Tuesday, October 4, 2022

What Is The Cause Of Aids

How Can A Woman Reduce Her Chances Of Contracting Hiv

HIV & AIDS – signs, symptoms, transmission, causes & pathology

HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids like blood and semen. Using injection drugs, having unprotected sex and having multiple sex partners increases the chances of acquiring HIV. The only way to be absolutely certain you do not become infected with HIV is to not have sex and not use injection drugs. You also can avoid infection by only having one sex partner as long as your partner does not have HIV and has sex only with you. According to the Centers For Disease Control and Prevention , using a male or female condom every time you have vaginal or anal sex can greatly lower your risk of infection. Using condoms for oral sex will reduce your risk for other STDs as well. It also is important not to douche, since douching removes some of the normal vaginal bacteria that can protect you from infection.

Whats The Outlook For Men Who Have Hiv

Theres no cure for HIV. However, getting a prompt diagnosis and early treatment can slow the progression of the disease and significantly improve quality of life.

HIV is absolutely no longer the death sentence it used to be, says Rymland. I have taken care of patients that were diagnosed in the 80s who have been on treatment and have never been sick. They live full lives. Todays treatment for HIV is easy and effective and, if taken properly, a person can live a long and healthy life and not pass it on to partners.

Indeed, research shows that people with HIV who start treatment before their immune systems are severely damaged might have a nearly normal life expectancy.

How Can I Reduce My Risk Of Getting Hiv

The best way to reduce your risk of HIV is to be aware of how it spreads and protect yourself during certain activities. Having sex without a condom and sharing needles to take drugs are the most common ways that HIV spreads.

These are some ways to reduce your risk:

  • Use latex condoms whenever you have any type of sex .
  • Don’t use condoms made from animal products .
  • Use water-based lubricants .
  • Never share needles to take drugs.
  • Get tested and treated for other STDs. Other STDs can put you at higher risk for an HIV infection.
  • Avoid getting drunk or high. Intoxicated people might be less likely to protect themselves.
  • If you are at high risk of HIV exposure, ask your healthcare provider if you should be taking pre-exposure prophylaxis .
  • If you think youve been exposed to HIV, contact your healthcare provider as soon as possible to see if you should take post-exposure prophylaxis .
  • Consider getting tested to know if you can pass HIV to others.

It’s important to use a condom correctly to protect yourself against HIV. Use a male condom for any sex act that involves your penis.

You can also protect the vagina or anus with dental dams or internal condoms. Dental dams are flat pieces of polyurethane or latex that you can put over your vagina or anus if you are having oral sex. An internal condom can be used by insertion into your vagina or anus.

You should only use one type of condom at a time. Do not use both a male condom and an internal condom.

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Hiv Is An Infection That Can Lead To Aids

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Its a virus that breaks down certain cells in your immune system . When HIV damages your immune system, its easier to get really sick and even die from infections that your body could normally fight off.

About 1.1 million people in the U.S. are living with HIV, and more than 38,000 new infections happen every year. Most people with HIV dont have any symptoms for many years and feel totally fine, so they might not even know they have it.

Once you have HIV, the virus stays in your body for life. Theres no cure for HIV, but medicines can help you stay healthy. HIV medicine lowers or even stops your chances of spreading the virus to other people. Studies show that using HIV treatment as directed can lower the amount of HIV in your blood so much that it might not even show up on a test when this happens, you cant transmit HIV through sex.Treatment is really important . Without treatment, HIV can lead to AIDS. But with medicine, people with HIV can live long, healthy lives and stop the spread of HIV to others.

Early Symptoms Of Hiv

HIV/AIDS: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatment

The first few weeks after someone contracts HIV is called the acute infection stage.

During this time, the virus reproduces rapidly. The persons immune system responds by producing HIV antibodies, which are proteins that take measures to respond against infection.

During this stage, some people have no symptoms at first. However, many people experience symptoms in the first month or so after contracting the virus, but they often dont realize HIV causes those symptoms.

This is because symptoms of the acute stage can be very similar to those of the flu or other seasonal viruses, such as:

  • they may be mild to severe
  • they may come and go
  • they may last anywhere from a few days to several weeks

Early symptoms of HIV can include:

  • fever
  • nausea
  • upset stomach

Because these symptoms are similar to common illnesses like the flu, the person who has them might not think they need to see a healthcare provider.

And even if they do, their healthcare provider might suspect the flu or mononucleosis and might not even consider HIV.

Whether a person has symptoms or not, during this period their viral load is very high. The viral load is the amount of HIV found in the bloodstream.

A high viral load means that HIV can be easily transmitted to someone else during this time.

Initial HIV symptoms usually resolve within a few months as the person enters the chronic, or clinical latency, stage of HIV. This stage can last many years or even decades with treatment.

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The Aids Epidemic Arises

Though HIV arrived in the United States around 1970, it didnt come to the publics attention until the early 1980s.

In 1981, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published a report about five previously healthy homosexual men becoming infected with Pneumocystis pneumonia, which is caused by the normally harmless fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii. This type of pneumonia, the CDC noted, almost never affects people with uncompromised immune systems.

The following year, The New York Times published an alarming article about the new immune system disorder, which, by that time, had affected 335 people, killing 136 of them. Because the disease appeared to affect mostly homosexual men, officials initially called it gay-related immune deficiency, or GRID.

Though the CDC discovered all major routes of the diseases transmissionas well as that female partners of AIDS-positive men could be infectedin 1983, the public considered AIDS a gay disease. It was even called the gay plague for many years after.

In September of 1982, the CDC used the term AIDS to describe the disease for the first time. By the end of the year, AIDS cases were also reported in a number of European countries.

Is There An Hiv Vaccine

Despite over 35 years of aggressive global research, scientists have yet to develop a vaccine able to effectively prevent or eradicate HIV. This is due in part to the fact that HIV mutates rapidly. Because of this, it is extremely challenging to develop a single vaccine able to target the multitude of strains and mutations.

Another challenge is that HIV quickly imbeds itself in tissues throughout the body, called latent reservoirs, soon after infection. Rather than multiplying, these viruses lay in hiding, largely unseen by the immune system.

Even if a vaccine were able to eradicate HIV in the bloodstream, these “hidden” viruses can spontaneously reactivate and start infection anew.

Faced with these setbacks, many scientists have shifted their focus to developing therapeutic vaccines designed to improve the body’s immune response to HIV in someone who already has HIV.

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What Are The Stages Of Hiv

HIV has three stages:

Stage 1: Acute HIV

Some people get flu-like symptoms a month or two after theyve been infected with HIV. These symptoms often go away within a week to a month.

Stage 2: Chronic stage/clinical latency

After the acute stage, you can have HIV for many years without feeling sick. It’s important to know that you can still spread HIV to others even if you feel well.

Stage 3: AIDS

AIDS is the most serious stage of HIV infection. In this stage, HIV has severely weakened your immune system and opportunistic infections are much more likely to make you sick.

Opportunistic infections are ones that someone with a healthy immune system could typically fight off. When HIV has advanced to AIDS, these illnesses take advantage of your weakened immune system.

Youre more likely to get certain cancers when you have AIDS. These cancers and opportunistic infections together are called AIDS-defining illnesses.

To be diagnosed with AIDS, you must be infected with HIV and have at least one of the following:

  • Fewer than 200 CD4 cells per cubic millimeter of blood .
  • An AIDS-defining illness.

If I Am Pregnant And Have Hiv Will My Baby Also Have Hiv

Explaining HIV and AIDS for kids.

Most women with HIV can protect their baby from becoming infected during pregnancy. Proper pre-natal treatment can reduce the risk that an HIV-positive mother will pass the virus to her child to less than 1 percent. The only way these special treatments can be provided is if the health care professionals know the mother is living with HIV. Treatment is most effective when started early in pregnancy. HIV-positive moms should not breastfeed their babies because HIV is sometimes passed this way.

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Hiv Symptoms In Men: Is There A Difference

Symptoms of HIV vary from person to person, but theyre similar in men and women. These symptoms can come and go or get progressively worse.

If a person has been exposed to HIV, they may also have been exposed to other sexually transmitted infections . These include:

While not related to HIV symptoms, another risk for women with HIV is that the virus can be transmitted to a baby during pregnancy. However, antiretroviral therapy is considered safe during pregnancy.

Women who are treated with antiretroviral therapy are at very low risk for transmitting HIV to their baby during pregnancy and delivery. Breastfeeding is also affected in women with HIV. The virus can be transferred to a baby through breast milk.

In the United States and other settings where formula is accessible and safe, its recommended that women with HIV not breastfeed their babies. For these women, use of formula is encouraged.

Options besides formula include pasteurized banked human milk.

For women who may have been exposed to HIV, its important to know what symptoms to look for.

AIDS refers to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With this condition, the immune system is weakened due to HIV thats typically gone untreated for many years.

If HIV is found and treated early with antiretroviral therapy, a person will usually not develop AIDS.

Symptoms of AIDS can include:

  • recurrent fever

HIV does NOT transfer through:

Hiv Infection Can Be Diagnosed By A Simple Test

On HIV transmission, the immune system produces antibodies against the virus. A blood or saliva test can detect those antibodies to determine if the virus is present. It can take several weeks after transmission for the HIV antibody test to come back positive.

Another test looks for antigens, which are proteins produced by the virus, and antibodies. This test can detect HIV just days after infection.

Both tests are accurate and easy to administer.

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Spread To The Western Hemisphere

Further isolated occurrences of this infection may have been emerging as early as 1966. The virus eventually entered gay male communities in large United States cities, where a combination of casual, multi-partner sexual activity and relatively high transmission rates associated with anal intercourse allowed it to spread explosively enough to finally be noticed.

Because of the long incubation period of HIV before symptoms of AIDS appear, and because of the initially low incidence, HIV was not noticed at first. By the time the first reported cases of AIDS were found in large United States cities, the prevalence of HIV infection in some communities had passed 5%. Worldwide, HIV infection has spread from urban to rural areas, and has appeared in regions such as China and India.

Is There A Period When The Virus Isnt Transmittable

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HIV is transmittable soon after its introduced into the body. During this phase, the bloodstream contains higher levels of HIV, which makes it easy to transmit it to others.

Since not everyone has early symptoms of HIV, getting tested is the only way to know if the virus has been contracted. An early diagnosis also allows an HIV-positive person to begin treatment. Proper treatment can eliminate their risk of transmitting the virus to their sexual partners.

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Pathogenicity Of Siv In Non

In most non-human primate species, natural SIV infection does not cause a fatal disease . Comparison of the gene sequence of SIV with HIV should, therefore, provide information about the factors necessary to cause disease in humans. The factors that determine the virulence of HIV as compared to most SIVs are only now being elucidated. Non-human SIVs contain a nef gene that down-regulates CD3, CD4, and MHC class I expression most non-human SIVs, therefore, do not induce immunodeficiency the HIV-1nef gene, however, has lost its ability to down-regulate CD3, which results in the immune activation and apoptosis that is characteristic of chronic HIV infection.

In addition, a long-term survey of chimpanzees naturally infected with SIVcpz in Gombe, Tanzania found that, contrary to the previous paradigm, chimpanzees with SIVcpz infection do experience an increased mortality, and also suffer from a human AIDS-like illness. SIV pathogenicity in wild animals could exist in other chimpanzee subspecies and other primate species as well, and stay unrecognized by lack of relevant long term studies.

Hiv Doesnt Always Produce Symptoms

HIV usually causes flu-like symptoms about two to four weeks after transmission. This short period of time is called acute infection. The immune system brings the infection under control, leading to a period of latency.

The immune system cant completely eliminate HIV, but it can control it for a long time. During this latency period, which can last for years, a person with HIV may experience no symptoms at all. Without antiretroviral therapy, however, that person may develop AIDS and as a result will experience many symptoms associated with the condition.

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How Hiv Is Transmitted

HIV is not passed on easily from one person to another. The virus does not spread through the air like cold and flu viruses.

HIV lives in the blood and in some body fluids. To get HIV, 1 of these fluids from someone with HIV has to get into your blood.

The body fluids that contain enough HIV to infect someone are:

  • semen
  • vaginal fluids, including menstrual blood
  • breast milk
  • contact with animals or insects like mosquitoes

Who Does Hiv Affect

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Its a myth that HIV only infects certain people. Anyone can get HIV if theyre exposed to the virus. Having sex without a condom or sharing needles to inject drugs are the most common ways that HIV spreads.

Some populations are statistically more affected by HIV than others. Groups disproportionately affected by HIV include:

  • People who identify as gay, bisexual and men who have sex with men .
  • Certain races such as people who are Black or Hispanic.
  • Those who exchange sex for money or other items are also at high risk for HIV infection.

While these arent the only populations impacted by HIV, its important to consider that they face unique barriers to accessing preventative care, getting tested, and receiving comprehensive treatment. Homophobia, racism, poverty, and social stigmas around HIV continue to drive inequities and keep people from accessing high-quality healthcare.

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Where Did Aids Come From

Scientists have traced the origin of HIV back to chimpanzees and simian immunodeficiency virus , an HIV-like virus that attacks the immune system of monkeys and apes.

In 1999, researchers identified a strain of chimpanzee SIV called SIVcpz, which was nearly identical to HIV. Chimps, the scientist later discovered, hunt and eat two smaller species of monkeysred-capped mangabeys and greater spot-nosed monkeysthat carry and infect the chimps with two strains of SIV. These two strains likely combined to form SIVcpz, which can spread between chimpanzees and humans.

SIVcpz likely jumped to humans when hunters in Africa ate infected chimps, or the chimps infected blood got into the cuts or wounds of hunters. Researchers believe the first transmission of SIV to HIV in humans that then led to the global pandemic occurred in 1920 in Kinshasa, the capital and largest city in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

The virus spread may have spread from Kinshasa along infrastructure routes via migrants and the sex trade.

In the 1960s, HIV spread from Africa to Haiti and the Caribbean when Haitian professionals in the colonial Democratic Republic of Congo returned home. The virus then moved from the Caribbean to New York City around 1970 and then to San Francisco later in the decade.

International travel from the United States helped the virus spread across the rest of the globe.

READ MORE: Pandemics That Changed History: A Timeline

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