Thursday, May 19, 2022

What Type Of Pathogen Is Hiv

Strategies For Preventing The Transmission Of Hiv

Bloodborne Pathogens HIV Hepatitis and Standard Precautions
  • Abstain from sexual activity.

  • Use a latex condom for each act of intercourse with an infected partner or a partner whose HIV status is unknown .

  • For men engaging in oral sex, withdraw before ejaculation.

  • For men, get circumcised .

  • For newly monogamous couples, get tested for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases before engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse.

  • Never share needles or syringes.

  • Wear rubber gloves when touching body fluids of another person .

  • If accidentally exposed to fluids containing HIV , seek treatment with antiretroviral drugs to prevent infection.

Condoms made of latex provide good protection against HIV , but they are not foolproof. Oil-based lubricants should not be used because they may dissolve latex, reducing the condom’s effectiveness.

Other measures can help. For men, circumcision, an inexpensive, safe procedure, reduces the risk of becoming infected during vaginal intercourse with an infected woman by about half. Whether circumcision reduces the risk of HIV infection in other circumstances is unclear. Because circumcision provides only partial protection against HIV infection, people should also use other measures to prevent HIV infection. For example, if either partner has a sexually transmitted disease or HIV infection, it should be treated, and condoms should be used correctly and consistently.

How Can You Tell If You Have Hiv

The only way to know for sure if you have HIV is to get tested. You cant rely on symptoms to tell whether you have HIV.

Knowing your HIV status gives you powerful information so you can take steps to keep yourself and your partner healthy:

  • If you test positive, you can take medicine to treat HIV. By taking HIV medicine daily as prescribed, you can make the amount of HIV in your blood very lowso low that a test cant detect it . Getting and keeping an undetectable viral load is the best thing you can do to stay healthy. If your viral load stays undetectable, you have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.
  • If you test negative, there are more HIV prevention tools available today than ever before.
  • If you are pregnant, you should be tested for HIV so that you can begin treatment if you’re HIV-positive. If an HIV-positive woman is treated for HIV early in her pregnancy, the risk of transmitting HIV to her baby can be very low.

Use the HIV Services Locator to find an HIV testing site near you.

HIV self-testing is also an option. Self-testing allows people to take an HIV test and find out their result in their own home or other private location. You can buy a self-test kit at a pharmacy or online, or your health care provider may be able to order one for you. Some health departments or community-based organizations also provide self-test kits for free.

What Conditions Are Considered To Be Opportunistic

Some of the most common of these OIs/cancers among HIV-positive people include:

Cancer: The types of cancers that are you are more likely to get if you have AIDs include lymphoma, Kaposis sarcoma, invasive cervical cancer, anal cancer, liver cancer, and cancers of the mouth, throat and lungs.

Candidiasis : This condition is caused by Candida fungus. It can happen in the skin, nails and mucous membranes throughout the body, such as the mouth or the vagina. The cases can be troublesome, but thrush is especially dangerous when it affects the esophagus or parts of the respiratory system .

Pneumonia: This respiratory condition is most commonly caused by _Pneumocystis jirovecii and the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae._

Salmonella: This infection is spread through contaminated food and water. It causes diarrhea, vomiting and nausea.

Toxoplasmosis: This disease is caused by a parasites that live in cats and rodents and other warm-blooded animals. The infection is spread through the feces. Toxoplasmosis can cause severe problems in the lungs, heart, brain and other organs. If you have a cat, wear gloves to change the litter and be thorough in washing your hands.

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What Are The Symptoms Of The Disease

Six days to six weeks after infection, in some infected people, the virus initially causes fever, lymph node swelling, skin rash, difficulty swallowing and sometimes diarrhoea. These early symptoms last for one to two weeks and are usually mild. After this phase, specific antibodies against HIV can be detected in the body for the first time, even if the affected person does not yet notice the infection.The symptom-free stage can last for months or years. The individual course of the disease varies greatly. However, all patients suffer from a pronounced and irreversible disorder of the immune system. The most severe and often life-threatening manifestations of the disease are called acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS for short. Approximately 70% of all patients develop a severe immunodeficiency with life-threatening infections eight to ten years after infection if the disease is not diagnosed and treated in time.

What Are The Three Types Of Bloodborne Pathogens

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4.9/5Human immunodeficiency virushepatitis B virushepatitis C virusexplained here

There are 26 different viruses that have been shown to present in healthcare workers as a result of occupational exposure. The most common bloodborne diseases are hepatitis B , hepatitis C , and human immunodeficiency virus .

Secondly, what are the three types of bloodborne pathogens of concern to school employees? BLOODBORNE DISEASESBloodborne pathogens are microorganisms carried by human blood and other body fluids. The two most common are the hepatitis B virus , hepatitis C and the human immunodeficiency virus .

One may also ask, what type of germ is a bloodborne pathogen?

Germs that can cause long-lasting infection in human blood and disease in humans are called bloodborne pathogens. The most common and dangerous germs spread through blood in the hospital are: Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus . These viruses cause infections and liver damage.

How are bloodborne pathogens transmitted?

Bloodborne Pathogens can be transmitted when blood or body fluid from an infected person enters another person’s body via needle-sticks, human bites, cuts, abrasions, or through mucous membranes.

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Initial Description And Early Spread

In the United States, HIV disease was first described in 1981 among 2 groups, one in San Francisco and the other in New York City. Numerous young homosexual men presented with opportunistic infections that, at the time, were typically associated with severe immune deficiency: Pneumocystis pneumonia and aggressive Kaposi sarcoma.

HIV itself was not identified for another 2 years. During that time, various other causes were considered, including lifestyle factors, chronic drug abuse, and other infectious agents. The HIV epidemic spread rapidly and silently in the absence of testing.

However, clear clinical implications arose before society became aware of the disease for example, prior to the recognition of HIV, only one case of Pneumocystis pneumonia not clearly associated with immune suppression was diagnosed in the United States between January 1976 and June 1980. In 1981 alone, 42 similar diagnoses were made, and by December 1994, 127,626 cases of Pneumocystis pneumonia with HIV infection as the only identified cause of immune suppression had been reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . Also, Kaposi sarcoma is up to 30,000 times more likely to develop in persons with HIV infection than in immunocompetent persons.

Preventing Transmission From Mother To Newborn

Pregnant women infected with HIV can transmit the virus to the newborn.

The following can help prevent HIV transmission from mother to newborn Prevention of transmission for infected mothers Human immunodeficiency virus infection is a viral infection that progressively destroys certain white blood cells and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome . Human immunodeficiency… read more :

  • Testing pregnant women to determine whether they are infected with HIV

  • If they are infected, treating them with antiretroviral drugs during pregnancy and labor

  • Delivering the baby by cesarean rather than by vaginal delivery

  • After birth, treating the newborn with zidovudine, given intravenously, for 6 weeks

  • If possible, using formula instead of breastfeeding

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What Behaviors Are The Most Risky For Getting Or Transmitting Hiv

Since there is a fairly high number of people who have HIV and dont know it, you should be tested for HIV so you know your status. Being intoxicated is risky because you are more likely to engage in risky sex if you are drunk or high. In terms of sex acts, anal sex and vaginal intercourse are the most risky behaviors.

How Are Hiv And Aids Treated

Pathogens & Infectious Disease: HIV, Cholera, Malaria, TB, APES Unit 8

Medicines can help people with HIV stay healthy. They can also prevent HIV from progressing to AIDS.

Health care providers prescribe a combination of different medicines for people with HIV and AIDS. They must be taken exactly as prescribed or they won’t work. These medicines:

  • help keep the number of CD4 cells high
  • reduce the viral load of HIV

Regular blood tests will check the number of CD4 cells in the body and the viral load.

If an HIV-positive person’s CD4 count gets low, doctors prescribe daily antibiotics. This prevents pneumocystis pneumonia, which happens in people with weakened immune systems.

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The Biologic Basis For Aids

The specific details of the disease process that leads to AIDS are not fully understood despite considerable progress in the virology of HIV and the immunology of the human host, much of which has been driven by the urge to better understand AIDS.

There is a specific decline in the CD4+ helper T cells, resulting in inversion of the normal CD4/CD8 T-cell ratio and dysregulation of B-cell antibody production. Immune responses to certain antigens begin to decline, and the host fails to adequately respond to opportunistic infections and normally harmless commensal organisms. Because the defect preferentially affects cellular immunity, the infections tend to be nonbacterial .

The pattern of opportunistic infections in a geographic region reflects the pathogens that are common in that area. For example, persons with AIDS in the United States tend to present with commensal organisms such as Pneumocystis and Candida species, homosexual men are more likely to develop Kaposi sarcoma because of co-infection with HHV8, and tuberculosis is common in developing countries.

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue plays a role in HIV replication. Although the portal of entry for HIV infection is typically through direct blood inoculation or exposure of the virus to genital mucosal surfaces, the GI tract contains a large amount of lymphoid tissue, making this an ideal site for HIV replication.

Is There A Vaccine For Hiv

Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent or treat HIV. Research and testing on experimental vaccines are ongoing, but none are close to being approved for general use.

HIV is a complicated virus. It mutates rapidly and is often able to fend off immune system responses. Only a small number of people who have HIV develop broadly neutralizing antibodies, the kind of antibodies that can respond to a range of HIV strains.

The first HIV vaccine efficacy study in 7 years was underway in South Africa in 2016. The experimental vaccine is an updated version of one used in a 2009 trial that took place in Thailand.

A 3.5-year follow-up after vaccination showed the vaccine was 31.2 percent effective in preventing HIV transmission.

The study involves 5,400 men and women from South Africa. In 2016 in South Africa, about contracted HIV. The results of the study are expected in 2021.

Other late-stage, multinational vaccine clinical trials are also currently underway.

Other research into an HIV vaccine is also ongoing.

While theres still no vaccine to prevent HIV, people with HIV can benefit from other vaccines to prevent HIV-related illnesses. Here are the CDC recommendations:

  • pneumonia:

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Emergency Hiv Pills: Pep

72 hours should speak with a healthcare provider about PEP. This medication may be able to stop the infection, especially if a person takes it as soon as possible after the potential exposure.

A person takes PEP for 28 days, and a doctor monitors the person for HIV afterward. PEP is not 100% effective, so it is important to use prevention techniques, such as barrier protection and safe injection practices, including while taking PEP.

Why Does The Immune System Fail To Fight The Hiv Virus

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There are various reasons which can contribute to the failure of the immune system to control HIV infection and prevent AIDS development. By infecting CD4+ T cells, HIV is able to replicate predominantly in activated T cells and paralyse one of the main components of adaptive immune system. HIV can also establish latent infection in CD4+ T cells and remain invisible to CD8+ T cells and therefore replication can occur later in the infection and generate new virions. Antigenic mutation within the T-cell epitopes can affect the binding capacity of MHC molecules to the viral peptides, resulting in the inability of the TCRs to recognise the MHC-peptide complex. Finally, HIV is able to hide from anti-HIV antibodies by expressing non-immunogenic glycans on key antibody epitopes.

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Using Safe Injection Practices

Intravenous drug use is a key means of HIV transmission. Sharing needles and other drug equipment can expose a person to HIV and other viruses, such as hepatitis C.

Anyone who injects any drug should do so with a clean, unused needle.

Needle exchange and addiction recovery programs can help reduce the prevalence of HIV.

How Do People Get Hiv

You can get HIV when body fluids from an infected person enter your bloodstream. Body fluids are blood, semen, vaginal fluids, fluids from the anus, and breast milk.

The virus can enter the blood through linings in the mouth, anus, or sex organs , or through broken skin. Both men and women can spread HIV.

You can have HIV and feel okay and still give the virus to others. Pregnant women with HIV can also give the virus to their babies.

The most common ways that people get HIV are having sex with an infected person and sharing a needle to take drugs.

You cannot get HIV from:

  • Touching or hugging someone who has HIV/AIDS.
  • Public bathrooms or swimming pools.
  • Sharing cups, utensils, or telephones with someone who has HIV/AIDS.
  • Bug bites.
  • Donating blood.

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Simplified Life Cycle Of The Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Like all viruses, human immunodeficiency virus reproduces using the genetic machinery of the cell it infects, usually a CD4+ lymphocyte.

  • HIV first attaches to and penetrates its target cell.

  • HIV releases RNA, the genetic code of the virus, into the cell. For the virus to replicate, its RNA must be converted to DNA. The RNA is converted by an enzyme called reverse transcriptase . HIV mutates easily at this point because reverse transcriptase is prone to errors during the conversion of viral RNA to DNA.

  • The viral DNA enters the cells nucleus.

  • With the help of an enzyme called integrase , the viral DNA becomes integrated with the cells DNA.

  • The DNA of the infected cell now produces viral RNA as well as proteins that are needed to assemble a new HIV.

  • A new virus is assembled from RNA and short pieces of protein.

  • The virus pushes through the membrane of the cell, wrapping itself in a fragment of the cell membrane and pinching off from the infected cell.

  • To be able to infect other cells, the budded virus must mature. It becomes mature when another HIV enzyme cuts structural proteins in the virus, causing them to rearrange.

Drugs used to treat HIV infection were developed based on the life cycle of HIV. These drugs inhibit the three enzymes that the virus uses to replicate or to attach to and enter cells.

HIV also infects other cells, such as cells in the skin, brain, genital tract, heart, and kidneys, causing disease in those organs.

Rash Related To Medication

Science – GCSE- Biology – Aqa- Infection and Response: The Four Pathogen Types

While rash can be caused by HIV co-infections, it can also be caused by medication. Some drugs used to treat HIV or other conditions can cause a rash.

This type of rash usually appears within a week or 2 weeks of starting a new medication. Sometimes the rash will clear up on its own. If it doesnt, a change in medications may be needed.

Rash due to an allergic reaction to medication can be serious.

Other symptoms of an allergic reaction include:

  • trouble breathing or swallowing
  • dizziness
  • fever

Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a rare allergic reaction to HIV medication. Symptoms include fever and swelling of the face and tongue. A blistering rash, which can involve the skin and mucous membranes, appears and spreads quickly.

When 30 percent of the skin is affected, its called toxic epidermal necrolysis, which is a life threatening condition. If this develops, emergency medical care is needed.

While rash can be linked with HIV or HIV medications, its important to keep in mind that rashes are common and can have many other causes.

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Section Iv Stability And Viability

DRUG SUSCEPTIBILITY: Antiretroviral agents from 5 drug classes are currently available to treat HIV infection, namely: the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors , nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors , non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors , proteinase inhibitors , and fusion inhibitorsFootnote 10Footnote 15.

SUSCEPTIBILITY TO DISINFECTANTS: HIV is susceptible to fresh 2% glutaraldehyde, 2% Jodopax , hypochlorite, iodine, phenolics, and to a lesser extent 70% ethanol, NaOH and isopropanolFootnote 7Footnote 9Footnote 18.

PHYSICAL INACTIVATION: HIV is inactivated by ultraviolet light however, the level of the inactivation is heavily influenced by the proximity of the UV source to the sample and the concentration of protein in the sample environment. HIV is easily inactivated in a cell free medium however, in cell associated samples and blood samples complete inactivation requires much longer exposures to the UV sourceFootnote 7. HIV is also inactivated at pH higher or lower than the optimal level of 7.1Footnote 18. A temperature of 60°C for 30 minutes will likely inactivate HIV however, higher temperatures and incubations may be required depending on the initial titre of the virusFootnote 18.

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