Thursday, May 19, 2022

What Is Art In Hiv

How Is It Possible To Be ‘cured’ Of Hiv In This Way

Antiretroviral therapy for HIV|HIV vs ART|HIV/AIDS.

The short answer is that researchers just don’t know. What is known is that “it is the patient’s immune system that is doing it,” Dr. Yu says. “We believe that multiple components of the immune system contribute, such as T cells and innate immune cells,” she adds.

“The main hypothesis is that natural immunity played its part,” study co-author Natalia Laufer, MD, PhD, of the University of Buenos Aires, tells Health. “The next challenge is to figure out how it was achieved and try to understand the immune mechanisms that were involved. If this task might have been accomplished, there might be a chance to generate a therapy to recapitulate to same effect in every living with HIV.”

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What Is Drug Resistance

When HIV multiplies, many of the new copies have mutations: they are slightly different from the original virus. Some mutant viruses keep multiplying even when you are taking an ARV drugs. When this happens, the virus can develop resistance to the drug and ART may stop working. See for more information.

If only one or two ARV drugs are used, it is easy for the virus to develop resistance. For this reason, using just one or two drugs is not recommended. But if two or three drugs are used, a successful mutant would have to “get around” all of the drugs at the same time. Using combination therapy means that it takes much longer for resistance to develop.

What Is The Difference Between Arv And Art

antiretroviralsART

. Similarly one may ask, are ARV the same?

The brand name is the name that the pharmaceutical company gives the drug. Two different pharmaceutical companies can make the same ARV drug with the same chemical ingredients but each of them will give their drugs different brand names.

Furthermore, what is the difference between Haart and art? While the terms are essentially interchangeable, HAART was largely considered inadequate in describing the empirical effectiveness of combination therapy. Subsequently, ART was considered more appropriate given the likelihood that combination therapy will change in the coming years.

In this way, what is the meaning of antiretroviral therapy?

antiretroviral therapy Treatment with drugs that inhibit the ability of the human immunodeficiency virus or other types of retroviruses to multiply in the body.

What is the difference between PrEP and Arvs?

PEP stands for Post Exposure Prophylaxis. PrEP on the other hand is the use of medication as a preventative measure. In other words: PrEP is the use of antiretroviral drugs, taken by HIV negative people to prevent HIV infection.

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When Should I Start Antiretroviral Treatment

Its now recommended that people diagnosed with HIV start antiretroviral treatment straight away. This is because the sooner you start treatment, the sooner you can benefit from it. Starting treatment as soon as possible protects your immune system from damage and gives you the best chance of staying strong and healthy in the future.

I immediately started my treatment, and boy I have to tell you, I never experienced any sort of setback and have never been sick – and now I am even undetectable.

Mpho, South Africa

What Hiv Medicines Are Included In An Hiv Treatment Regimen

HIV infection, artwork

There are many HIV medicines available for HIV treatment regimens. The HIV medicines are grouped into seven drug classes according to how they fight HIV.

The choice of an HIV treatment regimen depends on a person’s individual needs. When choosing an HIV treatment regimen, people with HIV and their health care providers consider many factors, including possible side effects of HIV medicines and potential drug interactions.

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Starting Art During Pregnancy Or Breastfeeding

If you’re pregnant or breastfeeding it’s particularly important that you start treatment straight away. This is because ART prevents HIV from being passed on to your baby.

ART is safe to take during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and will keep you and your baby healthy. Talk to your healthcare worker about which combination of antiretroviral drugs is best for you and feel free to ask them any other questions or concerns that you have. They are there to help.

What Factors Are Considered When Choosing An Hiv Treatment Regimen

When choosing an HIV treatment regimen, people with HIV and their health care providers consider the following factors:

  • Other diseases or conditions that the person with HIV may have, such as heart disease or pregnancy.
  • Possible side effects of HIV medicines.
  • Potential interactions between HIV medicines or between HIV medicines and other medicines the person with HIV is taking.
  • Results of drug-resistance testing . Drug-resistance testing identifies which, if any, HIV medicines will not be effective against a persons HIV.
  • Convenience of the treatment regimen. For example, a regimen that includes two or more HIV medicines combined in one pill is convenient to follow.
  • Any issues that can make it difficult to follow an HIV treatment regimen. For example, a lack of health insurance or an inability to pay for HIV medicines can make it hard to take HIV medicines consistently every day.

The best HIV treatment regimen for a person depends on their individual needs.

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Treatment Helps Prevent Transmission To Others

  • If you have an undetectable viral load, you have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.
  • Having an undetectable viral load may also help prevent transmission from injection drug use. We dont have data about whether having an undetectable viral load prevents transmission through sharing needles, syringes, or other injection equipment . It very likely reduces the risk, but we dont know by how much.
  • Having an undetectable viral load also helps prevent transmission from mother to baby. If a mother with HIV takes HIV medicine as prescribed throughout pregnancy, labor, and delivery and gives HIV medicine to her baby for 4 to 6 weeks after birth, the risk of transmitting HIV to her baby can be 1% or less.
  • Having an undetectable viral load reduces the risk of transmitting HIV to the baby through breastfeeding, but doesnt eliminate the risk. The current recommendation in the United States is that mothers with HIV should not breastfeed their babies.

Change In Terminology Is About More Than Semantics

Rapid Initiation of HIV Treatment With ART

Antiretroviral therapy is used to treat HIV and is comprised of a combination of drugs that block different stages in the virus’ replication cycle. By doing so, the virus can be suppressed to undetectable levels where it can do the body little harm.

The effectiveness of the combination antiretroviral therapy was first reported by researchers in 1996 at the International AIDS Conference in Vancouver, who dubbed the approach HAART .

Today, the term HAART is less commonly used and has largely been supplanted in the medical literature by the simplified ART . The change in terminology is about more than just semantics it reflects a shift in the goals and benefits of HIV therapy and a step away from what HAART historically implied.

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What Are The Complications Seen With Art

The general toxicities of ARTs include nausea, fatigue, malaise, headache, muscle pain, loss of appetite, and sleeplessness. Liver toxicity is also an important complication of ART.

Antiretrovirals are associated with certain group-specific toxicities. Mitochondrial toxicities with NRTIs, rash or psychiatric side effects with NNRTIs are group-specific. Lactic acidosis with nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, muscle pain, and liver enlargement can rarely occur with NRTIs and may be fatal. ART is associated with increased cholesterol levels especially the protease inhibitors.

Drug specific adverse effects include renal toxicity and kidney stone formation with indinavir, flatulence with tenofovir, diarrhea with nelfinavir, bone marrow suppression with zidovudine, and hypersensitivity reaction with abacavir. Injection site reactions are common with enfuvirtide. Lamivudine and emtricitabine are least toxic of the antiretrovirals.

Treatment failure with ART can result commonly from extremely high mutation rate in virus and poor adherence to treatment.

Quality Healthcare And Social Services

For many participants, medical distrust played a critical role in the decision whether to restart ART or not and influenced whether they were willing to engage in HIV care at all. The majority of participants in this study detailed years of substandard health care experiences, which they attributed directly to sociodemographic characteristics such as race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, social class, and ones past or present substance use history. In some cases, participants experienced discrimination as a result of these characteristics. Jared was a Black man in his early 60s who was diagnosed with HIV approximately 20years before. He expressed frustration with the healthcare system and viewed HIV clinics and pharmacies as unconcerned with his health to the point of viewing him like a laboratory rat:

Im just a little fed up, thats all. You know? And you know, Ill keep it real with you. I dont feel like going into any of these buildings because theyre trying to kill me. But theres going to be no end to that. So Im going to start making some moves, try to get to another clinic. I have to, because if I stay , I see myself in some real trouble.

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What Is Hiv Infection

HIV infection is caused by a virus that attacks the human immune system. Once the HIV enters the bloodstream, it binds to a kind of receptor on the surface of the T-cells . T-cells are a type of white cells in the blood that help fight infection.

The virus enters the T-cell and replicates itself, destroying the host cell. As a result, the body slowly loses its ability to fight infections.

A person contracts an HIV infection by contact with bodily fluids such as blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk from an infected person. Primary modes of HIV transmission are:

  • Sexual contact
  • Sharing needles for injecting drugs
  • From mother to the baby during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome occurs in the later stages of an HIV infection. When HIV infection progresses to an extent that a persons immune system becomes too weak to fight off common infections, the person becomes susceptible to certain cancers and tuberculosis.

There are two main types of human immunodeficiency virus, HIV-1 and HIV-2, and each type has multiple groups and strains of virus. Both HIV infections can lead to AIDS, but they are different from each other. HIV-1 is the most common infection found worldwide and referred to as HIV. HIV-2 is found mostly in a small population in West Africa, and in a few people in the US primarily from West Africa.

How Long Does It Take For Hiv Medicines To Work

Conceptual Image Of Hiv Virus Digital Art by Stocktrek Images

Viral load is the amount of HIV in a persons blood. A main goal of HIV treatment is to reduce a persons viral load to an undetectable level. An undetectable viral load means that the level of HIV in the blood is too low to be detected by a viral load test.

Once HIV treatment is started, it usually takes 3 to 6 months for a persons viral load to reach an undetectable level. Although HIV medicines cannot cure HIV, having an undetectable viral load shows that the medicines are controlling a persons HIV. Maintaining an undetectable viral load helps people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. In addition, people with HIV who maintain an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners through sex.

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What Is The Hiv Life Cycle

There are several steps in the HIV life cycle.

  • Free virus circulates in the bloodstream.
  • HIV attaches to a cell.
  • HIV empties its contents into the cell.
  • The HIV genetic material is used by the reverse transcriptase enzyme to build HIV DNA.
  • The HIV DNA is inserted into the cell’s chromosome by the HIV integrase enzyme. This establishes the HIV infection in the cell.
  • When the infected cell reproduces, it activates the HIV DNA, which makes the raw material for new HIV viruses.
  • Packets of material for a new virus come together.
  • The immature virus pushes out of the infected cell in a process called “budding.”
  • The immature virus breaks free of the infected cell.
  • The new virus matures: raw materials are cut by the protease enzyme and assembled into a functioning virus.
  • Macro Evidence: Has This Program Played A Role In Large

    The Disease Control Priorities Report states that “because antiretroviral therapy has historically been unavailable in most developing countries, national programs have lacked the means to undertake a comprehensive approach to HIV/AIDS .”14 We also have seen references to Botswana as an example of successfully implementation of mass coverage of ART.15

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    What Is An Hiv Treatment Regimen

    An HIV treatment regimen is a combination of HIV medicines used to treat HIV infection. HIV treatment begins with choosing a regimen. People on ART take the HIV medicines in their HIV regimens every day. ART helps people with HIV live longer, healthier lives and reduces the risk of HIV transmission.

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved more than 30 HIV medicines to treat HIV infection. Some HIV medicines are available in combination .

    HIV medicines are grouped into seven drug classes according to how they fight HIV.

    Lifestyle Changes And Complementary Treatments

    Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) & HIV Explained : Pharmamates

    A healthy lifestyle can ease some of the effects of HIV or its treatment:

    • Stick to a balanced diet. Energy and nutrients help your body fight HIV. A healthy diet may also let your medications work better and could ease side effects. But be careful to prevent foodborne illness by avoiding raw meat and eggs.
    • Get regular exercise. It boosts strength and endurance, lowers your risk of depression, and helps your immune system work better.
    • Donât smoke. Smoking can make you more likely to get a serious condition like cancer, pneumonia, heart disease, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . People with HIV who smoke tend to have shorter lifespans than those who donât.
    • Get your vaccinations. Ask your doctor about whether they recommend that you get vaccines against pneumonia, flu, hepatitis A or B, or HPV.

    Some people say that complementary therapies — those done in addition to standard medical treatment — help them feel better and live fuller lives with HIV. These may include:

    Always talk with your doctor before adding a traditional practice or nutritional supplement to your HIV treatment plan.

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    Taking Antiretroviral Treatment With Other Medicines

    If you are taking other medications or drugs including: treatments for other health conditions contraception hormonal therapies or use psychoactive drugs, its important that your doctor knows about this. Different drugs can interact, changing the way that they work. This may mean that a drug becomes too strong or that a drug becomes too weak, so that it can no longer control your HIV, prevent pregnancy or treat another health condition. Discuss the medication you take with your healthcare workers so they make sure that the combination is safe and will work well for you.

    What Is Your Chance Of Getting Hiv

    While there is no perfect formula for knowing your exact chance of getting HIV, you can estimate your risk by thinking about:

    • the types of sex you are having
    • if you are sharing drug use equipment
    • the number of people you have sex or use drugs with
    • how often you are having sex or sharing drug use equipment
    • what prevention method you and the people you have sex or take drugs with use and if they are used every time

    The highest chance of getting HIV comes from having vaginal or anal sex or sharing injection drug use equipment when no prevention method is used by either partner.

    You are most likely to get HIV from someone who has HIV but doesnt know it. This is because when someone doesnt know that they have HIV, they will not be taking treatment to stay healthy and prevent passing HIV to others. The only way for someone to know if they have HIV is to be tested.

    If youre at risk of HIV, its important you are prepared to use a prevention method that is right for you!

    If youre not sure about your risk of getting HIV, talk to a healthcare worker or someone at your local HIV organization.

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    Which Drugs Do I Use

    ARV drugs are chosen on the basis of treatment guidelines, HIV drug resistance, your health and lifestyle factors. While ARV regimens are usually well tolerated, each ARV drug can have side effects. Some may be serious. Refer to the fact sheet for each individual drug. Each person is different, and you and your health care provider will have to decide which drugs to use.

    Adherence to ARVs is very important for treatment to work. The viral load test is used to see if ARV drugs are working.

    What Is The Name Of The New Arv Pill

    HIV Structure on White Digital Art by Russell Kightley

    Early results from people taking a new antiretroviral medication called lenacapavir are promising. The long-acting drug is still at the research stage, but if the developers are able to pair it effectively with other drugs that also only needs to be taken twice a year, it could revolutionise HIV treatment.

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    How Is An Hiv Infection Treated

    HIV cannot be cured. The main goal of treatment is to improve your health. The second goal is to slow the progression from HIV to AIDS. Your healthcare provider will decide your treatment based on your CD4 cell and viral load counts. Tell him or her if you ever had an allergic reaction to or other problem with any medicine. You may need any of the following:

    • Antiretroviral medicines slow the progression of HIV. They are given in different combinations called highly active antiretroviral therapy . Your healthcare provider will decide what kind of HAART you need. You may need to make HAART changes if you have severe side effects or develop resistance to a medicine.
    • Antimicrobial medicines kill or prevent bacterial, viral, or fungal infections.
    • Preventative medicines may be given to protect you from opportunistic infections. These are illnesses that develop because your immune system cannot fight the bacteria or viruses that cause them. Examples include toxoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia , and tuberculosis.
    • Vaccines may help prevent the flu, pneumonia, hepatitis, and other infections.

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