Data Collection And Analysis
All individuals with suspected HIV-1 infection were registered in the Wuhan HIV Management Database. Subjects that underwent repeat testing were retrospectively tracked using the unique identification number, especially individuals who showed positive WB results after initial negative or indeterminate WB test result. Seroconversion duration of HIV-1 antibody was estimated based on the interval between two sampling dates. Individuals with duration 100 days were excluded in order to eliminate the possibility of multiple exposures.
It Didnt Have To Be Just A Matter Of Time
How could this happen to lovely me? -Jacqueline Susann
On August 7th, just a few days ago, I received a devastating call from the Urgent Care doctor regarding my recent visit to his facility.
This all started on the Friday before. I was up early that day, feeling good, went to work where things have been going relatively well, and then departed that evening to a friends house. He needed me to help him with his computer.
While I was there, I started feeling a little feverish and like my glands were swelling. I’ve been sick before, of course, and didn’t think anything of it. Whatever it was, I figured, would run its course and that would be that. I took Tylenol, went home, and went to bed.
For the rest of the weekend I was burning up with fever, yet freezing with chills, unable to shake it no matter how many over the counter fever reducers I took. Concerned that my brain may be frying out of my head, I decided to go to the Urgent Care on Sunday, rather than wait for my doctors office to be open on Monday. It took forever to finally be called back. They ran some tests and, just out of an abundance of caution confident that it couldn’t really be that I suggested an HIV test. The doctor was of course glad to do it, alongside a chest x-ray and other tests. Then I went home with an antibiotic prescription and under the advice to continue to take fever reducers.
Q: What Are Symptoms Of Seroconversion
A: Seroconversion symptoms are often described as like a heavy flu.
They can also be similar to symptoms of other sexually transmitted diseases. Stress and anxiety can also produce symptoms even when there is no HIV.
The most common symptoms of seroconversion include:
- Aching muscles and joints, and
- Swollen lymph glands.
Having only one or two symptoms is very unlikely to be HIV.
Symptoms are NOT a reliable way of diagnosing HIV infection.This is because none of these symptoms, on their own, show that you have HIV.
However, if you get several of these symptoms at the same time AND you have had a recent risk of exposure to HIV, then this MAY be HIV.
The only way to know is to test.
This involves waiting six weeks in the UK. Testing earlier than this involves also taking a second test after 3 months to confirm the result. See: What is the window period for an HIV test?
If you are worried about HIV, contact a doctor or sexual health clinic.
If you think you may have been exposed to HIV, you can talk about whether testing is appropriate.
The clinic will be able to go through your risk in the detail that is needed.
The Health services near you section of the NHS website includes a sexual health menu to search for clinics by town or postcode.
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The Most Common Symptoms Of Seroconversion Are:
- sore throat
- rash over the body.
Seroconversion is a sign that the immune system is reacting to the presence of the virus in the body. Its also the point at which the body produces antibodies to HIV. Once seroconversion has happened, an HIV test will detect antibodies and give a positive result.
Seroconversion illness happens to most people shortly after infection. It can be severe enough to put someone in hospital or so mild that its mistaken for something like flu although a blocked or runny nose is not usually a symptom.
If you do have HIV, your body fluids are highly infectious during the early weeks and months after transmission. However, once youre on effective treatment and your viral load becomes undetectable you cannot pass on HIV.
It can take up to six months from starting treatment to become undetectable.
Hlack Of Antibody Response
In vaccine efficacy trials, the lack of seroconversion in many vaccinees even after a booster injection has been partly attributable to the reduced immunogenicity of those vaccines, to immunologic interference, or to individual variation in immune response. Thus, after immunization with a JEV vaccine , only 13% of the children demonstrated IgM 4 weeks later . Likewise, in a DEN-1 vaccine trial, eight volunteers developed Nt IgG but no IgM conversely, three vaccinees developed IgM but no IgG . The lack of antibody response to a particular immunogen of multivalent vaccines, as described earlier in mixed infections, most likely results from interference.
The absence of CF antibody in some naturally infected or vaccinated individuals was described earlier. In a study of anti-TBE antibody responses, HI and CF antibodies were negative in several patients, although specific IgM was detectable . On the other hand, a considerable number of TBE patients demonstrated IgG but not IgM . Similarly, in a report of Ilhéus virus infection, no NT, CF, or HI antibodies could be demonstrated in five virologically confirmed patients, even 1 year after onset of illness . In another study, in two virologically confirmed cases of DHF, antibody to DEN serotypes did not increase significantly . Also, as mentioned earlier, the proportion of patients without IgM antibody in secondary DEN was higher than that in primary DEN . A lack of IgM response was also reported in some YF patients .
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S To Take After Being Exposed To Hiv
Anyone who thinks they may have been exposed to HIV should get tested. If the initial test results are negative, schedule a follow-up test.
Ask a healthcare provider or contact the local department of public health to find out where to go for testing. Testing sites may offer either anonymous or confidential testing, depending on the laws in the state and local area. Anonymous means names are not recorded by the testing site, and only the person being tested has access to the results. Confidential means a healthcare provider has access to the results, and the results may be recorded in a persons medical file at the testing site.
Talk to a healthcare provider about post-exposure prophylaxis and pre-exposure prophylaxis.
Peoples actions can help stop the spread of the virus. Until someone is confident that theyre HIV-free, they should avoid sexual contact or use a condom during sex. Its also important to avoid sharing needles with others.
To find a nearby HIV testing site, visit GetTested.cdc.gov.
What Should I Do If I Think I Could Have Hiv
Only an HIV test can tell you whether you have HIV.
Try not to guess based on any symptoms you may or may not have, or on the HIV status of a person you have had sex with.
If you test, tell whoever tests you if youve recently taken risks or had symptoms similar to seroconversion illness, as this will affect the kind of HIV test you should have.
To be on the safe side, and until you know your test result, use condoms to protect anyone you have sex with.
You can also call THT Direct on 0808 802 1221.
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Seroconversion In Hepatitis B
Seroconversion plays a major role in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis B infections. As in other viral infections, seropositivity indicates that an individual has a sufficiently high concentration of antibody or antigen in the blood to be detectable by standard techniques. While assays for other infections such as COVID-19 and HIV primarily test for seroconversion of antibodies against antigens, assays for HBV also test for antigens. The standard serology panel for seroconversion include hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis B surface antibody for IgM and IgG, hepatitis B core antibody for IgM and IgG, and hepatitis B e-antigen.
Hepatitis B e-antigen is a sign of current infectivity. An individual who is seropositive for HBeAg can infect others. An individual who is infected with HBV and who never becomes seropositive for HBeAg can likewise be infective, because not all HBV infections produce HBeAg. For most individuals, those who seroconvert positive for HBeAg during their disease course and subsequently serorevert negative as their infection progresses are no longer infective. Seroreversion from HBeAg is thus used as one marker of resolution of infection.
Symptoms Of Hiv Seroconversion
A person who has seroconverted may or may not have symptoms of infection. Symptomatic infection is typically referred to as either seroconversion illness, acute seroconversion, acute HIV syndrome, or acute retroviral syndrome .
ARS occurs in anywhere from 50 percent to 90 percent of newly infected individuals. The symptoms of ARS are similar to those of flu or infectious mononucleosis and may include:
- Swollen lymph glands
Because the symptoms are so non-specific, they are often attributed to other illnesses.
One of the more telling symptoms of ARS is a characteristic rash. The outbreak will tend to affect the upper half the body with lesions that are reddish, small, flat, and non-itchy. As with the other ARS symptoms, they can appear anywhere from one to four weeks after infection and usually resolve within one to three weeks.
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Ethics Consent And Permissions
Ethical approval for retrospective and prospective analysis of these data was obtained from Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza , the National Institute for Medical Research in Dar es Salaam , and Weill Cornell Medicine in New York . Study participants provided written informed consent during enrollment into the cohort study as per the approved procedures of the TAZAMA project, which included consent for future testing of DBS samples .
Time Duration For Seroconversion In Individuals With Indeterminate Wb
Data pertaining to individuals who seroconverted from indeterminate WB were also analyzed. The mean duration was 42.15 days for seroconverting into positive WB and 37.04 days for seroconverting into Fiebig stage V. Neither was shorter than the duration for seroconversion in individuals with negative WB, as the Fiebig stages IIV were relatively brief with an average time of 35 days . With respect to single antibodies, there were significant differences between the seroconversion time of individuals with and without p66, p51, or p31 bands in their final WB results . The window periods were 47.87 days for p66, 50.24 days for p51 and 51.91 days for p31, while the mean duration for seroconversion of patients without these bands was 31.20 days, 34.06 days, and 37.04 days, respectively.
Figure 3. Comparison of the seroconversion duration of different WB bands in HIV-1 positive individuals who seroconverted from indeterminate WB. The time interval between two sampling dates of indeterminate WB and positive WB bands, including p66, p51, p31, gp120, gp41, and p17, were calculated. Seroconversion rates for subjects with and without the above bands were compared using the Students t-test . Thick horizontal bars indicate the median, boxes show quartiles, and whiskers show full range.
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Identification Of Serodiscordant Spouse And Relationship Time Period
Through the DSS we identified all spouses of baseline individuals and obtained their HIV-1 test results from both the sero-surveys and from HIV tests at other clinics. We excluded couples that were never serodiscordant from the analysis, and couples for which the spouse had HIV-1 seroconverted more than 6months after either partner reported the end of the relationship. For each couple, we determined the at-risk dates for HIV-1 seroconversion during which they reported being in a sexual relationship with a partner who was HIV-1 positive. We collected demographic and sexual behavior data from the first DSS or sero-survey following the start of the serodiscordant relationship. Sexual behavior data included the number of extra-marital partners, having sex with sex workers, and traveling men.
We used data from all sero-surveys until the last sero-survey with questions pertaining to the relationship time period. Seroconverters were defined as individuals who had been HIV-1 seronegative in one sero-survey and who were found to be HIV-1 seropositive in a subsequent sero-survey. All DBS available until the date of the spouse potential seroconversion were tested for Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen for both the baseline individual and his or her spouse.
What Happens During Acute Seroconversion Of Hiv Infection
During this phase, the infection is established and a proviral reservoir is created. This reservoir consists of persistently infected cells, typically macrophages, and appears to steadily release virus. Some of the viral release replenishes the reservoir, and some goes on to produce more active infection.
The proviral reservoir, as measured by DNA polymerase chain reaction , seems to be incredibly stable. Although it does decline with aggressive antiviral therapy, the half-life is such that eradication is not a viable expectation.
The size of the proviral reservoir correlates to the steady-state viral load and is inversely correlated to the anti-HIV CD8+ T-cell responses. Aggressive early treatment of acute infection lowers the proviral load, and treatment in newly infected patients yields long-term benefit.
At this point, the viral load is typically very high, and the CD4+ T-cell count drops precipitously. With the appearance of anti-HIV antibodies and CD8+ T-cell responses, the viral load drops to a steady state and the CD4+ T-cell count returns to levels within the reference range, although slightly lower than before infection.
US Preventive Services Task Force., Owens DK, Davidson KW, Krist AH, Barry MJ, Cabana M, et al. Screening for HIV Infection: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA. 2019 Jun 18. 321 :2326-2336. .
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. AIDSInfo. AIDSInfo. Available at .
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What Is Seroconversion Of Hiv
Seroconversion in HIV is the period during which the body starts producing detectable levels of HIV antibodies. After exposure to the HIV virus, the bodys defense mechanism comes into action. Thus, the immune system begins to develop antibodies to attack the virus. This production phase of detectable levels of HIV antibodies is called seroconversion.
So the Seroconversion is the phase when the tests can actually detect the presence of the HIV virus in the body. This is the stage after which the HIV virus starts affecting the immune system of the body and rapidly replicate itself.
Predictors Of Hiv Seroconversion In Male Seronegative Partners
Eighteen independent variables were analyzed in the Cox regression analysis with the dependent variable. Nine variables, which have a P-value of < 0.25 in the bivariate Cox, were entered to a multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis. However, only four variables such as time of ART initiation, condom use, last CD4 count, and presence of pregnancy after being diagnosed as discordant were independent predictors.
Delay in ART treatment initiation among HIV-positive woman increases the risk of HIV transmission by 2.5 times to their seronegative partner than early ART treatment initiation . Regarding condom use, inconsistent condom use and not using condoms totally were 4.6 and 4.3 times more risk for seroconversion in seronegative male partners than consistent condom use and , respectively. Considering CD4 count, last CD4 count of index partner 200 cells/µL had 3.1 times more risk for seroconversion in seronegative partner than last CD4 level of > 350 cells/µL . The risk of HIV seroconversion among seronegative male partners was four times higher when the positive partner had history of one or more pregnancies in their discordant relationship compared to positive partner who had no report of pregnancy throughout their discordant relationship .
Table 4 Predictor of Seroconversion Among Male Partners Living with HIV-Positive Women Tested in the PMTCT Unit of Addis Ababa Selected Public Health Institutions, from September 2012 to September 2018
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Time Duration For Seroconversion In Individuals With Negative Wb
The time duration for seroconversion from negative WB to positive WB ranged from 9 to 91 days with a mean duration of 43.90 days . According to the stages defined by Fiebig et al. , the mean duration for people who seroconverted from negative WB to Fiebig stage V with positive WB but without p31 was 39.77 days . As the sequential emergence of HIV-1 antibodies is a key indicator of recent HIV-1 infection , we further analyzed the window period for each WB band. The mean seroconversion time for p66, p51, p31, gp120, gp41, and p17 antibodies was 53.53 , 52.64 , 58.11 , 43.71 , 52.38 , and 51.11 days, respectively. As for p66, p31, gp41 and p17 antibodies, the mean seroconversion duration of patients having these bands in the final WB test were significantly longer than those of patients who lacked these bands .
Figure 2. Comparison of the seroconversion duration of different WB bands in HIV-1 positive individuals who seroconverted from negative WB. The time interval between two sampling dates of negative WB and positive WB bands, including p66, p51, p31, gp120, gp41, and p17, were calculated seroconversion rates for subjects with and without the above bands were compared using the Students t-test . Thick horizontal bars indicate the median, boxes show quartiles, and whiskers show full range.
Table 1. Seroconversion duration for HIV-1 antibodies against p31 and p66.
What Are The Symptoms Of Later Hiv
As HIV weakens someones immune system, they may experience signs of other illnesses:
- weight loss
- an increase in herpes or cold sore outbreaks
- swollen glands in the groin, neck or armpit
- long-lasting diarrhoea
But remember: people who dont have HIV can also get any of these they can be the signs of other illnesses.
A weakened immune system may leave someone more open to serious infections such as:
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