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What Is The Difference Between Hiv 1 And 2

No Differences In Cellular Immune Responses Between

Differences between HIV 1 and HIV 2| HIV guidelines

Fewer people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 progress to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, compared with those infected with HIV-1. To understand the immune mechanisms leading to slow progression in HIV-2 infection, cell-mediated immune responses were compared between the 2 infections in asymptomatic subjects with a …

Treatment For Hiv And Aids

The goal of much research on HIV and AIDS is to develop effective methods of preventing infection. For example, antiretroviral therapy has made tremendous strides in reducing the amount of HIV in the bodies of infected people.

  • ART and other HIV medicines allow most infected people to control the virus within six months.
  • Infected people must begin HIV treatment as soon after initial infection as possible and continue the therapy despite the length of infection time or their health status.
  • HIV medicines reduce the viral load and increase the CD4 cell count. The medicines help infected individuals achieve viral suppression: having fewer than 200 copies of HIV per milliliter of blood.
  • The medicines can bring the viral load so low that an HIV test cant detect it. Undetectable viral loads mean the person has virtually no risk of transmitting the disease to others through sex.

What Happens During An Hiv Test

You will either get a blood test in a lab, or do your own test at home.

For a blood test in a lab:

  • A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

For at home test, you will need to get a sample of saliva from your mouth or a drop of blood from your fingertip.

  • The test kit will provide instructions on how to get your sample, package it, and send it to a lab.
  • For a saliva test, you will use special spatula-like tool to take a swab from your mouth.
  • For a fingertip antibody blood test, you will use a special tool to prick your finger and collect a sample of blood.

For more information on at-home testing, talk to your health care provider.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Hiv And Aids

Individuals infected with HIV may have a range of symptoms or none at all. The three stages of an HIV infection are:

  • Acute HIV infection causes flu-like symptoms within two to four weeks of the initial infection. The symptoms occur in about two-thirds of infected people.
  • Clinical latency can last as long as 10 to 15 years and may cause no symptoms at all. This stage is also called chronic HIV infection because the virus continues to multiply in the body. When a persons viral load is detectable in the bloodstream, the person can transmit HIV to others.
  • AIDS this late-stage of HIV infection occurs when the virus has weakened the bodys immune system to the point where opportunistic infections occur.

The following are some symptoms of AIDS:

  • Rapid weight loss
  • Prolonged swelling of lymph glands in the neck, armpit, and groin
  • Diarrhea that lasts a week or longer
  • Sores in and around the mouth and on the anus and genitals
  • Blotches on and under the skin that appear red, pink, purple, or brown
  • Neurological disorders, including memory loss and depression

Different Types Of Hiv Tests

PPT

The biggest difference between HIV and AIDS is that HIV is a virus that infects the body and compromises its ability to fight off other diseases, while AIDS is the final stage of an HIV infection in which the persons immune system is so compromised by HIV that opportunistic infections and diseases occur.

A person must be tested for the virus to determine whether they have HIV. The following are the three types of HIV tests:

  • Nucleic acid tests involve drawing blood from the persons vein and detecting HIV in the blood. NAT is the fastest and most expensive HIV test.
  • Antigen/antibody tests detect the presence of HIV antibodies and antigens in the blood. The blood is drawn from a vein or extracted via a finger prick.
  • HIV antibody tests detect HIV antibodies in the persons blood or oral fluid. Tests involving drawing blood from a vein can detect antibodies sooner after the initial infection than either a finger prick or oral fluid.

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Hiv And Aids Prevention

The CDC has set a goal of reducing new HIV infections by 90% by 2030, an objective made difficult by the COVID-19 pandemic, the continuing opioid crisis, and continuing gaps in health care for at-risk populations. The ultimate goal of medical researchers, health care workers, and government officials is to end the HIV epidemic by applying a diverse arsenal of preventive measures.

  • The most effective methods of preventing HIV infection are abstinence, always using a condom when having sex, and never sharing hypodermic needles.
  • Medications that help prevent HIV infection include Truvada and Descovy for pre-exposure prophylaxis , a treatment regimen that is taken daily and intended to prevent HIV infection before potential exposure, and post-exposure prophylaxis , a preventive treatment regimen that must be taken within 72 hours after a possible exposure to HIV.
  • Researchers are working on long-acting medications and treatments to prevent HIV infection, including a form of the HIV drug cabotegravir thats injected once every eight weeks.

Other approaches under investigation to prevent HIV and AIDs are monoclonal antibodies that block both HIV and COVID-19 long-acting drugs, such as lenacapavir and HIV treatment regimens that are begun during pregnancy using dolutegravir and efavirenz .

Resources For Hiv/aids Treatment And Support Services

One of the most valuable tools in the effort to treat people with HIV and stem the spread of the virus is information about treatment options and prevention techniques. These sources provide helpful information for individuals and health care professionals about HIV and AIDS symptoms, treatment, and prevention.

  • CDC, About HIV The site describes the symptoms of HIV and provides downloadable information on a range of HIV-related topics.
  • National Institute on Aging, HIV, AIDS and Older People The site provides information about HIV and AIDS and is targeted to older generations who may be experiencing a change in lifestyle that makes them susceptible to HIV infection.

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Herpes Simplex Virus And Hiv

Table 1. Herpes simplex virus infection is a common cause of ulcerative mucocutaneous disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. Classically, HSV type 1 is acquired in childhood and causes orolabial ulcers, whereas HSV type 2 is transmitted sexually and causes anogenital ulcers.

Difference Between Hiv 1 And Hiv 2

HIV 2 Signs ,Symptom Diagnosis and Treatment | Difference between HIV 1 and HIV 2 | In Tamil |

Categorized under Disease | Difference Between HIV 1 and HIV 2

HIV 1 vs HIV 2

AIDS is one of the most feared diseases in the world and currently has no known cure. This disease is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, commonly known as the HIV. What most people do not know is that there are two strains to HIV and they are simply known as HIV 1 and HIV 2. The main difference between the two is the frequency of occurrence. HIV 2 is much rarer than the common HIV 1. Its occurrences are also limited to Africa unlike HIV 1, which is widespread across the globe.

Although both diseases exhibit the same symptoms and eventually lead to AIDS, they do have differences in how they progress. In the early stages of the disease, HIV 1 is more infectious and is probably the reason why it spreads much faster than HIV 2. In later stages, HIV 2 becomes more infectious than HIV 1 but it is more likely that the disease has already been discovered and precautions have already been taken to not infect other people.

HIV 2 is harder to detect mainly because of the fact that the most prevalent tests are only sensitive to the HIV 1 infection and not HIV 2. More recent tests are now sensitive to both strains but it is advised for people who think that they may have HIV 2 to seek out tests specific to HIV 2 if the test for HIV 1 turns out negative just to be sure.

Summary:

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The Difference Between Type 1 Type 2 & Gestational

Taking insulin, whether its through injections or an insulin pump, is usually enough to control type 1 diabetes. Symptoms may include rapid breathing, dry skin and mouth, excessive thirst, nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, fatigue, frequent urination, and blurry vision. Type 2 Diabetes. Ninety percent of diabetics have type 2 diabetes.

Hiv Strains And Types

KEY POINTS

  • There are two main types of HIV HIV-1 and HIV-2 .
  • Like many viruses, HIV has the ability to mutate and change over time – within the main types of HIV there are many genetically distinct subgroups.
  • Tests to diagnose HIV and monitor the level of virus in the body that are sensitive to the full range of subtypes do exist, but may not be readily available in all settings.

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Infections With Multiple Strains

When the virus multiplies, the copies sometimes change and develop into another HIV strain in your body. You can end up with a strain your HIV drugs won’t work against. This makes your viral load — the amount of HIV in your body — go up. In that case, you’d need another type of treatment.

You also can have two or more strains if you were infected by more than one person. This is called superinfection. Superinfection is rare — it happens in less than 4% of people. You’re at the highest risk of superinfection in the first 3 years after you get HIV.

Everyone reacts differently to infection. You might not notice any change in your symptoms or viral load with a new infection. But it can make your HIV worse, especially if you have a strain drugs won’t work well against. If that happens, the drugs you take for your original HIV strain won’t necessarily treat the new strain.

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What’s The Difference Between Hpv And Herpes

The Differences Between HIV

HPV is caused by the human papillomavirus virus while herpes is caused by the herpes simplex virus . There are more than 100 strains of HPV and two strains of HSV. HSV-1 usually causes cold sores, although it can cause genital lesions through oral sex. HSV-2 is the virus strain that usually causes genital herpes.

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Why Do I Need An Hiv Test

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 get tested for HIV at least once as part of routine health care. You may also need an HIV test if you are at higher risk for infection. HIV is mainly spread through sexual contact and blood, so you may be at a higher risk for HIV if you:

  • Are a man that has had sex with another man
  • Have had sex with an HIV-infected partner
  • Have had multiple sex partners
  • Have injected drugs, such as heroin, or shared drug needles with someone else

HIV can spread from mother to child during birth and through breast milk, so if you are pregnant your doctor may order an HIV test. There are medicines you can take during pregnancy and delivery to greatly reduce your risk of spreading the disease to your baby.

Hiv 1 Vs Hiv : What Is The Difference Between Hiv

by BenPublished on February 21, 2020Updated on August 9, 2020

The human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that attacks and destroys a persons T cells making their immune system highly susceptible to illness and infections. If left untreated for an extended duration, this virus can lead to AIDS . While there is still no cure for HIV or AIDS, the disease is highly treatable thanks to groundbreaking advances in medicine over the past several decades. In fact, many who contract the disease today go onto live long, happy lives. And from a social perspective, the stigma surrounding the virus has also largely subsided since its discovery in the 1980s.

What Are HIV-1 and HIV-2?

HIV can be one of two types: HIV-1 or HIV-2 although HIV-1 is far more common throughout the world and especially in the United States where it accounts for 99.99 percent of all HIV diagnoses. Worldwide, that percentage is still an overwhelming 95 percent. HIV-2 is most prominent in West Africa with a relatively small number of cases in India and only sporadic instances in a handful of other locations. So chances are likely that if you hear about HIV in the media or through conversation, youre hearing about HIV-1 and not the much rarer HIV-2.

What Is The Difference Between HIV-1 and HIV-2?

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Hiv Vs Aids: Whats The Difference

Overview

It can be easy to confuse HIV and AIDS. They are different diagnoses, but they do go hand-in-hand: HIV is a virus that can lead to a condition called AIDS, also known as stage 3 HIV.

At one time, a diagnosis of HIV or AIDS was considered a death sentence. Thanks to research and the development of new treatments, people with HIV at any stage today are living long, productive lives. An HIV-positive person who adheres to regular antiretroviral treatment can expect to live a near-normal life span.

What Is The Difference Between Hiv

An Update on HIV-2 Infection – Ulyee Choe, MD

There are two main types of the human immunodeficiency virus , HIV-1 and HIV-2. The difference between HIV-1 and HIV-2 are as follows

  • HIV-1 is the most common type of HIV and accounts for 95% of all infections, whereas HIV-2 is relatively uncommon and less infectious.
  • HIV-2 is mainly concentrated in West Africa and the surrounding countries.
  • HIV-2 is less fatal and progresses more slowly than HIV-1.

Currently, only one antibody test can distinguish between antibodies to HIV-1 or HIV-2.

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Can You Prevent Hiv

There are many steps that a person can take to prevent contracting HIV-1. These include:

  • Using a condom. Using a condom during vaginal, anal, or oral sex can help prevent transmission of the virus during these activities.
  • Getting tested. Getting tested for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections is a powerful tool for both detecting and treating these infections. Encourage sexual partners to get tested as well.
  • Not sharing needles. Its important that injection drug users avoid sharing needles or injection drug equipment with others.
  • Taking pre-exposure prophylaxis .PrEP is a daily medication that can be taken to help greatly lower the risk of contracting HIV through sex or by using injection drugs.
  • Using post-exposure prophylaxis .PEP is a medication that can be used in emergencies to prevent contracting HIV. To be effective, it needs to be started within 72 hours of possible exposure.

Hiv Infection Can Be Diagnosed By A Simple Test

On HIV transmission, the immune system produces antibodies against the virus. A blood or saliva test can detect those antibodies to determine if the virus is present. It can take several weeks after transmission for the HIV antibody test to come back positive.

Another test looks for antigens, which are proteins produced by the virus, and antibodies. This test can detect HIV just days after infection.

Both tests are accurate and easy to administer.

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Major Types Of Hiv: Difference Between Hiv

The two major types of human immunodeficiency virus are HIV-1 and HIV-2. Note that HIV-1 is the most widespread cause of HIV infection in the world. It was also discovered first in 1981 and initially termed as Lymphadenopathy Associated Virus or LAV and Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus III or HTLV-III. On the other hand, HIV infection caused by HIV-2 is chiefly predominant in western Africa although it is becoming more common in India.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 2

Natural history of HIV/AIDS

HIV-2 was first isolated in the mid-1980s from people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in West Africa. Since then, most cases of HIV-2 infection have been reported from West Africa, although cases have also been reported from Zimbabwe and India.18 The distribution of HIV-2 infections in West Africa coincides with the natural habitat of the sooty mangabey. HIV-2 is thought to be a zoonosis resulting from cross-species transmission of SIVsm. HIV-2 and SIVsm are genomically similar and share an accessory gene, vpx, not found in other primate lentiviruses.

To a lesser extent, HIV-2 also shares structural and genomic similarities with HIV-1. The HIV-2 gag and pol genes share approximately 60% homology with corresponding HIV-1 genes, whereas the env genes share only 30% to 40% homology. Viral genomic differences form the basis for molecular assays that distinguish between HIV-1 and HIV-2. Corresponding differences in viral proteins form the basis for antibody tests that distinguish between infections with these viruses.

Heterosexual and mother-to-child transmission of HIV-2 has been documented. Transmission through blood transfusion also occurs. Transmission through contaminated needles is postulated but not well documented. Heterosexual and mother-to-child transmissions of HIV-2 appear to occur less readily than transmission of HIV-1. Antiretroviral therapy can reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-2.

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Test To Differentiate Between Two Types Of Hiv

The Multispot HIV-1/HIV-2 Rapid Test is currently the only FDA-approved test able to reliably differentiate between the two viruses. The test can also:

  • Detect circulating antibodies associated with HIV-1 and HIV-2 in human plasma and serum
  • Aid in the diagnosis of infection with HIV-1 and/or HIV-2.

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