Thursday, May 19, 2022

What Is Hiv 1 And Hiv 2

What Does A Negative Hiv Test Result Mean

Differences between HIV 1 and HIV 2| HIV guidelines

A negative result doesn’t necessarily mean that you don’t have HIV. That’s because of the window periodthe time between when a person gets HIV and when a test can accurately detect it. The window period varies from person to person and is also different depending upon the type of HIV test.

Ask your health care provider about the window period for the kind of test youre taking. If youre using a home test, you can get that information from the materials included in the tests package. If you get an HIV test after a potential HIV exposure and the result is negative, get tested again after the window period for the test youre using to be sure. To learn more about the window period and when a person should get retested, see CDCs How soon after an exposure to HIV can an HIV test if I am infected?. If you get an HIV test within 3 months after a potential HIV exposure and the result is negative, get tested again in 3 more months to be sure.

If you learned you were HIV-negative the last time you were tested, you can only be sure youre still negative if you havent had a potential HIV exposure since your last test. If youre sexually active, continue to take actions to prevent HIV, like using condoms the right way every time you have sex and taking medicines to prevent HIV if youre at high risk.

Stage : Acute Primary Infection

The early symptoms of HIV can feel like having the flu. Around one to four weeks after getting HIV, you may start to experience these flu-like symptoms. These normally dont last long . You may only get some of the symptoms and some people dont have any symptoms at all.

Symptoms can include:

  • joint aches and pains
  • muscle pain.

These symptoms happen because your body is reacting to the HIV virus. Cells that are infected with HIV are circulating throughout your blood system. In response, your immune system tries to attack the virus by producing HIV antibodies this process is called seroconversion. Timing varies but once you have HIV it can take your body up to a few months to go through the seroconversion process.

Having these symptoms alone does not mean you definitely have HIV. The only way to know if you have HIV is by taking a test. You should always visit your healthcare professional if youre worried about or think youve been at risk of getting HIV, even if you feel well and dont have any symptoms. They can then arrange for you to get tested.

HIV will not always show up in a test at this early stage, and you may need to test again later to confirm your result . Your healthcare professional will talk to you about the timing of your test and answer any concerns. Its important not delay speaking to a healthcare worker if you are worried about HIV.

Infections With Multiple Strains

When the virus multiplies, the copies sometimes change and develop into another HIV strain in your body. You can end up with a strain your HIV drugs won’t work against. This makes your viral load — the amount of HIV in your body — go up. In that case, you’d need another type of treatment.

You also can have two or more strains if you were infected by more than one person. This is called superinfection. Superinfection is rare — it happens in less than 4% of people. You’re at the highest risk of superinfection in the first 3 years after you get HIV.

Everyone reacts differently to infection. You might not notice any change in your symptoms or viral load with a new infection. But it can make your HIV worse, especially if you have a strain drugs won’t work well against. If that happens, the drugs you take for your original HIV strain won’t necessarily treat the new strain.

AIDSinfo: “HIV-1.”

AVERT: “HIV Strains and Types.”

CDC: “Morbidity and Mortality Report: HIV-2 Infection Surveillance — United States, 1987–2009,” “Infection with more than one HIV type .”

HIV Sequence Database: “HIV and SIV Nomenclature.”

Minnesota Department of Health: “HIV Drug Resistance and Subtype Testing: Information for Clients.”

Motomura, K. Journal of Virology, 2008.

Nyamweya, S. Reviews in Medical Virology, 2013.

Plantier, J. Nature Medicine, 2009.

Public Library of Science: “The Two-Phase Emergence of Non-Pandemic HIV-1 Group O in Cameroon.”

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Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor

All FDA-approved INSTIsâRAL, elvitegravir , dolutegravir , and bictegravirâhave potent activity against HIV-2 in vitro.22-26 INSTI-based regimens have shown favorable treatment responses in observational studies.27-29 Two single-arm, open-label clinical trials have assessed the effectiveness of INSTI-based regimens in ART-naive individuals with HIV-2. One study evaluated RAL plus TDF/FTC, and the other evaluated EVG/cobicistat/TDF/FTC. Both studies demonstrated favorable clinical and immuno-virologic results at 48 weeks, providing the best evidence to date for HIV-2 treatment recommendations.30,31

Provides Information To Assist In Interpretation Of The Test Results

HIV and TB coinfection

Negative results for both HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies usually indicate the absence of HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection. However, in patients with reactive initial combined HIV-1/-2 antigen and antibody test results, such negative results do not rule-out acute or early HIV infection. In this situation, the HIVQN / HIV-1 RNA Detection and Quantification, Plasma reflex test will be performed. For patients at risk for HIV-2 infection , testing for HIV-2 DNA/RNA is recommended.

Positive HIV-1 antibody, but negative HIV-2 antibody results, indicates the presence of HIV-1 infection. Together with reactive initial combined HIV-1/-2 antigen and antibody test results, individuals with such results are presumed to have HIV-1 infection. Verification of a first-time positive test result is recommended for the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection. Additional testing with a newly submitted plasma specimen for HIVQN / HIV-1 RNA Detection and Quantification, Plasma is recommended to verify and confirm the diagnosis of HIV-1 infection prior to initiating antiretroviral treatment.

Indeterminate HIV-1 antibody but negative HIV-2 antibody results suggest either very early HIV-1 infection or the presence of nonspecific cross-reactivity between the patients’ specimens and HIV-1 antigens on the assay strip. In this situation, the HIVQN / HIV-1 RNA Detection and Quantification, Plasma reflex test will be performed.

-Heat-inactivated specimens

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What Our Customers Are Saying

DeWayne Ford

This year we were able to test 72 people in a single day. As the event promotes HIV/AIDS awareness, its natural that we would also offer rapid HIV testing. We want to make sure everyone knows they can get their test results in 60 seconds. Its so much easier and more attractive for people to come and get tested if they know its that fast.

Steven

When testing is fast and portable, its so much easier to offer it there and then. Removing the barriers to access is a huge priority for us. The INSTI test kit is game-changing because it allows people to know their status so quickly.

Jonathon

With the last test we were using, there were some concerns about window periods and the length of time it took for the test to run. It made outreach testing too complicated. Very quickly after trying INSTI in the field, we realized that a one-minute test would be ideal for use in public spaces and it could enhance our outreach programs

Why Do I Need An Hiv Test

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine health care. You may also need an HIV test if you are at higher risk for infection. HIV is mainly spread through sexual contact and blood, so you may be at a higher risk for HIV if you:

  • Are a man that has had sex with another man
  • Have had sex with an HIV-infected partner
  • Have had multiple sex partners
  • Have injected drugs, such as heroin, or shared drug needles with someone else

HIV can spread from mother to child during birth and through breast milk, so if you are pregnant your doctor may order an HIV test. There are medicines you can take during pregnancy and delivery to greatly reduce your risk of spreading the disease to your baby.

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Age Acceleration Effects Due To Hiv

Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 is associated with clinical symptoms of accelerated aging, as evidenced by increased incidence and diversity of age-related illnesses at relatively young ages. A significant age acceleration effect could be detected in brain and blood tissue due to HIV-1 infectionwith the help of a biomarker of aging, which is known as epigenetic clock.

Recommended Antiretroviral Regimens For Treatment Of Hiv

INSTI HIV-1 / HIV-2 Antibody Test: Controls Test Procedure (Canada)

Based on experience with the treatment of HIV-1, a three-drug antiretroviral regimen should be used to treat HIV-2 in order to maintain viral suppression and to avoid development of resistance from suboptimal therapy. Since resistance testing is not commercially available for HIV-2, baseline resistance testing is not an option to guide initial therapy. Transmitted HIV-2 drug resistance has been reported, but to date, appears to be rare.

  • Recommendation: The Adult and Adolescent ARV Guidelines recommend treating persons with HIV-2 using two NRTIs in combination with an INSTI . The alternative regimen is two NRTIs plus a boosted protease inhibitor active against HIV-2. The NNRTIs should not be used to treat HIV-2.

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What Are Hiv Tests Used For

An HIV test kit is used to determine if you have contracted HIV. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS . Most people with HIV do not have AIDS. Cells and are at risk for life-threatening diseases, including dangerous infections, severe pneumonia, and certain cancers. If HIV is detected early, you can get medications that will help you protect your immune system. HIV medication can prevent you from getting AIDS.

Discusses Physiology Pathophysiology And General Clinical Aspects As They Relate To A Laboratory Test

AIDS is caused by 2 known types of HIV. HIV type 1 is found in patients with AIDS, AIDS-related complex, and asymptomatic infected individuals at high risk for AIDS. The virus is transmitted by sexual contact, by exposure to infected blood or blood products, or from an infected mother to her fetus or infant. HIV type 2 infection is endemic only in West Africa, and it has been identified in individuals who had sexual relations with individuals from that geographic region. HIV-2 is similar to HIV-1 in viral morphology, overall genomic structure, and its ability to cause AIDS.

Antibodies against HIV-1 and HIV-2 are usually not detectable until 6 to 12 weeks following exposure and are almost always detectable by 12 months. They may fall to undetectable levels in the terminal stage of AIDS when the patient’s immune system is severely depressed.

Routine serologic screening of patients at risk for HIV-1 or HIV-2 infection usually begins with a HIV-1/-2 antigen and/or antibody screening test, which may be performed by various FDA-approved assay methods, including rapid HIV antibody tests, enzyme immunoassays, and chemiluminescent immunoassays. In testing algorithms that begin with these methods, supplemental or confirmatory testing should be requested only for specimens that are repeatedly reactive by these methods.

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Clinical Course Of Hiv

The clinical course of HIV-2 infection is generally characterized by a longer asymptomatic stage, lower plasma viral loads, and a lower mortality rate than HIV-1 infection.2,3 However, without effective antiretroviral therapy , HIV-2 infection will progress to AIDS and death in the majority of individuals.4 Concomitant HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection may occur, and the possibility of this coinfection should be considered when treating persons from areas with a high prevalence of HIV-2.

Viral Protein X Is Unique To Hiv

PPT

HIV-2 encodes auxiliary protein VPX. VPX is related to VPR . Like VPR, VPX is incorporated into virions. HIV-2 VPX is required for efficient infection of nondividing cells . Like VPR, VPX activates/modulates a ubiquitin ligase complex. One target of VPX appears to be an interferon-inducible host cell restriction factor called Sterile Alpha Motif and HD Domain Protein 1 , an enzyme with important roles in nucleic acid metabolism. SAMHD1 specifically blocks reverse transcription of retroviruses in MDM and DCs. In fact, expression of VPX in such cells renders them susceptible to infection by retroviruses other than HIV-2.

Debra A. Kessler RN, MS, Alexandra Jimenez MD, in, 2019

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Similarities Between Both Viruses

Even though it may seem that these two viruses induced diseases are not very similar among them, they have some important points in common:

Fear in the population. HIV can affect anyone, independently of their social status, race, gender, etc. This can affect people psychologically, making them feel fear, stress or anxiety. Apart from those factors, in COVID-19, there are others that can make people feel this – the virus is new, there are not known effective antivirals, the disease is more contagious than expected, it can even severely affect young individuals with no previous pathologies, respiratory failure forces hospitalization for many days In addition, the panic is even increased by the presence of the Internet, over-information, spreading of unfounded rumors, and hyper connectivity in our lives nowadays.

Existence of animal reservoirs. The existence of natural animal reservoirs is another point in common, although they are found in different animals, being non-human primates in the case of HIV, and bats in the case of SARS-CoV-2.

Increased synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Both viruses generate an increase in the production of cytokine, and this is linked to the viral load in the case of SARS-CoV-2. These cytokines are related with secondary complications in infected people.

What Is An Hiv Test

An HIV test shows whether you are infected with HIV . HIV is a virus that attacks and destroys cells in the immune system. These cells protect your body against disease-causing germs, such as bacteria and viruses. If you lose too many immune cells, your body will have trouble fighting off infections and other diseases.

There are three main types of HIV tests:

  • Antibody Test. This test looks for HIV antibodies in your blood or saliva. Your immune system makes antibodies when you are exposed to bacteria or viruses, like HIV. An HIV antibody test can determine if you have HIV from 312 weeks after infection. That’s because it can take a few weeks or longer for your immune system to make antibodies to HIV. You may be able to do an HIV antibody test in the privacy of your home. Ask your health care provider about at-home HIV test kits.
  • HIV Antibody/Antigen Test. This test looks for HIV antibodies and antigens in the blood. An antigen is a part of a virus that triggers an immune response. If you’ve been exposed to HIV, antigens will show up in your blood before HIV antibodies are made. This test can usually find HIV within 26 weeks of infection. The HIV antibody/antigen test is one of the most common types of HIV tests.
  • HIV Viral Load. This test measures the amount of the HIV virus in the blood. It can find HIV faster than antibody and antibody/antigen tests, but it is very expensive. It is mostly used for monitoring HIV infections.

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What Is The Window Period And What Is The Window Period For The Insti Rapid Hiv Test

After exposure to HIV, it can take from 3 to 12 weeks for an infected persons body to make enough antibodies for a screening test to detect them. This is called the window period. IgM antibodies are the first antibodies to be detected by INSTI and are typically present in the bloodstream approximately 3 weeks after infection. An individual may test positive with the INSTI Test in as little as 21-22 days after infection, however depending on the person it can take as long as 3 months for them to produce sufficient antibodies to generate a positive result. Approximately 97% of people will develop detectable antibodies during this window period.A negative result may not be accurate until 3 months after a possible exposure. If someone has been exposed to HIV and obtains a negative test result during the window period, they should re-test 3 months after possible exposure to HIV.

Risk Factors And Transmission

INSTI HIV-1 / HIV-2 Antibody Test: Serum and Plasma Test Procedure

The modes of transmission for HIV-2 are the same as those for HIV-1, namely sexual contact, blood-borne exposure , and perinatal transmission. However, HIV-2 has a lower infectivity than HIV-1. For example, in a prospective cohort of female sex workers in Senegal, heterosexual spread of HIV-2 was slower than that of HIV-1 . Among a prospective cohort of women in Ivory Coast in the early 1990s, the rate of perinatal transmission of HIV-2 was 1.2% compared with 24.7% for HIV-1 . More recently, in a study in The Gambia, the mother-to-child transmission rate of HIV-2 was 4%, 6-fold lower than the HIV-1 transmission rate of 24.4% . The lower infectivity of HIV-2 is likely related to lower RNA levels. For example, in the Gambian study, the geometric mean antenatal plasma viral load in HIV-2positive women was 410 copies/mL, which was 37-fold lower than the viral load in HIV-1infected women after adjusting for viral load, the odds of HIV-2 transmission were similar to that of HIV-1 .

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Frequency Of Administration Type And Amount Of Blood Products

Blood components: Since 2004 only 2 HIV transmissions through blood components have been reported in Germany . HIV is transmitted if 1 HID is present in the administered blood component . There is evidence that immediate initiation of HIV post exposure prophylaxis can prevent an infection after needle stick injury in individual cases .

Plasma derivatives: Transmission of HIV by plasma derivatives occurred between 1979 and 1989 primarily via factor VIII, factor IX and prothrombin complex concentrates . HIV has never been transmitted via albumin, antithrombin III and i.m. or i.v. immunoglobulin preparations, not even before the introduction of specific process steps for the depletion and inactivation of viruses. The implementation of donor selection, antibody screening and inactivation procedures has made a transmission of enveloped viruses no longer possible.

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