How Soon After Exposure To Hiv Can An Hiv Test Detect If You Are Infected
No HIV test can detect HIV immediately after infection. If you think youve been exposed to HIV, in the last 72 hours, talk to your health care provider about post-exposure prophylaxis , right away.
The time between when a person gets HIV and when a test can accurately detect it is called the window period. The window period varies from person to person and also depends upon the type of HIV test.
Challenges In Hiv Testing
4.3.1 HIV Testing in the “window period”
The window period is the time after acquisition of HIV infection when the individual is highly infectious but tests negative on HIV antibody screening because antibodies are not immediately produced. As shown in Figure 4, the timelines associated with the window period have changed with the evolution of more sensitive antibody screening tests. While 1st generation tests detected HIV antibody an average of 60 days following exposure the 4th generation combination tests permit detection of acute HIV infection during the viremic phase. This reduces the window period to approximately 15 to 20 days. Making the diagnosis as early as possible can help prevent onward transmission of the virus, since the person is most infectious during this period. Some jurisdictions provide NAAT testing for high-risk clients , in an effort to identify very early HIV infection.
4.3.2 Indeterminate results during the window period
4.3.3 Confirmatory Testing
The Western Blot assay is not as sensitive as the 3rd and 4th generation screening tests and may yield indeterminate results during the window period. New algorithms employing NAAT as a confirmatory test are currently being evaluated.
Figure 5: Antigen/Antibody detection periods
Figure 5 is a detailed diagram showing the days elapsed, from zero to 360, since the start of HIV infection. The diagram is divided into a sliding scale of four time periods:
4.3.4 Genetic diversity of HIV
Where Can I Go For Hiv Testing
You can get tested for HIV and other STDs at your doctors office, a community health clinic, the health department, or your local Planned Parenthood health center. You might want to get your HIV test at a place that also has HIV counseling .
You can either get an anonymous” or “confidential HIV test, depending on the laws in the state that you live in. Confidential” testing means your name is on the test, and the results go in your medical records. Your doctors and insurance company may also see the results. If you test positive, your results are sent to your local health department so they know the rates of HIV in your area. But your results are protected by privacy laws, so nobody else can see them without your permission.
“Anonymous” testing means your name isnt on the test. Youll get an ID number that youll use to find out your results. Your results wont go in your medical records, and they wont be sent to your insurance company or the health department youre the only one who will know them.
STD testing, including HIV testing, isnt usually automatically part of your regular checkup or gynecologist exam you have to ask for it directly. Be honest with your nurse or doctor so they can help you figure out what tests are best for you. Dont be embarrassed: your doctor is there to help, not to judge.
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Introduction And Guiding Principles
A request was made by the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Committee on AIDS for the Public Health Agency of Canada to develop guidelines on HIV testing that reflect the realities facing care providers and their clients, as well as advances in HIV testing policy and practice. To inform the development of this guide, the Agency commissioned a literature review and consultations with key stakeholders, including people living with HIV/AIDS and other affected populations, academics, nurses, physicians, professional associations, non-governmental organizations, policy-makers, community workers, and legal and ethical experts. As a result, the recommendations outlined in the guide are based on the most up-to-date evidence and expert opinion.
There May Not Be Words Great Enough
to express the emotions you feel when experiencing symptoms similar to a sexually transmitted disease. Unfortunately, you cant just blink away experiences like this.
Getting tested and receiving treatment are the only way to ensure the success of your health. Knowing for certain whether you have an STD or not increases your chance of successful treatment and achieving a healthier lifestyle.
You are probably aware of the vast variety of testing options available. One option that has probably caught your attention is free STD testing. Being able to avoid paying for services you want to avoid in the first place can sound quite appealing, but you should be aware that most free STD testing options do not always provide a secure and enjoyable experience.
You may not have to stress about financially investing in your health, but you may have to stress over the time you could spend in a clinic or waiting to receive your test results. Not to mention all the waiting and stressing could result in misdiagnosed results due to testing methods that are inaccurate.
Rapid STD Testing started with the needs of our patients in mind. We know that cost effective testing is important to you however, it shouldnt be at the detriment of your health.
At Rapid STD Testing we strive to provide the best experience for our patients easing their worries and helping them on their journey to recovery, without destroying their self-respect.
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Who Should Get Tested
Everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 should get tested at least once in their life, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention .
Some people have a higher risk of contracting HIV, according to HIV.gov. Even if youve had a past test, its recommended to get retested if you answer yes to any of the following questions since your last test:
- Are you a male who has had sex with another male?
- Have you had sex anal or vaginal with an HIV-positive partner?
- Have you had more than one sexual partner?
- Have you injected drugs and shared needles or works with others?
- Have you received a diagnosis of or treatment for another STI?
- Have you received a diagnosis of or treatment for hepatitis or tuberculosis?
- Have you had sex with someone who could answer yes to any of the above questions, or someone whose sexual history you dont know?
Where To Access Testing Services
Standard HIV testing can generally be accessed through any health provider across the country. Each province is responsible for licensing the laboratories that provide HIV screening and confirmatory testing in its jurisdiction. In general, all provincial Public Health Laboratories provide both screening and confirmatory testing. Reference and specialized services, when required, are provided by the National HIV Reference Serology Laboratory after consultation with the provincial laboratory. It is advisable to contact your testing laboratory to confirm the specimen collection details.
Anonymous or POC testing locations can be found by calling a local HIV/AIDS hotline .
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Free Delivered To Your Home
By participating in the Im Ready national research program, you can get free HIV self-testing kits delivered to your home! The program provides support with testing through telehealth, and connection to care and treatment. And by answering the surveys, you will help improve HIV testing and care in Canada.
Who Will Know The Results Of My Testing
It depends on where you get your testing. Testing sites have different privacy rules. Ask about privacy rules at your testing site so you understand whether anyone else will know you got tested or see your results.
If you go to an anonymous test site, only you know the results. No written record of the test result is kept.
If you go to a confidential test site, the results will go in your medical record. Positive results are sent to the state or local health department. Your insurance company will have access to your results. Depending on the state you live in, your parent or guardian may be contacted.
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How Do The Tests Work
Most HIV tests use a blood sample, either from a blood draw or finger prick. Others use saliva , but this is a little less accurate than blood tests.
Some HIV tests look for the virus itself. But most look for the antibodies for HIV. Antibodies are part of the immune system and fight infections. When someone is infected with HIV, the body creates antibodies to fight HIV.
Testing results may be available that day or can take longer come back.
Federally Funded Std Testing
According to the Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance, the Department of Health and Human Services offers control grants for preventative health services for sexually transmitted diseases via the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention . This funding may be applied for by an eligible state or authorized subdivision including American Indian/Alaska Native tribal governments or tribal organizations located wholly or in part within their boundaries, academic institutions, and public health organizations. In 2016 and 2017, the allotted assistance to cooperative agreements is estimated to be approximately $98,904,456 for each year.
These grants for STD testing and preventative care are given to places like state health organizations and clinics, which in turn are able to offer free or low-cost STD testing services.
Sexually transmitted infections and diseases cost the government a lot of money every year. In fact, a 2013 report from the National Institutes of Health found that the diagnosis and treatment of chlamydia alone in 2008 in the United States cost more than $516,000,000, and that gonorrhea cost more than $162,000,000 in the same year.
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Appendix D: Natural History Of Hiv Infection
Human immunodeficiency virus is a retrovirus that infects the cells of the immune system. It is transmitted via exposure to body fluids that contain lymphocytes or free infectious viral particles . The routes of infection are: unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing of injection-drug use equipment and from an HIV-infected mother to her unborn child. Although rare, HIV can also be transmitted through an occupational exposure such as a needlestick injury or other event where blood to blood exposure could occur. All blood and blood products used in Canadian healthcare settings now undergo extensive screening for HIV prior to use, so new infections related to their use have been virtually eliminated .
The virus can enter the body through unprotected mucous membranes where cells may become infected with HIV . The presence of a sexually transmitted infection can enhance HIV transmission because of lesions and/or an increased number of lymphocytes. Using a needle contaminated with HIV-infected blood deposits the virus directly into the blood system, where infection of lymphocytes will occur. Transmission from mother to child can take place in utero, during delivery through exposure to the mother’s blood or vaginal secretions, and through breast milk . Seroconversion occurs when an individual changes from being HIV antibody negative to HIV antibody positive.
Other Factors Influencing Hiv Transmission Risk
Within each route of transmission, estimates of the risk of transmission vary widely, likely due to the role of behavioural and biological co-factors. Viral load appears to be an important predictor of transmission, regardless of route of transmission. However, the evidence indicates that viral load is not the only determinant, and other co-factors, such as the presence of co-infections, play a role in increasing or decreasing the risk of transmission.
The strongest predictor of sexual transmission of HIV is plasma viral load . A dose-response relationship has been observed, where each ten-fold increase in plasma VL resulted in an increased relative risk of transmission of 2.5 to 2.9 per sexual contact. The concentration of HIV in genital secretions also plays a major role in sexual transmission. While there is a strong correlation between HIV concentrations in plasma and in genital secretions, some studies have found genital tract HIV shedding in 20% to 30% of men and women without detectable plasma viral load. Much of what is known about the impact of viral load on the sexual transmission of HIV is derived from studies of heterosexual populations. Very little is known about the relationship between HIV viral load and rate of transmission through anal intercourse.
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How Can I Get Tested
To get tested, you can:
- Ask your doctor to test you.
- Go to a local clinic or community health center.
- Go to National HIV and STD Testing Resources to find a testing center near you.
- Buy a test at a pharmacy and do the test at home.
Many testing centers will do an HIV test for free. Ask if there is a fee before you go for testing. In most states you do not need a parent’s permission to get tested for HIV. And you can buy the test at the pharmacy without a parent.
Other Specialized Hiv Care
Casey House is a hospital providing both compassionate in-patient health care and community programming for people with HIV/AIDS.
Casey House provides:
- Day health care
- Community care and outreach
- help with finding supportive housing for people with HIV/AIDS
- programs that provide volunteer in-home hospice care
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Free Std Testing: Where To Get It
We dug into the pros and cons of getting free STD testing, and now we are answering where you can go to get free STD and HIV testing.
There are many places you can visit for free or nearly free STD tests including most state health departments, local nonprofit health organizations, Planned Parenthood locations, and various college and university programs.
For the most part, free STD testing is funded federally through non-profit organizations or via programs provided by various institutions .
Where To Find A Free Hiv Test
Ready to get tested? Many kinds of places might offer free HIV tests in your area. University health centers, hospitals, local health departments, and even churches offer free testing. You might have to keep an eye out for ads, search the internet, and call around to figure it out.
Here are some shortcuts worth exploring:
Use the CDC search tool. Go to gettested.cdc.gov and enter your ZIP code. After you click, check the box for âFree HIV Testâ under the drop-down menu on the next page to find a free or low-cost test in your area.
Contact the AIDS Healthcare Foundation . This nonprofit organization offers free HIV testing at many locations around the U.S. and in Puerto Rico. Visit locations.hivcare.org to find the closest option.
Many Planned Parenthood locations offer free or low-cost HIV testing. Call 800-230-PLAN or visit plannedparenthood.org/health-center to find one near you.
That’s National Free HIV Testing Day. On this day, many sites across the country offer free tests. Check npin.cdc.gov/nhtd.
Pick up a free at-home test: A nonprofit called Greater Than AIDS partners with Walgreens and OraSure Technologies to distribute 10,000 OraQuick in-home HIV tests to community partners. Visit greaterthan.org/free-hiv-self-test to find out where to get a free self-test.
AIDS Healthcare Foundation : âHIV Testing.â
CDC: âGetTested,â National HIV Testing Day,â âPEP: Post-Exposure Prophylaxis,â âTypes of HIV Tests.â
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Find Needle Exchange And Harm Reduction Programs
You can get free sterile harm-reduction supplies at over 35 needle exchange programs and over 370 access points across Ontario. Through these programs you can get:
- safer-injection equipment including:
Through these programs, you can also:
- safely dispose of both injection and crack smoking equipment
- get condoms
- get education and information
- get referrals and counseling
Find the closest needle-exchange and harm-reduction program by contacting a public health unit near you or call the AIDS and Sexual Health Info Line toll free at 1-800-668-2437.
Avoid Embarrassment And Remain Anonymous
Many individuals experience embarrassment while talking to their primary care physician about STDs or while waiting in a public STD center for their appointment.
Unlike free STD testing centers that often only test for STDs, Rapid STD Testing provides treatments for a variety of illnesses. We also keep your experience anonymous.
Only a Rapid STD Testing professional will ask you questions about your symptoms to better help you determine what test is best for you and questions are asked over the phone for your privacy.
At Rapid STD Testing we do all we can to help you feel comfortable and avoid feelings of embarrassment. We are here to support you every step of the way!
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Legacy Makes It Easy With Free Walk
HIV is still on the rise in the south and one out of every 200 Houstonians is living with HIV. Prevention and treatment can help end the spread of HIV, and it starts with knowing your HIV status. Testing is the only way to know if you have HIV.
Legacy offers FREE, FAST and CONFIDENTIAL HIV testing at convenient locations across Greater Houston and Beaumont, many with walk-in options. And no matter what your test results are, Legacy is here to help you protect your health with affordable prevention and treatment options.
Hiv Testing Types And Lab Technologies
This chapter provides information regarding available testing technologies, approaches to testing and interpretation of results. There are many different types of HIV screening tests that are licensed for use in Canada and can vary by jurisdiction. For questions or information specific to your province or territory please contact your local Public Health laboratory.
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How Do Hiv Tests Work
When you get HIV, your immune system makes antibodies that try to fight off the infection. The most common type of HIV test looks for these antibodies in your blood or cells from your cheek.
It usually takes about 3 months for your body to make enough antibodies to show up on an HIV test, but it could be even longer. This time after you first get infected but wont test positive for HIV is called the window period. If you get tested during this time, you can get a negative result even if you do actually have HIV. You also have the biggest chance of giving HIV to other people during the window period.