Tuesday, December 6, 2022

Where Is Hiv Aids Most Prevalent

Widespread Differences In Hiv Prevalence

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HIV prevalence varied substantially at the grid-cell level as well as among first and second administrative subdivisions throughout sub-Saharan Africa . This variation was apparent within countries with a relatively high overall HIV prevalence;;for example, in Botswana ) prevalence among districts ranged from 15.1% in Ghanzi district to 27.7% in North-East district in 2017. This variation was also apparent in countries with a more moderate national HIV prevalence; for example, in Tanzania ), prevalence among regions ranged from 0.4% in Kusini Pemba region to 9.1% in Njombe region in 2017. In countries in which;levels of HIV prevalence;are lower overall, the absolute differences among subnational units were necessarily smaller. However, in many instances, relative differences among subnational units remained largefor example, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, in which national prevalence was 0.7% , prevalence among second-level administrative subdivisions ranged from 0.3% in Lukaya district to 1.4% in the city Likasi in 2017. Most countries had a more than twofold difference in prevalence between the second-level administrative subdivisions with the lowest and highest estimated prevalence in 2017, and the largest difference was more than fivefold in 14 out of 47 countries.

Fig. 1: Prevalence of HIV in adults aged 1549 in 2017.

Us Response To The Global Epidemic

The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief is the U.S. Governments response to the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and represents the largest commitment by any nation to address a single disease in history. Through PEPFAR, the U.S. has supported a world safer and more secure from infectious disease threats. It has demonstrably strengthened the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to new and existing riskswhich ultimately enhances global health security and protects Americas borders. Among other global results, PEPFAR provided HIV testing services for nearly 50 million people in Fiscal Year 2020 and, as of September 30, 2020, supported lifesaving ART for nearly 18.2 million men, women, and children.

In addition, the National Institutes of Health represents the largest public investment in HIV/AIDS research in the world. NIH is engaged in research around the globe to understand, diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV infection and its many associated conditions, and to find a cure.

Global Hiv & Aids Statistics Fact Sheet

GLOBAL HIV STATISTICS

  • 37.7 million people globally were living with HIV in 2020.
  • 1.5 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2020.
  • 680 000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2020.
  • 27.5 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy in 2020.;
  • 79.3 million people have become infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic.
  • 36.3 million people have died from AIDS-related illnesses since the start of the epidemic.

People living with HIV;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;

  • In 2020, there were 37.7 million people living with HIV.
  • 36.0 million adults.
  • 1.7 million children .
  • 53% of all people living with HIV were women and girls.
  • 84% of all people living with HIV knew their HIV status in 2020.
  • About 6.1 million people did not know that they were living with HIV in 2020.
  • People living with HIV accessing antiretroviral therapy

    • At the end of December 2020, 27.5 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy, up from 7.8;million in 2010.
    • In 2020, 73% of all people living with HIV were accessing treatment.
    • 74% of adults aged 15 years and older living with HIV had access to treatment, as did 54% of children aged 014 years.
    • 79% of female adults aged 15 years and older had access to treatment; however, just 68% of male adults aged 15 years and older had access.
  • 85% of pregnant women living with HIV had access to antiretroviral medicines to prevent transmission of HIV to their child in 2020.
  • New HIV infections

    AIDS-related deaths

    COVID-19 and HIV

    Key populations

  • The risk of acquiring HIV is:
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    Hiv And Aids In Thailand

    KEY POINTS

    • Thailand has one of the highest HIV prevalences in Asia and the Pacific, accounting for 9% of the regions total population of people living with HIV.
    • Although the epidemic is in decline, prevalence remains high among key affected groups, with young people from key populations particularly at risk.
    • Thailand is the first country to effectively eliminate mother-to-child transmissions, with a transmission rate of less than 2%.
    • In 2018, Thailand began to scale up PrEP in order to make it nationally available to people at high risk of HIV, making it a leader in the region.
    • Thailand hopes to be one of the first countries to end AIDS by 2030. However to achieve this, significantly more young people and key affected populations need to be reached.

    Explore this page to read more about populations most affected by HIV, HIV testing and counselling programmes, HIV prevention programmes, , ,;,;barriers to prevention, and the way forward for Thailand.

    Of Thailands population of nearly 70 million, an estimated 470,000 people were living with HIV and 14,000 people died of AIDS-related illnesses in 2019.1 After East and Southern Africa, Asia and the Pacific is the region with the largest number of people living with HIV, with Thailand home to a large proportion of the regions HIV positive people.2

    Young people from key populations are particularly at risk of acquiring HIV. In 2018, around half of new HIV infections in Thailand occurred among people aged 15-24.6

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    One reason some groups and areas have been more affected by HIV/AIDS than others is because the HIV prevalence the percent of the population that has HIV is already high. In other words, the chances of coming in contact with the virus and thus also the risk of infection is greater.

    A common misconception is that groups with higher rates of HIV are acting less responsibly. In fact, research shows that this is not the case. Groups more at-risk for HIV are generally found to get tested more frequently, use condoms more often, and take other precautions to protect against HIV as compared with other groups. The chance of being exposed to the virus is just greater in these social networks and so the response must also be greater.

    Increased access to;HIV treatment and care, along with earlier diagnosis, and use of;PrEP;has been shown to bring down rates of HIV even among areas with higher prevalence.

    #AskTheHIVDoc is a video series from Greater Than AIDS featuring top HIV doctors providing answers to commonly-asked questions about HIV prevention, testing and treatment.

    This information is shared for educational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice. The views expressed are those of the featured medical professional and reflect information available to that professional at time of filming. Always consult a health care provider for any personal health decision.

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    Effects Of Hiv/aids On Society

    HIV/AIDS has far-reaching adverse effects on the economic, cultural, and social spheres of society. The epidemic drains the economy of the country as funds need to be diverted to treat the infected patients. It is also a great economic burden on individual families with HIV/AIDS as a significant portion of the income needs to be spent on treatment procedures. High prevalence of HIV/AIDS cripples the entire society and reduced the nation’s productivity.

    Hiv Care & Viral Suppression

    92% of people newly diagnosed with HIV in 2019 entered care within one month of their diagnosis .

    Between January and June 2020, 77% of persons diagnosed were virally suppressed within six months .

    Among all people living with HIV in San Francisco, 67% have their virus under control in 2020. . People who are virally suppressed have better health outcomes and do not transmit HIV to other people.

    The proportions of persons with HIV who received care and were virally suppressed in 2019 were higher in San Francisco than in California and the U.S. .

    Black/African Americans had a lower proportion of linkage to care and viral suppression. Trans women, persons aged 30-39 years, MSM-PWID, and persons experiencing homelessness at diagnosis had a lower proportion of viral suppression. .

    Among persons diagnosed with AIDS in the years 2012-2019, survival probability at 36 months was lower among Black/African Americans and Whites compared to Latinx and Asians/ Pacific Islanders. .

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    Hiv Prevention Programmes In Thailand

    In 2018, 6,400 people in Thailand became infected with HIV. Roughly two-thirds ;were men . Under 100 new infections were among children .57

    New infections are declining significantly, though the rate has slowed in recent years. Between 2010 and 2018 new infections fell by 59%, the steepest decline for any country in the Asia and the Pacific region.5859

    In 2018, it was estimated that around 40% of new infections occurred among men who have sex with men and transgender women, 10% among sex workers and their clients, and 11% among people who inject drugs. Around 29% of new infections are estimated to occur from spousal transmission, 21% of these from husbands to wives.60

    Thailands 20172030 National AIDS Strategy aims to cut annual new infections to less than 1,000 by supporting combination prevention programmes for key populations and working in partnership with community-led organisations to reach people at higher risk in the locations where they live and work.61

    Ses Affects Our Society

    Common Health Problems Associated With HIV

    SES affects overall human functioning, including our physical and mental health. Low SES and its correlates, such as lower educational achievement, poverty and poor health, ultimately affect our society. Inequities in health distribution, resource distribution, and quality of life are increasing in the United States and globally. Society benefits from an increased focus on the foundations of socioeconomic inequities and efforts to reduce the deep gaps in socioeconomic status in the United States and abroad.

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    Key Points: Hiv Incidence

    HIV incidence declined 8% from 2015 to 2019. In 2019, the estimated number of HIV infections in the U.S. was 34,800 and the rate was 12.6 .

    , the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among persons aged 1324 and persons aged 45-54, but remained stable among all other age groups. In 2019, the rate was highest for persons aged 25-34 , followed by the rate for persons aged 35-44 .

    , the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among persons of multiple races, but remained stable for persons of all other races/ethnicities. In 2019, the highest rate was for Blacks/African American persons , followed by Hispanic/Latino persons and persons of multiple races .

    , the annual number of new HIV infections in 2019, as compared to 2015, decreased among males, but remained stable among females. In 2019, the rate for males was 5 times the rate for females .

    , the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among males with transmission attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, but remained stable among all other transmission categories. In 2019, the largest percentages of HIV infections were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact

    For more details on recent HIV incidence statistics, see Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2015-2019.

    Hiv Education And Approach To Sex Education

    Nearly all general secondary and vocational institutions provide comprehensive sexuality education , either as an integrated or standalone subject or both. It is not available for children of younger ages.

    Diverse topics are covered in the CSE curriculum including the prevention of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and sexual anatomy and development. However, topics that relate to gender, sexual rights, sexual and gender diversity, gender inequality, safe abortion and safer sex for same-sex couples are less often taught.64

    Surveys show that people in Thailand under the age of 25 have lower levels of HIV knowledge and HIV testing and counselling than those over age 25.65 In 2016, only around 45% of young people had adequate knowledge about how to prevent HIV.66 New sexually transmitted infections are rising among this age group, suggesting HIV testing and prevention programmes need to be better prioritised.67.

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    Countries With The Highest Rates Of Hiv/aids

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a virus that weakens the human immune system, sometimes leading to AIDS. If detected early, HIV can be managed to prevent it from progressing to the final stage of AIDS. HIV attacks CD4 cells exposing the infected person to opportunistic infections. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and medical care are essential factors to effective management and control of AIDS which has no permanent cure. While HIV is majorly a sexually transmitted disease, the virus can be transmitted through blood transfusion and during birth or breastfeeding, as well as through a few other means.

    Parenteral Transmission Of Hiv

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    Parenteral transmission of HIV occurs most commonly among IDU when needles are shared. Prevention of transmission between IDU can be achieved by community outreach and needle exchange programmes although political reluctance to work with IDU can be difficult to overcome. Parenteral transmission can also occur by the transfusion of infected blood, so screening blood and/or reducing the unnecessary use of transfusions are necessary to minimise transmission by this route. Contaminated needles for injections and needlestick injuries among health professionals are another source of infection. Contaminated blood products and infected organs or semen have also been shown to transmit infection.

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    East Asia And The Pacific

    Estimated adult HIV prevalence is extremely low in this region except for Papua New Guinea where it is still relatively low . There is, however, no room for complacency because patterns of IDU and sex work in this region show a potential for the spread of HIV and mobility between and within countries is high. The most populous country in the world, China, has recently seen worrying levels of HIV among IDU and then in sex workers close to the borders of Myanmar, Thailand and Laos37. An upsurge in STI rates in China after almost eradicating them in the 1960s also signals a worrying potential for HIV spread.

    Hiv Statistics In South Africa

    Estimates suggest that 7.7 million South Africans are living with HIV, representing about 14% of the population . Additional statistics are as follows.

    • The HIV rate among adults is more than 20% .
    • One in five people aged 15 to 49 years is believed to be infected with HIV.
    • 45% of all deaths in the country can be attributed to HIV.
    • 13% of South African blacks are infected with HIV versus 0.3% of South African whites.
    • It is estimated that there are 600,000 orphaned children as a result of AIDS.

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    Male Circumcision And Hiv

    For years researchers have puzzled over why most West African countries have lower HIV-infection rates than southern and East African countries. They thought it might have something to do with the Muslim religion, widely practiced in West Africa, which imposes restrictions on womens sexual freedom. However, another likely factor is male circumcision, which is ritually practiced by Muslims and many others.

    Several studies suggest that male circumcision protects both men and their sexual partners from HIV infection. This is not true of female circumcision, or female genital mutilation, which is extremely dangerous. In African countries where male circumcision is common, such as Senegal, Mali, Ghana, Benin, and the entire region of North Africa, HIV rates tend to be much lower than in countries such as Botswana, Malawi, and Swaziland. In countries with high rates of HIV, provinces and districts that have high rates of circumcision, such as Inhambane in Mozambique or Dar es Salaam in Tanzania, tend to have lower HIV rates.

    Two African tribes with very high HIV-infection rates are the Zulu of South Africa and the Tswana of Botswana. Before colonial times, men in both tribes underwent circumcision rituals during adolescence. But when King Shaka united the Zulu tribe in the 1820s, he abolished the ritual, and when Christian missionaries settled in with the Tswana in the late 19th century, they declared circumcision a barbaric practice.

    People Who Inject Drugs

    Common Questions About HIV Tests (2017)

    Within the first few years of Thailands epidemic, HIV prevalence among people who inject drugs rose from 0 to 40%. By 2011, prevalence had halved to 22%.34 Prevalence has remained at a similar level since then, standing at 20.5% in 2014, the most recent data available.35

    Although the need for harm reduction is increasingly accepted in Thailand, a largely punitive policy and legal environment focused on drug control continues to undermine access to essential health services. There is intense social stigmatisation of people who inject drugs, and the country still operates compulsory detention centres for people who use drugs, both of which deter many from seeking healthcare, including harm reduction services.36

    There are some signs of progress in this area as Thailand has begun to revise its drug laws, suggesting the government may be moving towards a more health-based approach to drug use. In 2017, the government reduced the penalties for drug possession, trafficking and production, and abolished the death penalty for selling drugs. This goes against an overall shift in the region towards more hostile approaches to drug use, as countries such as the Philippines and Indonesia implement more punitive policies.37

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    Hiv Statistics By State

    Human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, is a virus that weakens a persons immune system by attacking cells that fight off infection, specifically a persons CD4 cells. HIV is spread through body fluids such as blood. If HIV goes untreated and advances, it can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS.

    Unlike most other viruses, when a person contracts HIV, they have it for life because the human body cannot fight off the virus entirely. HIV, however, can be controlled and its progression can be slowed significantly. There are three stages of HIV:

  • Acute HIV infection
  • Clinical latency
  • AIDS
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