New Hiv Diagnoses In The Us And Dependent Areas By Race/ethnicity 2019
*Black refers to people having origins in any of the black racial groups of Africa. African American is a term often used for people of African descent with ancestry in North America.Hispanic/Latino people can be of any race.
The most affected subpopulation is Black/African American gay and bisexual men.
Young Women And Adolescent Girls
In the same year, 69,000 young women became HIV-positive, compared to 28,000 young men, meaning they are over three times more likely to acquire HIV than their male counterparts. The difference is particularly acute among 10 to 19-year-olds, with 33,000 adolescent girls becoming HIV-positive in 2018, compared to 4,200 adolescent boys.16
Intergenerational relationships between older men, a group with high HIV prevalence, and young women are understood to be driving a cycle of infections. The National Strategic HIV Plan has centred its approach to HIV prevention around interrupting this cycle.1718
CASE STUDY: Sugar daddies
Lebogang Motsumi was 27 when she acquired HIV from a ‘sugar daddy’ a significantly older man who showered her with gifts, which she believed she needed to fit in with her friends and feel more accepting of herself. She was reluctant to use a condom in case she was perceived as promiscuous by men and felt she was not in control of the situation when she was with her sexual partners.
Now a mother, Motsumi says she wishes she had received more information at home and at school about risky sexual behaviour, and is using her experience to advocate non-judgemental, face-to-face conversations with young people about relationships with older men.19
What Cdc Is Doing
CDC is pursuing a high-impact HIV prevention approach to maximize the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions and strategies. Funding state, territorial, and local health departments and community-based organizations to develop and implement tailored programs is CDCs largest investment in HIV prevention. This includes longstanding successful programs and new efforts funded through the Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S. initiative. In addition to funding health departments and CBOs, CDC is also strengthening the HIV prevention workforce and developing HIV communication resources for consumers and health care providers.
- Under the integrated HIV surveillance and prevention cooperative agreement, CDC awards around $400 million per year to health departments for HIV data collection and prevention efforts. This award directs resources to the populations and geographic areas of greatest need, while supporting core HIV surveillance and prevention efforts across the US.
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Social Determinants Of Health 2018*
Percent of Population with a High School Education, 2018 87.7%
Income Inequality , 2018 0.482
Percent of Population Living in Poverty, 2018 13.1%
Median Household Income, 2018 $61,937
Percent of Population Lacking Health Insurance, 2018 10.4%
Percent of Population Unemployed, 2018 3.9%
Percent of Population Living with Food Insecurity, 2016-2018 11.1%
Percent of Population Living in Unstable Housing, 2018 14.5%
Ai/an And Hiv Data Update
HIV is a public health issue among American Indian and Alaska Native people, who represent about 1.7% of the US population. Compared with other racial/ethnic groups, AI/AN ranked fifth in estimated rates of HIV infection diagnoses in 2016*, with lower rates than in blacks/African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Native Hawaiians/Other Pacific Islanders, and people reporting multiple races, but higher rates than in Asians and whites.
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Since 2017 Public Health England Has Published Data On Trans People Accessing Hiv Care And Those Newly Diagnosed With Hiv
- The majority of trans people accessing HIV care are trans women. In 2019, 111 trans women, 31 trans men and 7 gender diverse people were accessing HIV care in England.
- Trans people aged 35-49 are the largest group in terms of age.
- The majority of trans people accessing HIV care are white , with 47 trans people of other or mixed ethnicity making up the second largest group.
- Nearly all of the trans people accessing HIV care in 2019 acquired HIV through sex between men.
Global Hiv & Aids Statistics Fact Sheet
GLOBAL HIV STATISTICS
- 37.7 million people globally were living with HIV in 2020.
- 1.5 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2020.
- 680 000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2020.
- 27.5 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy in 2020.
- 79.3 million people have become infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic.
- 36.3 million people have died from AIDS-related illnesses since the start of the epidemic.
People living with HIV
- In 2020, there were 37.7 million people living with HIV.
- 36.0 million adults.
- 1.7 million children .
- 53% of all people living with HIV were women and girls.
People living with HIV accessing antiretroviral therapy
- At the end of December 2020, 27.5 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy, up from 7.8 million in 2010.
- In 2020, 73% of all people living with HIV were accessing treatment.
- 74% of adults aged 15 years and older living with HIV had access to treatment, as did 54% of children aged 014 years.
- 79% of female adults aged 15 years and older had access to treatment however, just 68% of male adults aged 15 years and older had access.
New HIV infections
COVID-19 and HIV
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Hiv/aids In The United States
|Rates of HIV Diagnoses in the US, 2017|
|New HIV Infections by Race and Transmission Group|
|HIV Diagnosis Trends in the U.S. and Dependent Areas, 20122016|
|The estimated number of U.S. HIV/AIDS Cases, in 2007 by transmission category|
The AIDS epidemic, caused by HIV , found its way to the United States as early as 1960, but was first noticed after doctors discovered clusters of Kaposi’s sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia in homosexual men in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco in 1981. Treatment of HIV/AIDS is primarily via a “drug cocktail” of antiretroviral drugs, and education programs to help people avoid infection.
Initially, infected foreign nationals were turned back at the U.S. border to help prevent additional infections. The number of U.S. deaths from AIDS has declined sharply since the early years of the disease’s presentation domestically. In the United States in 2016, 1.1 million people aged over 13 lived with an HIV infection, of whom 14% were unaware of their infection.Gay and bisexual men, African Americans, and Latinos remain disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the U.S.
Civil Society’s Role In South Africa
In March 2015 an estimated 136,453 civil society organisations were working in the South African HIV response. In 2017 a new civil society forum was created to provide a platform for civil society and government to work together in the HIV response. 116
One of the most visible civil societies is the Treatment Action Campaign , formed in 1998. TAC has been a driving force in the South African response, promoting access to HIV treatment and care for all South Africans. TACs first major success came in 2002, with the Constitutional Court ruling that the South African government must provide ARVs to prevent mother-to child-transmission.117 The organisation is currently campaigning to improve and strengthen the healthcare system.118
Funding is a major issue facing many civil society organisations. Drops in external funding are making civil society organisations more dependent on financing from the government. While domestic funding is a more sustainable model, the shift has increased competition amongst organisations, and is seen by some as undermining their ability to challenge government policy in their work.119
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Activism By Aids Patients And Families
Also in 1982, Michael Callen and Richard Berkowitz published How to Have Sex in an Epidemic: One Approach. In this short work, they described ways gay men could be sexual and affectionate while dramatically reducing the risk of contracting or spreading HIV. Both authors were themselves gay men living with AIDS. This booklet was one of the first times men were advised to use condoms when having sexual relations with other men.
At the beginning of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, there was very little information about the disease. Also, because AIDS affected stigmatized groups, such as LGBTQ and people of low socioeconomic status, there wasn’t much mass media coverage initially when the epidemic started. However, with the rise of activist groups composed of people suffering from AIDS, either directly or through a loved one, more public attention was brought to the epidemic.
Condom Use And Distribution
In the most recent NSP, the South African National AIDs Council aimed to increase the number of male condoms distributed annually to 850 million by 2018.83 However, between 2016/17 and 2017/18 the number of male condoms distributed by the government decreased by more than 220 million.84
South Africas female condom programme is also one of the biggest and most established in the world, with over 26 million female condoms distributed in 2016.85 By 2022, the South African National AIDS Council hopes to increase this to 40 million.86
In regards to condom use, South Africas 2017 national HIV impact survey found around 56% of adults with two or more sexual partners in the last year reported using a condom the last time they had sex. Men and women aged between 25 and 49 had similar levels of condom use, at around 53%. Among young people , 68% of young men with multiple partners reported using a condom the last time they had sex, compared to 47% of young women. In contrast, only 33% of older adults with multiple partners used condoms at last sex.87
Challenges remain in ensuring that condom programmes are able to serve all groups, particularly those with higher HIV risk. The new strategy will expand condom distribution, making them available at non-traditional outlets such as hair salons, petrol stations, shops, hotels, truck stops and brothels as well as secondary schools and non-traditional community settings.88
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Hiv Statistics By State
Human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, is a virus that weakens a persons immune system by attacking cells that fight off infection, specifically a persons CD4 cells. HIV is spread through body fluids such as blood. If HIV goes untreated and advances, it can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS.
Unlike most other viruses, when a person contracts HIV, they have it for life because the human body cannot fight off the virus entirely. HIV, however, can be controlled and its progression can be slowed significantly. There are three stages of HIV:
Groups Most Affected By Hiv In Nigeria
Nigeria has a mixed epidemic, meaning that while HIV prevalence among the general population is high, certain groups still carry a far greater HIV burden compared to the rest of the population. In Nigeria, , and make up only 3.4% of the population, yet account for around 32% of new HIV infections.11
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Hiv And Aids In Nigeria
- Nigeria has the second largest HIV epidemic in the world and one of the highest rates of new infection in sub-Saharan Africa.
- Many people living with HIV in Nigeria are unaware of their status. Nigeria continues to fall short of providing the recommended number of HIV testing and counselling sites.
- Low levels of access to antiretroviral treatment remains an issue for people living with HIV, meaning that there are still many AIDS-related deaths in Nigeria.
- Punitive laws against homosexuality mean that men who have sex with men face difficulties accessing HIV services.
- Nigeria also has the fourth largest tuberculosis epidemic in the world, with HIV and TB co-infection now becoming an increasing concern for people living with HIV.
Nigeria has the second largest HIV epidemic in the world.1 Although HIV prevalence among adults is much less than other sub-Saharan African countries such as and , the size of Nigeria’s population means 1.8 million people were living with HIV in 2019.2 Recent drops in prevalence estimates for the country has been attributed to better surveillance.3
Unprotected heterosexual sex accounts for 80% of new HIV infections in Nigeria, with the majority of remaining HIV infections occurring in key affected populations such as sex workers.6
Hiv In The United States
Currently, in the United States, over 1.1 million Americans are living with HIV. After years of stagnation in the annual infection rate, which hovered at around 50,000 new infections per year, the rate has begun to steadily drop in recent years due to newer preventive strategies like PrEP and HIV treatment as prevention, the latter of which can reduce the risk of HIV transmission to zero.
According to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , 37,968 new HIV infections were reported in the 2019 surveillancea drop of nearly 8% since 2010.
Despite these gains, around 15,800 people with HIV died in the United States in 2019, and as many as 14% of those infected remain unaware of their status. Of those who have been diagnosed, only 63% are linked to medical care, and only 51% are unable to achieve an undetectable viral load needed to ensure a normal to near-normal life expectancy.
HIV stigma and a lack of access to medical care, particularly among the poor and communities of color, are among the driving factors for these failures.
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Preventing The Transmission Of Hiv
Its important for people especially those who have a high risk of contracting HIV to be tested frequently. Starting HIV treatment early is important for best outcomes. Approximately 44 percent of people ages 18 to 64 in the United States have reported receiving an HIV test. HIV education is mandatory in 34 states and in Washington, D.C.
From a public health perspective, preventing transmission of HIV is as important as treating those who have it. There has been remarkable progress in that regard. For example, modern-day antiretroviral therapy can reduce the chances of an HIV-positive person transmitting the virus by 100 percent, if the therapy is taken consistently to reduce virus to an undetectable level in the blood.
There has been a sharp decline in transmission rates in the United States since the mid-1980s. While men who have sex with men represent only 4 percent of the male population in this country, they comprise around 70 percent of those who newly contracted HIV.
Condom use remains an inexpensive, cost-effective first line of defense against HIV. A pill known as Truvada, or pre-exposure prophylaxis , also offers protection. A person without HIV can protect themselves from contracting the virus by taking this once-a-day pill. When taken properly, PrEP can reduce the risk of transmission by more than
Of that amount, $6.6 billion is for aid abroad. This expenditure represents less than 1 percent of the federal budget.
Hiv Care & Viral Suppression
92% of people newly diagnosed with HIV in 2019 entered care within one month of their diagnosis .
Between January and June 2020, 77% of persons diagnosed were virally suppressed within six months .
Among all people living with HIV in San Francisco, 67% have their virus under control in 2020. . People who are virally suppressed have better health outcomes and do not transmit HIV to other people.
The proportions of persons with HIV who received care and were virally suppressed in 2019 were higher in San Francisco than in California and the U.S. .
Black/African Americans had a lower proportion of linkage to care and viral suppression. Trans women, persons aged 30-39 years, MSM-PWID, and persons experiencing homelessness at diagnosis had a lower proportion of viral suppression. .
Among persons diagnosed with AIDS in the years 2012-2019, survival probability at 36 months was lower among Black/African Americans and Whites compared to Latinx and Asians/ Pacific Islanders. .
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Hiv Deaths In The United States
In the United States, no less than 675,000 Americans have died since the first cases were diagnosed back in 1981. In 2018, approximately 1.2 million Americans were estimated to be living with the disease. From 2014 to 2018, HIV diagnoses decreased by about 7%, but that number varied depending on the region.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , there were 15,820 deaths in people with HIV in the United States in 2018.That’s a significant decrease from the over 50,000 deaths reported at the height of the epidemic in 1995.
Despite the advances, there remains a clear disparity in the populations affected by the disease in the United State. Among some the key risk factors affecting mortality rates are geography, sexuality, and race.
Funding For The Hiv Response In The Usa
Funding for the HIV response has increased significantly over the course of the epidemic. Primarily, this growth has been driven by increased spending on mandatory domestic care and treatment programmes, as more people are living with HIV in the USA, as well as by greater investments to combat HIV in low and middle-income countries.135
The USAs domestic HIV budget includes funding for HIV care, housing support, HIV prevention and research.136 In May 2017, President Trump released his first federal budget request for the 2018 financial year, which included an estimated US $32 billion for combined domestic and global HIV efforts. The proposal signalled a decrease in funding for HIV of US $834 million, or 2.5%. Most of the cuts were made to the USAs global spending for the HIV response . Domestic discretionary programmes faced a US $789 million or 10% reduction, although mandatory funding was set to increase.137 The budget was rejected by Congress and spending remained at levels similar to the 2017 financial year.138
President Trumps proposed budget for the 2019 financial year, submitted in February 2018, again suggested spending cuts. This includes cutting US $40 million from CDCs HIV prevention programme, and US $26 million from a federal housing programme for people living with AIDS. It also includes cutting global HIV programmes by US $1 billion.139 However, this was rejected by Congress.140
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