Implications For Hiv Care Providers
Review findings point to several important implications for HIV care providers. First, disclosure of CAM use to HIV care providers is clearly the first step toward ensuring patients’ safety. Providers are encouraged to regularly and systematically assess their patients’ use of CAM. At a minimum, providers should document the types, sources, and expected benefits of CAM, as well as the patients’ experiences with each type of CAM, including the duration and frequency of use and perceived effects of CAM. Second, providers who understand their patients’ reasons for using CAM may be in a better position to address the potential risks associated with CAM use . For example, CAM use and non-disclosure of CAM use may stem from mistrust of the healthcare system and, by proxy, the providers in it. Alternatively, CAM use may signal a desire for increased involvement in one’s healthcare, misperceptions concerning conventional treatment, or idiosyncratic health beliefs. In sum, assessment of CAM use gives clinicians a chance to provide accurate and unbiased information on CAM and to work collaboratively with CAM users to develop treatment plans that optimize adherence to prescribed treatments, satisfaction with care, and health outcomes.
What Are The Symptoms Of Hiv
The symptoms of HIV and AIDS vary, depending on the phase of infection.
When you first acquire HIV it may take a month or two before symptoms show and these may last a week or two. Even then these may easily be confused with another type of viral illness, such as the flu, or so mild as not to be noticed initially. Symptoms of an initial acute HIV infection may include:
- Muscle aches and joint pain
- Painful mouth sores
- Swollen lymph glands, mainly on the neck.
The infection is easily spread during this stage.
The next stage of HIV infection is called clinical latent infection. Generally, there are few signs or symptoms during this stage which may last approximately 10 years, although some people may develop persistent swelling of the lymph nodes or more severe disease sooner. HIV persists in the bloodstream and white blood cells.Infections start to become more common as the virus continues to multiply and destroy your immune cells. Signs and symptoms of symptomatic HIV infection include:
- Yeast infection
- Swollen lymph nodes.
If left untreated, HIV usually progresses to AIDS in about 10 years, although some people never develop AIDS despite never having treatment. A person is said to have AIDS when their CD4 count falls below 200 or when they develop certain opportunistic infections or cancers.
Understanding Hiv And Aids
Survival with HIV requires that you maintain regular and consistent treatment. Only around 65% of the 1.2 million Americans who have HIV are on treatment, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Of these, an estimated one in four will drop out of HIV-specific care, and only 56% will achieve the complete viral suppression that is needed to avoid disease progression.
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Ambush Plant And Hiv/aids
In any plant concoction such as percolated ‘tea’, there are 30-40,000 compounds, which would take the scientific community twenty years to isolate one particular ingredient if they knew what they were looking for. This plant has the properties necessary to reduce the HIV virus.
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Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors
Integrase inhibitors stop the action of integrase. Integrase is a viral enzyme that HIV uses to infect T cells by putting HIV DNA into the human DNA.
Integrase inhibitors are usually among the first HIV drugs used in people who have recently contracted HIV. This is because they work well and have minimal side effects.
The following drugs are integrase inhibitors:
- tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
As a stand-alone drug, tenofovir alafenamide fumarate has received full FDA approval to treat chronic hepatitis B but only tentative FDA approval to treat HIV. A person with HIV who takes tenofovir alafenamide fumarate will likely receive it as part of a combination HIV drug, not as a stand-alone drug.
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, emtricitabine, and lamivudine can treat hepatitis B as well.
Zidovudine was the first FDA-approved HIV drug. Its also known as azidothymidine or AZT. Zidovudine is rarely used in adults now. Its mainly given to babies born to HIV-positive mothers as a form of post-exposure prophylaxis .
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What Are The Types Of Hiv/aids Medicines
There are several different types of HIV/AIDS medicines. Some work by blocking or changing enzymes that HIV needs to make copies of itself. This prevents HIV from copying itself, which reduces the amount of HIV in the body. Several medicines do this:
- Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors block an enzyme called reverse transcriptase
- Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors bind to and later change reverse transcriptase
- Integrase inhibitors block an enzyme called integrase
- Protease inhibitors block an enzyme called protease
Some HIV/AIDS medicines interfere with HIV’s ability to infect CD4 immune system cells:
- Fusion inhibitors block HIV from entering the cells
- CCR5 antagonists and post-attachment inhibitors block different molecules on the CD4 cells. To infect a cell, HIV has to bind to two types of molecules on the cell’s surface. Blocking either of these molecules prevents HIV from entering the cells.
- Attachment inhibitors bind to a specific protein on the outer surface of HIV. This prevents HIV from entering the cell.
In some cases, people take more than one medicine:
- Pharmacokinetic enhancers boost the effectiveness of certain HIV/AIDS medicines. A pharmacokinetic enhancer slows the breakdown of the other medicine. This allows that medicine to stay in the body longer at a higher concentration.
- Multidrug combinations include a combination of two or more different HIV/AIDS medicines
Important Questions To Ask Your Doctor
Ask your doctor to tell you what you should know about your HIV medicines.
- What medicines am I taking to treat HIV?
- When should I take each medicine?
- Should I take my medicines with food?
- Which prescription medicines, herbs , over-the-counter medicines , or vitamins can affect my HIV medicines? Can my HIV medicines affect any of the other medicines I take?
- How should I store my HIV medicines? What about when I am away from home or go out of town?
- What are the side effects of the medicines I am taking?
- What should I do if I start having bad side effects?
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Multiclass Combination Drugs Or Single
The following combination drugs include both NRTIs and NNRTIs:
- doravirine, lamivudine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
- efavirenz, lamivudine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
- efavirenz, lamivudine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
- · efavirenz, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
- emtricitabine, rilpivirine, and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate
- emtricitabine, rilpivirine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
Symfi and Symfi Lo are made up of the same generic medications. However, Symfi Lo contains a smaller dose of efavirenz.
The following combination drugs include NRTIs, an INSTI, and the CYP3A inhibitor cobicistat:
- elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
- elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate
The following combination drugs include at least oneNRTI and an INSTI:
- abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine
- bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate
- dolutegravir and lamivudine
The following combination drug includes an NNRTI and an INSTI:
- dolutegravir and rilpivirine
The following combination drug includes NRTIs,a PI, and the CYP3A inhibitor cobicistat:
- darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide fumarate
Many HIV drugs can cause temporary side effects when first used. In general, these effects can include:
Nutritious Food For Increasing Immunity
Fresh vegetables, fruits, and lean protein, as well as whole grains are good sources of nutrition. Nutritious food helps in boosting strength, increasing immunity and providing high energy. You should resist the cravings for junk food especially while suffering from HIV as nutritious intake is very important.
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What Does Science Say
One theory is that garlic’s sulfur-containing amino acids stimulate the immune system and help fight infections. In 2016, The Journal of Nutrition published a study suggesting that helper T cells and natural killer cells may respond to garlic in the diet.
The study participants were adults aged 21 to 50 years, they were divided into two groups. During the cold and flu season, the first group took 2.56 grams of garlic extract daily for 90 days, and the second a placebo.
Then the scientists measured the activity of T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells in each participant, taking into account how much sick he was, according to his own data. The results indicate that regular intake of garlic can improve the functioning of immune cells.
Stimulating the immune system enables people with HIV to stay healthy. However, research does not confirm that eating garlic protects HIV carriers from infection.
The National Cancer Institute admits that garlic actually has some anti-cancer properties. Given that people with HIV are particularly susceptible to certain types of cancer, if their risk of getting sick can be reduced, the overall outlook will improve in some cases.
The authors of one systematic review conducted a meta-analysis of 14 studies on the effects of garlic on colon cancer. Based on their findings, consuming garlic does not reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. It is worth noting that there are no studies showing effects on the most common cancers in HIV.
Talk To A Healthcare Provider
Theres no cure for HIV yet, but prescription medications can help slow the progression of the virus. Drugs can also improve HIV symptoms and make living with the condition more comfortable.
This medication list is a brief overview of the types of drugs that are available to treat HIV. Talk to a healthcare provider about all of these options. They can help you determine your best treatment plan.
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How Does Antiretroviral Treatment Work
Without treatment HIV attacks the immune system – the part of your body that protects you from other infections. If people living with HIV dont take treatment they become more vulnerable to other illnesses.
ART stops HIV from making copies of itself. This keeps the amount of virus in your body low, protecting your immune system so youre less likely to get sick.
With good healthcare and treatment, people with HIV can expect to live as long as people who dont have HIV. You can continue to have relationships, to work or study, to make plans, to have a family whatever you would have done before your HIV diagnosis.
By keeping the amount of HIV in your body low, ART also reduces the risk of HIV being passed on. People living with HIV who take their treatment properly can achieve something called an undetectable viral load. This is when the amount of HIV in their body has been reduced to such low levels that it cant be passed on through sex. To know if you have an undetectable viral load, its important to attend regular appointments with your healthcare team to have your viral load measured this can tell you how effective your treatment is and how much HIV there is in your body.
Implications Of Cam Use For Conventional Hiv Care
While many HIV+ individuals use CAM to treat HIV symptoms and HAART side-effects, the extent to which these self-directed health care practices impact the success of conventional HIV care is largely unknown. In the following sections, research evaluating the relationship between CAM use and adherence to conventional treatment, attitudes toward conventional medicine, and disclosure of CAM use are reviewed.
HAART adherence and CAM use
Seven studies have evaluated the association between CAM use and adherence. Two studies identified an association between CAM use and treatment nonadherence. found that users of âLatino CAMâ were less likely to attend medical appointments and had lower rates of HAART adherence for past 3 days. In addition, users of plant-based remedies had lower rates of adherence to HAART . More recently, HIV+ women who reported using orally-administered CAM to treat their HIV were more likely to report missing at least one dose of their prescribed HIV medications in the past 30 days . The remaining studies found no differences in HAART adherence between CAM users and non-users .
Attitudes toward conventional medicine and the decision to use CAM
Non-disclosure of CAM use to conventional care providers
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Early Use Of Marijuana In Hiv
From the early-1980s to the mid-1990s, HIV was a major contributor to death and illness in the United States. Early generation HIV drugs were prone not only to premature failure, they often came with serious and sometimes debilitating side effects.
Moreover, people living with the disease were at high risk of illnesses we dont see as frequently these days, including Kaposis sarcoma , AIDS dementia, and the aforementioned HIV wasting syndrome.
It was, in fact, this last condition which first spurred support for the use of medical marijuana. Doctors, who at the time had few options for treatment, surmised that marijuanas appetite-stimulating properties could benefit those experiencing the profound, unexplained weight loss as a result of this still-mysterious condition.
Since laws in the mid-80s to early-90s forbade the use of marijuana in clinical settings, doctors began to prescribe the Schedule III drug , which contains a synthetic form of tetrahydrocannabinol , the active ingredient of cannabis.
While Marinol proved to be successful in alleviating many of the symptoms of HIV wasting, many still preferred the instant hit afforded from three to four puffs of a marijuana cigarette.
Changing Attitudes About Hiv
When someone is diagnosed with HIV, other people may have negative attitudes and beliefs about that person’s behaviour, lifestyle or circumstances in life. These negative associations form what’s called stigma, an experience that can decrease quality of life because it includes:
Efforts to end stigma will help to:
- prevent new infections
- ensure that people living with HIV receive the care, treatment and support they need
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Start Treatment As Soon As Possible After Diagnosis
- HIV medicine is recommended for all people with HIV, regardless of how long theyve had the virus or how healthy they are.
- Talk to your health care provider about any medical conditions you may have or any other medicines you are taking.
- Let your health care provider know if you or your partner is pregnant or thinking about getting pregnant. They will determine the right type of HIV medicine that can help prevent transmitting HIV to your baby.
What if I delay treatment?
- HIV will continue to harm your immune system.
- This will put you at higher risk for developing AIDS. Learn more about AIDS and opportunistic infections.
- This will put you at higher risk for transmitting HIV to your sexual and injection partners.
What are the benefits of taking my HIV medicine every day as prescribed?
Hiv Treatment Options: An Overview
If you are diagnosed with HIV infection, you will have many questions about treatment options, advantages, and side effects.
Today, it is well-known that early diagnosis, combined with advanced current treatments and regular medical follow-up, can significantly improve the health outcomes of patients living with HIV. In fact, many people with HIV who are treated appropriately, take their medications as directed, and are monitored closely can live close to a normal life-span.
Diagnosis and early treatment is still important even though HIV has become more of a chronic disease for many people. In 2018, the latest year that CDC data is available, the number of new HIV diagnoses in the United States was almost 38,000.
There is no cure or vaccine for HIV/AIDS yet, but research has greatly expanded since the 1980s. It’s important to know your status: HIV screening is recommended by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for patients between 13 and 64 years of age at least once in their lifetime. People should be notified that testing will be performed, but should be able to option to decline testing or do at a later date.
What is antiretroviral therapy ?
Antiretroviral drugs slow the growth and replication of HIV. ART works to lower the viral load, which is the amount of HIV in your blood.
How is ART given?
Most treatments for HIV and AIDS are given as a three medication regimen in combination .
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Dont Stress Or At Least Do What You Can To Lower Your Stress Levels
Reducing stress is an essential part of your treatment regimen because the chronic stress of living with HIV by itself can take a big toll on your overall health and well-being. Research has shown a link between stress and reduced immune system function. Stress can also interfere with your appetite, sleep patterns, and other aspects of your daily life. Some great ways to manage stress include yoga, meditation, exercise, and counseling or therapy. To get the best results, talk to your doctor before starting a new exercise program.
Hiv And Aids Medication
There is no cure for HIV and AIDS, but medicines can help. Many people with HIV live long and relatively healthy lives.
HIV damages your immune system by attacking blood cells that help fight infection.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is the condition that develops if HIV is not treated.
The medications used to fight HIV are called antiretrovirals. They work to stop the virus multiplying. This helps to protect your immune system from damage caused by HIV.
The medications used to treat HIV and AIDS may be similar.
If your immune system has already been damaged, treatment can help stop further damage and even allow the immune system to partly repair itself.
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