person giving oral sex has mouth sores or bleeding gums, or if the person receiving oral sex has recently contracted HIV.
In addition to HIV, anal, vaginal, or oral sex without a condom or dental dam can also lead to transmission of other STIs.
Should You Get Tested For Hiv If Youre Pregnant
All pregnant women should be tested for HIV so that they can begin treatment if they’re HIV-positive. If a woman is treated for HIV early in her pregnancy, the risk of transmitting HIV to her baby can be very low. Testing pregnant women for HIV infection, treating those who are infected, and treating their babies with antiretroviral therapy after delivery have led to a big decline in the number of children born with HIV.
The treatment is most effective for preventing HIV transmission to babies when started as early as possible during pregnancy. If pregnant women are treated for HIV early in their pregnancy, the risk of transmitting HIV to their baby can be 1% or less. However, there are still great health benefits to beginning preventive treatment even during labor or shortly after the baby is born.
Learn more about how to protect yourself and your partners, and get information tailored to meet your needs from CDC’s HIV Risk Reduction Tool .
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How Much Does The Test Cost
The cost of an HIV test is usually covered by insurance without a copay, although specific costs depend on a persons insurance coverage and where the test is performed. Check with your health plan and health care provider for specific cost details.
At-home HIV tests cost below $50. Health departments and community-based organizations may provide HIV self-test kits for free or at a reduced cost.
Hiv Stigma And Discrimination
HIV can prompt intense feelings in people, regardless of their HIV status. It is sometimes viewed with a sense of unacceptability or disgrace. A person with HIV may feel shame and despair about their status. An HIV-negative person may be fearful or angry when they discover someone has HIV. The relationship of these feelings to HIV is referred to as stigma.Felt stigma refers to deep feelings of shame and self-loathing, and the expectation of discrimination. It can have serious negative impacts on the health and wellbeing of people living with HIV by discouraging them from getting tested, receiving support, or taking treatment. It may also lead people to engage in high-risk behaviours that harm their health, and contribute to new HIV infections.Enacted stigma is the experience of unfair treatment by others. For people living with HIV this can be in the form of being treated differently and poorly, or through rejection, abuse, or discrimination.HIV stigma is particularly harmful when it overlaps with other factors that are stigmatised such as if a person uses drugs, is a sex worker, is trans or gender diverse.Breaking down stigma is a community response where:
If you have experienced stigma or discrimination from a health care provider, and are unable to resolve your complaint with them directly, contact the Health Complaints Commissioner
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Who Will Know The Results Of My Testing
It depends on where you get your testing. Testing sites have different privacy rules. Ask about privacy rules at your testing site so you understand whether anyone else will know you got tested or see your results.
If you go to an anonymous test site, only you know the results. No written record of the test result is kept.
If you go to a confidential test site, the results will go in your medical record. Positive results are sent to the state or local health department. Your insurance company will have access to your results. Depending on the state you live in, your parent or guardian may be contacted.
What Happens If My Test Is Positive
If you test positive for HIV, it is important to remember that with treatment you can live a long, healthy life. In fact, with early treatment, people with HIV can live about as long as people that are not infected.
A team approach will help you get the medical care and support that you need. Start by talking to your doctor or the counselor or social worker at the testing site. He or she can help you with suggestions on how to talk to your parents or guardians and how to find a health care provider who’s an HIV specialist. By starting treatment as soon as possible, you can stay healthy and learn to live well with HIV.
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Letting Partners Know You Have Hiv
If you have just been diagnosed with HIV, it will likely be a difficult time. You might still be struggling to come to terms with diagnosis.
During this time, it is important to let any sexual or injecting partners know they may have been exposed to HIV as soon as you can, so they can be tested and offered PEP if appropriate.
You do not have to do this alone. Your doctor or the Department of Health and Human Services Partner Notification Officers can help you through this process and ensure your identity is not revealed.. Both groups can provide information, support, and guidance for people living with HIV.
Reducing The Risk Of Hiv Transmission
The most effective way to prevent HIV transmission during sex is to use a condom. Get a condom ready before any sexual contact occurs, since HIV can be transmitted through pre-ejaculate, vaginal fluid, and from the anus.
Lubricants can also help reduce the risk of HIV transmission by helping to prevent anal or vaginal tears. The right lubricants also help prevent condoms from breaking. Only water-based lubricants should be used with condoms, because oil-based lube can weaken latex and sometimes cause condoms to break.
The use of a dental dam, a small plastic or latex sheet that prevents direct contact between the mouth and the vagina or anus during oral sex, is also effective at reducing the risk of HIV transmission.
For people who may have a higher risk for contracting HIV, preventive medication is an option. Pre-exposure prophylaxis medication is a daily antiretroviral treatment.
Everyone at increased risk of HIV should begin a PrEP regimen, according to a recent recommendation from the US Preventive Services Task Force. This includes anyone who is sexually active with more than one partner, or is in an ongoing relationship with someone whose HIV status is either positive or unknown.
Although PrEP does provide a high level of protection against HIV, its still best to use condoms as well. PrEP provides no protection against STIs other than HIV.
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How Can Testing Help You
The only way to know for sure whether you have HIV is to get tested.
Knowing your HIV status gives you powerful information to help you take steps to keep you and your partner healthy.
- If you test positive, you can take medicine to treat HIV . People with HIV who take HIV medicine as prescribed can live long and healthy lives. Theres also an important prevention benefit. If you take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load, you have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.
- If you test negative, you have more prevention tools available today to prevent HIV than ever before.
- If you are pregnant, you should be tested for HIV so that you can begin treatment if you’re HIV-positive. If an HIV-positive woman is treated for HIV early in her pregnancy, the risk of transmitting HIV to her baby can be very low.
Reducing Hiv Risks From Chemsex And Drug Use
- Inject drugs.
- Forget to take your HIV medications.
- Are taking PreP it can be less effective if it is mixed with other drugs.
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What Happens During An Std Test
Depending on the type of suspected infection, you may get one of the following types of tests:
- Used to diagnose syphilis, HIV, and sometimes herpes
- During the test, a health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial
- Used to diagnose trichomoniasis and sometimes gonorrhea
- During the test, you will provide a sterile sample of urine in a cup as instructed by your provider
- Used to diagnose HPV, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and herpes
- During the test, a provider will use a special swab to take a sample from the site of the infection. In women, samples may be taken from the vagina or cervix. In men, samples may be taken from the penis or urethra, the tube that carries urine out of the body.
Lumbar puncture, also known as a spinal tap
- This is not a frequently used STD test, but it may be ordered if your provider thinks you have an advanced stage of syphilis or if a herpes infection has affected your brain or spinal cord.
- For this test, a provider will inject an anesthetic into your back, so you won’t feel any pain during the procedure.
- Once the area is numb, the provider will insert a thin, hollow needle between two vertebrae in your lower spine. Vertebrae are the small bones that make up your spine. Your provider will then withdraw a small amount of fluid for testing.
What Kinds Of Hiv Tests Are Available In Canada
The two main kinds of HIV tests available in Canada are the standard HIV test and the rapid HIV test.
Most people get what is known as a standard HIV test. Blood is taken from a vein in your arm and sent to a laboratory for analysis. It can take up to two weeks to get your result. Talk to the person who does your test about how you will get your test result. There are many places to get a standard HIV test, including family doctors offices, walk-in clinics and sexual health clinics.
Rapid testing is another option. With a rapid test, you get an initial result within a few minutes of doing the test. Rapid tests are screening tests. This means that if the test shows a positive result, you will need to get a standard test to confirm the result. You might be able to get a rapid test from a healthcare provider or community worker, but this option isnt available in every part of Canada. In regions where rapid tests are available, they are often provided at certain specialty clinics, such as sexual health clinics, or through HIV organizations. However, anyone in Canada can get a rapid self-test, which you perform on yourself at home. Self-tests can be ordered online and may be available for free from community organizations or for purchase in some stores.
How is your privacy protected when you get an HIV test?
As with all medical procedures, your discussions with the person giving you an HIV test are confidential.
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How Can I Get Tested
To get tested, you can:
- Ask your doctor to test you.
- Go to a local clinic or community health center.
- Go to National HIV and STD Testing Resources to find a testing center near you.
- Buy a test at a pharmacy and do the test at home.
Many testing centers will do an HIV test for free. Ask if there is a fee before you go for testing. In most states you do not need a parent’s permission to get tested for HIV. And you can buy the test at the pharmacy without a parent.
What Is The Next Step After Testing Positive For Hiv
Testing positive for HIV often leaves a person overwhelmed with questions and concerns. Its important to remember that HIV can be treated effectively with HIV medicines.
Treatment with HIV medicines is recommended for everyone with HIV. HIV medicines help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives and reduce the risk of HIV transmission.
The first step after testing positive for HIV is to see a health care provider, even if you dont feel sick. Prompt medical care and treatment with HIV medicines as soon as possible is the best way to stay healthy.
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Making Hiv Testing Routine
You might want to test more regularly than this, for example, if you are having sex with a new partner or feel you are more at risk. Groups who are more at risk are recommended to test more regularly. Testing every 3-6 months is often advised for men who have sex with men.
Testing regularly helps keep your mind at rest, and if you test positive, it means you can start treatment quickly, protecting your health.
Hiv Testing: Everything You Need To Know
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HIV testing is a great way to look after your health. It is also a great way to look after the health of your sex partners and the people you use drugs with.
Whether or not you have an HIV test is completely your decision. The decision cannot be made for you by a healthcare provider, family member or partner.
Each time you get an HIV test from a healthcare provider or community worker, you need to give informed consent.
Being informed about HIV testing means that you know:
- what HIV is and how it is passed
- the ways to prevent HIV
- the benefits of getting tested
- the kinds of tests that are available
- what will happen if the test result is negative
- what will happen if the test result is positive
Giving consent means that you agree to get an HIV test.
This resource will walk you through the main things to think about before having an HIV test. This information can help you decide if, when and how often you will get a test.
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What Can Affect Your Test Results
HIV tests are highly sensitive and may result in a false positive. A follow-up test can determine whether a person truly has HIV. If the results from a second test are positive, a person is considered to be HIV-positive.
Its also possible to receive a false-negative result. This means the result is negative when in reality the virus is present. This generally happens if a person recently contracted HIV and gets tested during the window period. This is the time before the body has started producing HIV antibodies. These antibodies typically arent present until four to six weeks after exposure.
If a person receives a negative result but has reason to suspect that theyve contracted HIV, they should schedule a follow-up appointment in three months to repeat the test.