People With Diagnosed Hiv In 44 States And The District Of Columbia 2019*
* The 44 states are AL, AK, AZ, AR, CA, CO, CT, DE, FL, GA, HI, IL, IN, IA, LA, ME, MD, MA, MI, MN, MS, MO, MT,NE, NV, NH, NM, NY, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR, RI, SC, SD, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WI, and WY. Had 2 viral load or CD4 tests at least 3 months apart in a year. Based on most recent viral load test.
How Does Hiv Affect Different Groups Of People
There are different ways to answer this question.
If we look at HIV diagnoses by race and ethnicity, we see that African Americans are most affected by HIV. In 2015, African Americans made up only 13%* of the US population but had 45% of all new HIV diagnoses. Additionally, Hispanic/Latinos** are also strongly affected. They made up 18% of the US population but had 24% of all new HIV diagnoses.
If we look at HIV diagnoses by how people got the virus , we see that gay and bisexual men are most at risk. In 2015, gay and bisexual men accounted for 67% of all new HIV diagnoses. In the same year, individuals infected through heterosexual sex made up 24% of all new HIV diagnoses.
Combining those two views allows us to see the most affected populations, by race and by risk factor.
New HIV Diagnoses in the United States for the Most-Affected Subpopulations, 2015
Subpopulations representing 2% or less of HIV diagnoses are not reflected in this chart.MSM = men who have sex with men
There are also variations by age. Young peopleaged 13-24 are especially affected by HIV. In 2015, they comprised 16% of the US population but accounted for 22% of all new HIV diagnoses. All young people are not equally at risk, however. Young gay and bisexual men accounted for 84% of all new HIV diagnoses in people aged 13-24 in 2015, and young, African American gay and bisexual men are even more severely affected.
CDCs fact sheets explain the impact of HIV on various populations in the United States.
Prisoners Hiv And Aids
- Sharing needles for drug use, the unavailability of condoms and rape are persistent issues within prison environments which increase the risk of HIV transmission.
- Lack of HIV prevention and harm reduction programmes increase the risk of HIV transmission among prisoners.
- For prisoners living with HIV, adherence to antiretroviral treatment is often difficult and the everyday stresses of living in a prison can compromise an already weakened immune system, leading to poor health and risk of co-infections.
- Re-thinking the number of people sent to prison for treatable substance use disorders would reduce HIV transmission and improve lives.
An estimated one in five people who are in prison are there for drug-related offences the vast majority of whom are on possession-only charges.3 In a comprehensive review of global prison trends, Penal Reform International finds over-incarceration and punishment of people who use drugs exists in every region of the world.4
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Civil Societys Role And Hiv In Latin America And The Caribbean
There is a strong presence of civil society organisations and community-led networks in Latin America and the Caribbean, with civil society instrumental in both the regions HIV response and human rights activism, particularly in Latin America. For example, Latin America is now recognised as a major leader in the global LGBTI movement.
This victory is much more than just the legal challenge and constitutional reforms. It is a rallying cry for the LGBT community and our allies to stand up and be counted! This represents the first moment in the history of the English speaking Caribbean that we have become truly visible and in a populist and meaningful manner. Yes, there was pushback but we are pushing forward in ways never seen before. This is the Rosa Parks moment for LGBT people of the Caribbean and we shall NEVER sit in the back of the bus again.
– LGBT activist Jason Jones after winning a legal case against the government of Trinidad and Tobago, challenging the legality of a law prohibiting same-sex relationships.81
In 2016, Civicus reported that civil society in Latin America and the Caribbean is coming under increasing pressure. According to the report, much of the danger for civil society results from webs of corruption that mesh the interests of politicians and other public officials with those of large private entities and, in some cases, organised crime.82
Hiv And Aids Diagnoses And Deaths
- From 2012 to 2016, HIV diagnoses increased 34% among AI/AN overall and increased 58% among AI/AN gay and bisexual men.
- AI/AN men accounted for 81% , and AI/AN women accounted for 18% of the estimated 243 AI/AN diagnosed with HIV infection in the United States in 2016.
- Of the estimated 198 HIV diagnoses among AI/AN men in 2016, most were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact.
- Of the estimated 45 HIV diagnoses among AI/AN women in 2016, the majority were attributed to heterosexual contact.
- In the U.S. in 2016, both male and female AI/AN had the highest percent of estimated diagnoses of HIV infection attributed to injection drug use, compared with all races/ethnicities. Among men, 9% of new HIV diagnoses were attributed to injection drug use, and 11% were attributed to both male-to-male sex and injection drug use. Among women, 31% of new HIV diagnoses were attributed to injection drug use.
- In 2016, an estimated 104 AI/AN were diagnosed with AIDS, a number that has remained relatively stable since 2009.
*By the end of 2016, an estimated 2,017 AI/AN with a diagnosis of HIV or AIDS had died in the United States.
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Punitive Laws And Overcrowding
For example, sex workers are at a high risk of incarceration as around 98 countries criminalise sex work or aspects of sex work.65 Likewise, 67 countries criminalise same sex activity, increasing this risk for men who have sex with men.66 In addition, 68 countries have HIV-specific laws that prosecute people living with HIV for a range of offences.67
Research in US prisons has found that young lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people are disproportionately imprisoned and experience bias during pre-trial detention and sentencing. Lesbian or bisexual women represent around a third of all female prisoners in the US, despite making up just 3.4% of the general population.68
In places with weak criminal justice systems, people who are detained may have to wait for long periods during the investigation of a crime, while awaiting trial and before sentencing. It is estimated that around 14 million people are imprisoned each year due to arbitrary and excessive use of pre-trial detention.69 These delays increase peoples likelihood of HIV and other infectious diseases while in prison.7071
In sub-Saharan Africa, 86% of countries for which data is available have prison occupancy rates over 100%.74 Overcrowding makes HIV services harder to access and increases the risk of violence and abuse.75
What Is The Impact Of Hiv On Racial And Ethnic Minorities In The Us
HIV can affect anyone regardless of sexual orientation, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or where they live. However, in the United States, some racial/ethnic groups are more affected than others, given their percentage of the population. This is because some population groups have higher rates of HIV in their communities, thus raising the risk of new infections with each sexual or injection drug use encounter. Additionally, a range of social, economic, and demographic factors such as stigma, discrimination, income, education, and geographic region can affect peoples risk for HIV.
Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino communities are disproportionately affected by HIV compared to other racial/ethnic groups. For example, in 2018 Blacks/African Americans represented 13% of the US population, but 41% of people with HIV. Hispanics/Latinos represented 18% of the population, but 23% of people with HIV.
Certain subpopulations within racial and ethnic minority groups are affected as well. For example, gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men are by far the most affected group in the US. They account for about 70% of new infections each year, even though they make up only 2% of the population.
According to CDC, in 2018:
For in-depth information about the impact of HIV on different racial and ethnic populations, see these CDC fact sheets:
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Hiv/aids Is One Of The Worlds Most Fatal Infectious Disease
Almost 1 million people die from HIV/AIDS each year in some countries its the leading cause of death
HIV/AIDS is one of the worlds most fatal infectious diseases particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease has had a massive impact on health outcomes and life expectancy in recent decades.
The Global Burden of Disease is a major global study on the causes of death and disease published in the medical journal The Lancet.1 These estimates of the annual number of deaths by cause are shown here. This chart is shown for the global total, but can be explored for any country or region using the change country toggle.
In the chart we see that, globally, it is the second most fatal infectious disease.
According to the Global Burden of Disease study, almost one million people died from HIV/AIDS in 2017. To put this into context: this was just over 50% higher than the number of deaths from malaria in 2017.
Its one of the largest killers globally but for some countries particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa, its the leading cause of death. If we look at the breakdown for South Africa, Botswana or Mozambique which you can do on the interactive chart we see that HIV/AIDS tops the list. For countries in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa, deaths from HIV/AIDS are more than 50% higher than deaths from heart disease, and more than twice that of cancer deaths.
New Hiv Diagnoses In The Us And Dependent Areas By Transmission Category 2019
NOTE: Does not include other and perinatal transmission categories.
Source: CDC. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2019. HIV Surveillance Report 2021 32.
If we look at HIV diagnoses by race and ethnicity, we see that Black/African American people are most affected by HIV. In 2019, Black/African American people accounted for 42% of all new HIV diagnoses. Additionally, Hispanic/Latino people are also strongly affected. They accounted for 29% of all new HIV diagnoses.
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Key Points: Hiv Diagnoses
Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men b are the population most affected by HIV in the U.S.:
- MSM accounted for 69% of new HIV diagnoses in the United States.c
- From 2015 through 2019 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, Black/African American MSM accounted for more than 36% and White MSM accounted for more than 30% of HIV diagnoses among MSM annually.
- In 2019, Black/African American MSM accounted for 26% of new HIV diagnoses and 37.9% of diagnoses among all MSM.
- In 2019, Hispanic/Latinod MSM made up 22% of new HIV diagnoses and 32.5% of diagnosis among all MSM.
The number of HIV diagnoses decreased among MSM overall, but trends varied by race/ethnicity. From 2015 through 2019:
- Among MSM aged 1324 years, HIV diagnoses decreased or were stable among all racial/ethnic groups.
- HIV diagnoses increased among American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander MSM, ages 24 and older.
Transgender people accounted for approximately 2% of new HIV diagnoses in 2019.
- From 2015 through 2019 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, the number of diagnoses of HIV infection for transgender adults and adolescents increased.
- In 2019, among transgender adults and adolescents, the largest percentage of diagnoses of HIV infections was for transgender male-to-female people.
Blacks/African Americans and Hispanics/Latinx continue to be severely and disproportionately affected by HIV:
Impact On Communities Of Color
- Racial and ethnic minorities have been disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic, and represent the majority of new HIV diagnoses, people living with HIV disease, and deaths among people with HIV.37,38
- Black and Latino people account for a disproportionate share of new HIV diagnoses, relative to their size in the U.S. population .39,40 Black people also account for more people living with HIV than any other racial group â an estimated 479,300 of the 1.2 million people living with HIV in the U.S. are black.41
- Black people also have the highest rate of new HIV diagnoses, followed by Latino people â in 2019, the rate of new HIV diagnoses per 100,000 for Black people was about 8 times that of white people Latino people had a rate 4 times that of white people.42
- Black people accounted for close to half of deaths among people with an HIV diagnosis in 2019.43,44
- Survival after an AIDS diagnosis is lower for Black people than for most other racial/ethnic groups, and Black people have had the highest age-adjusted death rate due to HIV disease throughout most of the epidemic.45 HIV ranks higher as a cause of death for Black and Latino people, compared with White people.46 Further, HIV was the 6th leading cause of death for Black people ages 25-34 in 2019.47
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Global Hiv & Aids Statistics Fact Sheet
GLOBAL HIV STATISTICS
- 37.7 million people globally were living with HIV in 2020.
- 1.5 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2020.
- 680 000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2020.
- 27.5 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy in 2020.
- 79.3 million people have become infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic.
- 36.3 million people have died from AIDS-related illnesses since the start of the epidemic.
People living with HIV
- In 2020, there were 37.7 million people living with HIV.
- 36.0 million adults.
- 1.7 million children .
- 53% of all people living with HIV were women and girls.
People living with HIV accessing antiretroviral therapy
- At the end of December 2020, 27.5 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy, up from 7.8 million in 2010.
- In 2020, 73% of all people living with HIV were accessing treatment.
- 74% of adults aged 15 years and older living with HIV had access to treatment, as did 54% of children aged 014 years.
- 79% of female adults aged 15 years and older had access to treatment however, just 68% of male adults aged 15 years and older had access.
New HIV infections
COVID-19 and HIV
Funding For The Hiv Response In The Usa
Funding for the HIV response has increased significantly over the course of the epidemic. Primarily, this growth has been driven by increased spending on mandatory domestic care and treatment programmes, as more people are living with HIV in the USA, as well as by greater investments to combat HIV in low and middle-income countries.135
The USAs domestic HIV budget includes funding for HIV care, housing support, HIV prevention and research.136 In May 2017, President Trump released his first federal budget request for the 2018 financial year, which included an estimated US $32 billion for combined domestic and global HIV efforts. The proposal signalled a decrease in funding for HIV of US $834 million, or 2.5%. Most of the cuts were made to the USAs global spending for the HIV response . Domestic discretionary programmes faced a US $789 million or 10% reduction, although mandatory funding was set to increase.137 The budget was rejected by Congress and spending remained at levels similar to the 2017 financial year.138
President Trumps proposed budget for the 2019 financial year, submitted in February 2018, again suggested spending cuts. This includes cutting US $40 million from CDCs HIV prevention programme, and US $26 million from a federal housing programme for people living with AIDS. It also includes cutting global HIV programmes by US $1 billion.139 However, this was rejected by Congress.140
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Hiv Care & Viral Suppression
92% of people newly diagnosed with HIV in 2019 entered care within one month of their diagnosis .
Between January and June 2020, 77% of persons diagnosed were virally suppressed within six months .
Among all people living with HIV in San Francisco, 67% have their virus under control in 2020. . People who are virally suppressed have better health outcomes and do not transmit HIV to other people.
The proportions of persons with HIV who received care and were virally suppressed in 2019 were higher in San Francisco than in California and the U.S. .
Black/African Americans had a lower proportion of linkage to care and viral suppression. Trans women, persons aged 30-39 years, MSM-PWID, and persons experiencing homelessness at diagnosis had a lower proportion of viral suppression. .
Among persons diagnosed with AIDS in the years 2012-2019, survival probability at 36 months was lower among Black/African Americans and Whites compared to Latinx and Asians/ Pacific Islanders. .
Hiv And Sex Education
The status of sexual health education varies substantially throughout the USA and is insufficient in many areas. In most states, fewer than half of high schools teach all 16 topics CDC recommends for effective sex education. Many also argue that sex education is not starting early enough.71
The percentage of schools in which students are required to receive instruction on HIV prevention is decreasing, from 64% in 2000 to 41% in 2014.72
Conservative support for abstinence-only sex education has also been a major barrier to progress, and has been shown to be associated with increased HIV rates among adolescents.73
President Obama eliminated three-quarters of the budget for abstinence-only sex education in 2009, which had previously received the majority of funding.7475 However, funding for abstinence-only sex education began to rise again in the following years and stood at US $85 million in 2016.76
In February 2018, this was renewed for two more years at US $75 million annually under the new name of sexual risk avoidance education.77 As of 2019, 37 states require that information on abstinence be provided, 27 of which require for abstinence to be emphasised, with the 10 remaining states requiring that abstinence is covered. In contrast, only 12 states require discussion of sexual orientation. Of these, nine states require that discussion be inclusive.78
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