What Is The Difference Between Pep And Prep
October 26, 2021 Posted by Dr.Samanthi
The key differencebetween PEP and PrEP is that PEP is post-exposure prophylaxis, where people take a short course of HIV medicines soon after possible exposure to HIV to prevent the virus from taking hold of the body, while PrEp is pre-exposure prophylaxis where people who do not have HIV take HIV medicine to reduce the risk.
PEP and PrEP are two medical methods to prevent HIV infection. Human immunodeficiency virus is a dangerous virus that attacks the immune system of humans. If HIV infection is not treated, it can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . It started in Central Africa in the 1800s and spread across the world. It has three stages: acute, chronic and AIDS. Learning the basics about HIV can keep people healthy and prevent HIV transmission.
Health Services For Screening And Treatment Of Stis Remain Weak
People seeking screening and treatment for STIs face numerous problems. These include limited resources, stigmatization, poor quality of services and often out-of-pocket expenses.
In many settings, STI services in low- and middle-income countries are often neglected and underfunded. These problems lead to difficulties in providing screening for asymptomatic infections, insufficient number of trained personnel, limited laboratory capacity and inadequate supplies of appropriate medicines.
You’re More Likely To Get Hiv If Your Partner Has Hiv And An Std
People with both HIV and an STD have more HIV in their semen or vaginal fluid. This makes it easier for a person with an STD or HIV to give the virus to others when having sex without a condom.
Remember, many people who have HIV don’t know it. It can take many years for symptoms to show up. That is why it is so important to use condoms during sex, or not to have sex at all.
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Why Does Having An Std Put Me More At Risk For Getting Hiv
If you get an STD, you are more likely to get HIV than someone who is STD-free. This is because the same behaviors and circumstances that may put you at risk for getting an STD also can put you at greater risk for getting HIV. In addition, having a sore or break in the skin from an STD may allow HIV to more easily enter your body. If you are sexually active, get tested for STDs and HIV regularly, even if you dont have symptoms.
What Is The Treatment For Hiv Vs Aids
Currently, in the US, most people with HIV do not develop AIDS. This is an especially important talking point since many assume that an HIV or AIDS diagnosis translates to a short life. On the contrary, there are a number of medications that can halt the progression of the virus greatly increase how long you can live with HIV.
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Hiv And Aids Prevention
The CDC has set a goal of reducing new HIV infections by 90% by 2030, an objective made difficult by the COVID-19 pandemic, the continuing opioid crisis, and continuing gaps in health care for at-risk populations. The ultimate goal of medical researchers, health care workers, and government officials is to end the HIV epidemic by applying a diverse arsenal of preventive measures.
- The most effective methods of preventing HIV infection are abstinence, always using a condom when having sex, and never sharing hypodermic needles.
- Medications that help prevent HIV infection include Truvada and Descovy for pre-exposure prophylaxis , a treatment regimen that is taken daily and intended to prevent HIV infection before potential exposure, and post-exposure prophylaxis , a preventive treatment regimen that must be taken within 72 hours after a possible exposure to HIV.
- Researchers are working on long-acting medications and treatments to prevent HIV infection, including a form of the HIV drug cabotegravir thats injected once every eight weeks.
Other approaches under investigation to prevent HIV and AIDs are monoclonal antibodies that block both HIV and COVID-19 long-acting drugs, such as lenacapavir and HIV treatment regimens that are begun during pregnancy using dolutegravir and efavirenz .
Behaviour Change Is Complex
Despite considerable efforts to identify simple interventions that can reduce risky sexual behaviour, behaviour change remains a complex challenge. Research has demonstrated the need to focus on carefully defined populations, consult extensively with the identified target populations, and involve them in design, implementation and evaluation.
Education and counselling can improve peoples ability to recognize the symptoms of STIs and increase the likelihood that they will seek care and encourage a sexual partner to do so. Unfortunately, lack of public awareness, lack of training among health workers, and long-standing, widespread stigma around STIs remain barriers to greater and more effective use of these interventions.
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Stis And Hiv: The Tie And Why It Matters
It’s no secret that connections exist between HIV and other sexually transmitted infections , but researchers are pushing for more coordination to reduce the incidence of all such conditions.
Two sessions at AIDS 2012 looked at the correlations between HIV and other STIs. One, called “Dangerous Liaisons: HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections,” highlighted research showing that many people diagnosed with other STIs are often later diagnosed or concurrently diagnosed with HIV. In fact, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , people infected with an STI are two to five times more likely to become infected with HIV after exposure to the virus than people who are not infected by another STI. The other session, “Enhancing STI Services for HIV Prevention,” looked at the value of screening people diagnosed with any STIs for HIV and targeting prevention messages toward that group.
Std Statistics In The Us
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , nearly 20 million new STD infections occur every year, accounting for almost $16 billion in healthcare costs. In 2017, the bulk of infections were primarily constrained to three diseases:
- Chlamydia: 1,708,569 infections at a rate of 529 per 100,000
- Gonorrhea: 555,608 infections at a rate of 172 per 100,000
- Syphilis : 30,644 infections at a rate of 9 per 100,000
The rate of STD infections is particularly high among gay and bisexual men who, not surprisingly, account for the highest rate of HIV infections in the U.S.
Gay and bisexual men account for almost all primary and secondary syphilis cases.
To this end, If you are a sexually active gay or bisexual man, you should be tested for syphilis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and HIV at least once a year. More frequent STD testing, between every three to six months, is recommended for gay or bisexual men at high risk, especially those who have multiple sex partners, use recreational drugs, or practice condomless sex.
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What Is The Difference Between An Std And Sti
The term STD is often used interchangeably with the term sexually transmitted infection . But despite this common misconception, STDs and STIs arent exactly the same. Each term has a specific meaning:
- STI. An STI is a sexually transmitted infection and doesnt cause any symptoms. Instead, an STI refers to the presence of the virus, bacteria, or other pathogens in your body.
- STD. An STD is a sexually transmitted disease, which does cause symptoms. It happens when the pathogens in your body have led to the cell damage that produces symptoms.
Put simply, an infection just means the presence of the pathogen is in your body, while a disease means youre having symptoms. A condition is only considered an STD if there are symptoms.
This might seem like a small difference, but the distinction is important. This is especially true for STIs that rarely cause symptoms, like chlamydia or gonorrhea. For many people, these STIs wont ever progress to STDs.
Aids Stands For Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and develops as a result of the untreated HIV virus infection. Due to the damage HIV causes to the immune system, a person living with AIDS can have difficulty fighting infections like pneumonia, tuberculosis or other opportunistic infections. HIV typically takes about a decade to advance to AIDS, but the speed of progression can vary. However, thanks to the progress of modern medicine, people with acute, chronic or even AIDS can lead significantly longer lives.
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Support Groups And Resources For People Who Have Hiv Or Aids
Peer support is effective in helping people meet the challenges associated with HIV and AIDS. Peer support can reduce anxiety and depression, relieve symptoms, and assist people in maintaining treatment regimens. Healthline describes the work that many online HIV/AIDS support forums do. Some of these include:
- POZ Community Forums provides moderated discussion boards with information about a diagnosis, treatment, and community resources.
- HIV/AIDS TherapyTribe is an online space where people can offer advice and moral support to others who share their experiences with HIV and AIDS.
- The Well Project allows women and girls who are living with HIV to participate in moderated forums and read about the experiences of others who are in the same situation.
Treatment And Life Expectancy
If HIV develops into stage 3 HIV, life expectancy drops significantly. Its difficult to repair damage to the immune system at this point. Infections and other conditions, such as certain cancers, resulting from severe immune system impairment are common. However, with successful antiretroviral therapy and some immune system recovery, many people with stage 3 HIV live long lives.
With todays treatments for HIV infection, people can live with HIV and never have AIDS develop. Its also important to note that successful antiretroviral treatment and a sustained undetectable viral load greatly lowers the risk of transmitting the virus to a partner.
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Dealing With Stds And Stis
Now that you know the difference between STD vs. STI, you can arm yourself with knowledge. Awareness is one of the best ways to protect yourself from contracting disease.
Another way to protect yourself is by using protection. If youre not sure about your options, dont hesitate to speak with the professionals at State Urgent Care.
Stis And Susceptibility To Hiv
Transmission of classical STIs is generally more efficient than HIV, and therefore may set the stage for increased risk of HIV acquisition . Inflammation and ulcers can be expected to lower the barrier to infection , , . Recent studies have tried to more precisely define the conditions that lead to HIV acquisition in women, with a focus on unique cytokine profiles , and disturbance of vaginal microbiome with resultant âdysbiosisâ . STIs can evoke an influx of receptive cells with expression of a greater number of CCR5 and CD4 receptors per cell . The risk of HIV acquisition for a woman with mucosal inflammation or a genital ulcer is greatly increased . Trichomonas infection in women, a common pathogen, also increases HIV acquisition . It should be noted that people with an STI appear to be susceptible to an HIV viral variant with reduced fitness .
The foreskin is a critical point of acquisition of HIV by men. It has been argued that low-grade inflammation in this tissue, perhaps critical to decrease commensal bacterial colonization and to resist STIs, increases the risk of HIV acquisition , . Circumcision greatly decreases the risk of HIV infection . Circumcision also appears to reduce the risk of genital ulcer disease in men .
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Hiv Doesnt Always Produce Symptoms
HIV usually causes flu-like symptoms about two to four weeks after transmission. This short period of time is called acute infection. The immune system brings the infection under control, leading to a period of latency.
The immune system cant completely eliminate HIV, but it can control it for a long time. During this latency period, which can last for years, a person with HIV may experience no symptoms at all. Without antiretroviral therapy, however, that person may develop AIDS and as a result will experience many symptoms associated with the condition.
Different Types Of Hiv Tests
The biggest difference between HIV and AIDS is that HIV is a virus that infects the body and compromises its ability to fight off other diseases, while AIDS is the final stage of an HIV infection in which the persons immune system is so compromised by HIV that opportunistic infections and diseases occur.
A person must be tested for the virus to determine whether they have HIV. The following are the three types of HIV tests:
- Nucleic acid tests involve drawing blood from the persons vein and detecting HIV in the blood. NAT is the fastest and most expensive HIV test.
- Antigen/antibody tests detect the presence of HIV antibodies and antigens in the blood. The blood is drawn from a vein or extracted via a finger prick.
- HIV antibody tests detect HIV antibodies in the persons blood or oral fluid. Tests involving drawing blood from a vein can detect antibodies sooner after the initial infection than either a finger prick or oral fluid.
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Whats The Actual Difference Between Hiv And Aids
HIV/AIDS. The two go together. When you see them in the media, read about them online, or hear them on the news, its always HIV/AIDS.
But why do people say both? Doesnt HIV mean AIDS? If you have HIV do you also have AIDS? Is HIV just a different way to say AIDS?
All of these questions are valid. Especially when HIV and AIDS are used interchangeably. It might seem like the difference between the two doesnt really matter, or one means the other. But thats not true.
HIV and AIDS are not the same.
HIV is a virus. AIDS is a condition. But what does that actually mean?
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. Its a virus that can only infect humans and leads to the weakening of the immune system. The immune system is the bodys system for fighting disease. When its compromised or weakened, a person becomes susceptible to all kinds of bacteria, viruses, or other agents that cause disease.
When HIV is left untreated, it can wreak havoc on a persons immune system. As this happens, the body is less able to fight off infections. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, which means the immune system has been made less effective by HIV. When this happens, a person is considered to have an acquired immune deficiency, or AIDS.
HIV Doesnt Always Mean AIDS
Its important to note that you cannot have AIDS without being infected with HIV. But people can, and do, live long lives with HIV and never develop AIDS.
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Difference Between Hiv And Aids
Before we get into whats the difference between HIV 1 and HIV 2 viruses, its essential to understand and describe the difference between HIV and Aids. When people hear the term HIV, they immediately link it to AIDS.
The main difference is that HIV is a virus, and to have AIDS, someone would need to be infected with HIV. However, just because someone has HIV doesnt mean that they will develop AIDS.
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If Someone Already Has Hiv And Subsequently Gets An Std Does That Put Their Sex Partner At An Increased Risk For Getting Hiv
If the person living with HIV gets and maintains an undetectable viral load by taking antiretroviral treatment, then an STD does not increase the risk of transmitting HIV.6 However, HIV-infected persons who are not taking antiretroviral treatment may be more likely to transmit HIV when they have another STD.
HIV-negative sex partners of people with HIV can prevent HIV if:
- HIV-positive people use antiretroviral therapy as prescribed. ART reduces the amount of virus in blood and body fluids. People with HIV who take ART, as prescribed, to achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load can stay healthy for many years, and have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to sexual partners.
- Sex partners take PrEP medications, as prescribed, after discussing this option with their healthcare provider and determining whether it is appropriate.
- Partners choose less risky sex activities.
- Partners use a new condom for every act of vaginal, anal, and oral sex throughout the entire sex act .
What Can I Do To Prevent Getting Stds And Hiv
The only 100% effective way to avoid STDs is to not have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. If you are sexually active, you can do the following things to lower your chances of getting STDs and HIV:
- Choose less risky sex activities
- Use a new condom, consistently and correctly, for every act of vaginal, anal, and oral sex throughout the entire sex act
- Reduce the number of people with whom you have sex
- Limit or eliminate drug and alcohol use before and during sex
- Have an honest and open talk with your healthcare provider and ask whether you should be tested for STDs and HIV
- Talk to your healthcare provider and find out if either pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, or post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, is a good option for you to prevent HIV infection.
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What Activities Can Put You At Risk For Stis
Behaviors that put people at risk for HIV also increase their risk for other STIs. These behaviors include:
- Having anal, vaginal, or oral sex without a condom.
- Having sex with multiple partners, especially anonymous partners.
- Having sex while using drugs or alcohol. Using drugs and alcohol can affect your judgment, which can lead to risky behaviors.