Normal May Or May Not Vary By Age
For some tests, such as the hemoglobin test, normal results vary by age. For children, for example, a hemoglobin level of about 11 to 13 grams/deciliter is normal, while for men, a value of about 14 to 17 g/dl is normal, and for women, 12 to 15 g/dl is normal. But for other tests, such as LDL cholesterol, a level less than 100 milligrams/deciliter is considered optimal regardless of age. That being said, your age and other risk factors for heart disease may influence how your doctor reacts if your blood test shows a higher-than-optimal LDL cholesterol level. If you are a man over 45 or a woman over 55 and you have heart disease or diabetes, your doctor will likely advise you to take steps to lower your LDL cholesterol if it is higher than 100 mg/dl.
Dried Blood Spot Testing For Hiv Infection
The technology holds promise for expanding diagnostic services to HIV-infected infants in resource-poor settings due to the samples’ longer lifespan with reduced need for refrigeration and the less invasive nature of the test compared with other methods. Unlike ELISA testing for HIV-antibodies in the blood, which may be transmitted to infants in pregnancy independently of the virus itself, dried blood spot testing can be used to detect genetic material of the actual virus, thereby avoiding the likelihood of a false positive result.Dried blood spot testing for HIV is not considered sensitive enough for diagnostic testing, but may be useful in estimating prevalence of HIV through surveillance.DBS specimens also pose less of a biohazard risk to handlers, and are easier to transport or store than liquid blood specimens.
Theranos Patient Testifies That Blood Test Showed Hiv False Positive
Woman testifies Theranos blood test came back with false-positive for HIV
A former Thernaos patient testified that she received a false positive for HIV at a Walgreens store in 2015. The testimony was the latest turn in the federal fraud trial against the failed blood testing company’s founder, Elizabeth Holmes.
SAN JOSE – A former Theranos patient testified Wednesday that her blood falsely tested positive for HIV antibodies when she received a screening more than five years ago.
Erin Tompkins relayed the emotional ordeal from the witness stand in the closely watched federal fraud trial against the failed bio-tech companys founder Elizabeth Holmes.
“I was quite emotional at the time,” Tomkins testified, describing trying in vain to get answers from a customer services representative at Theranos.
Three weeks later, she got a test at an Arizona womens clinic that came back negative. Two subsequent tests from other companies also showed she did not have HIV.
Tompkins testified at the close of a long day of testimony in the protracted legal saga against Holmes and co-defendant Sunny Balwani. Balwani, Holmes former business partner and boyfriend, is being tried separately in a case thats tentatively scheduled to start early next year.
They each face ten counts of wire fraud and two counts of conspiracy for allegedly defrauding patients and investors in the company.
San Francisco hedge fund investor testifies Elizabeth Holmes lied about military use
Recommended Reading: Hiv Without Ejaculation
Other Tests Used In Hiv Treatment
The CD4 T-cell count is not an HIV test, but rather a procedure where the number of CD4 T-cells in the blood is determined.
A CD4 count does not check for the presence of HIV. It is used to monitor immune system function in HIV-positive people. Declining CD4 T-cell counts are considered to be a marker of progression of HIV infection. A normal CD4 count can range from 500 cells/mm3 to 1000 cells/mm3. In HIV-positive people, AIDS is officially diagnosed when the count drops below 200 cells/Î¼L or when certain opportunistic infections occur. This use of a CD4 count as an AIDS criterion was introduced in 1992 the value of 200 was chosen because it corresponded with a greatly increased likelihood of opportunistic infection. Lower CD4 counts in people with AIDS are indicators that prophylaxis against certain types of opportunistic infections should be instituted.
Low CD4 T-cell counts are associated with a variety of conditions, including many viral infections, bacterial infections, parasitic infections, primary immunodeficiency, coccidioidomycosis, burns, trauma, intravenous injections of foreign proteins, malnutrition, over-exercising, pregnancy, normal daily variation, psychological stress, and social isolation.
This test is also used occasionally to estimate immune system function for people whose CD4 T cells are impaired for reasons other than HIV infection, which include several blood diseases, several genetic disorders, and the side effects of many chemotherapy drugs.
What Are The Different Types Of Hiv Testing
There are three main types of HIV tests: antibody tests, RNA tests, and a combination test that detects both antibodies and viral protein called p24 . All tests are designed to detect HIV-1, which is the type of HIV in the United States. Some antibody tests and the combination test can also detect HIV-2 infections, which are usually limited to West Africa. No test is perfect tests may be falsely positive or falsely negative or impossible to interpret .
Positive test results are reportable to the health department in all 50 states and include the patients name. This information is then reported to the CDC so that the epidemiology and infection spread rates can be monitored. The names sent to the state remain confidential and will not be reported to employers, family members, or other such people. Some states allow anonymous testing in which the patients name is not recorded.
HIV antibody tests: HIV possesses many unique proteins on its surface and inside the virus itself. When someone is infected with HIV, their body produces proteins designed to tag the virus for elimination by the immune system. These proteins are called antibodies, and they are directed against the unique proteins of HIV. Unfortunately, these HIV antibodies do not eliminate the virus, but their presence serves as a marker to show that someone is infected with HIV. HIV antibody tests are the most commonly used tests to determine if someone has HIV.
You May Like: Does Cookie Johnson Have Hiv
Terms And Technologies Used In Hiv Testing
This section provides detailed definitions and descriptions of the terms and technologies used in HIV testing.
Algorithms for HIV testing have been developed to ensure optimal sensitivity while preserving specificity by confirming reactive results as antibody-positive. The test sequence starts with the most sensitive screening test to identify all those with antibodies. A confirmatory assay is then performed only on the samples that tested reactive/positive on the initial screening test. This ensures that the screen test reaction is due to detection of HIV antibodies rather than a non-specific reaction. In the case of indeterminate or inconclusive results, additional supplementary testing may be necessary to determine if someone is infected with HIV. Each laboratory develops and validates its own algorithm to ensure that it provides the most accurate results possible. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of a validated algorithm are close to 100%.
A typical laboratory testing algorithm follows:
Figure 3: Laboratory Testing Algorithm
A typical laboratory testing algorithm starts by screening with an enzyme immune assay test. If the EIA is non-reactive, then no HIV infection is present and no further testing is done.
If the initial EIA is reactive, then the EIA test should be repeated two additional times. If neither of the additional EIA tests is reactive, then the test is considered non-reactive, with no evidence of HIV infection.
Hiv Testing And Your Rights
Testing for HIV is voluntary and can only be done with your informed consent, except in exceptional circumstances.
Before you are tested, you will be provided with information about what is involved. what the results might mean for you, and how to prevent HIV transmission in the future. All people who request an HIV test must receive this information from the test provider.
Under Australian and Victorian law, it is unlawful to discriminate against anyone who has HIV. Test results, and details on whether someone has been tested are strictly confidential. It is illegal for any information about a person being tested or a person with HIV to be disclosed without their permission.
Recommended Reading: Does Nba Youngboy Have A Std
What Is Informed Consent
Informed consent means you have enough information to understand HIV testing, such as the options for testing, an understanding of how the tests are done, what the results mean and the impact of testing. This will help you make an informed decision about your health care. Read more about informed consent, and talk to your healthcare provider if you have any questions.
What Are The Types Of Hiv Tests
Currently there are two ways to test for HIV. One of these is a standard laboratory test done using a blood sample taken from your arm. The result is available in 1 to 2 weeks.
The second type of HIV test is a called a point-of-care test using a drop of blood taken from your finger. The result is available at the time of testing. When a point-of-care test indicates that HIV antibodies may be present, a standard laboratory test is required to confirm HIV infection.
Don’t Miss: Does Nba Youngboy Have Hiv
Hiv Testing In A Health Care Setting Or Lab
If you take a test in a health care setting or a lab, a health care provider or lab technician will take your sample . If its a rapid test, you may be able to wait for the results, but if its a laboratory test, it can take several days for your results to be available. Your health care provider or counselor may talk with you about your risk factors, answer any questions you might have, and discuss next steps with you, especially if your result is positive.
- If the test comes back negative, and you havent had an exposure during the window period for the test you took, you can be confident you dont have HIV.
- If your HIV test result is positive, the lab will conduct follow-up testing, usually on the same sample as the first.
Some Practices Dont Reduce Your Risk Of Hiv
Some people use unreliable methods to reduce their risk of HIV. These include:
- Serosorting choosing your sexual partner based upon them having the same HIV status as you.
- Strategic positioning where an HIV-negative partner penetrates an HIV-positive partner.
- Withdrawal when the insertive partner pulls out before ejaculating .
None of these strategies are reliable, so you are at risk of HIV transmission.Having sex only with people who have the same HIV status can be very risky. For example, a person may think they are HIV-negative, but may have been exposed to HIV since their last test, or may never have been tested at all.
Using a combination of proven, reliable strategies like condoms, PrEP, and undetectable viral load is the best way to prevent HIV transmission.
You May Like: Can You Get Aids From Dried Blood
When Should I Be Tested For Hiv
You can be exposed to HIV by having unprotected sex with an infected person, by sharing infected needles and other injecting equipment, or from a needlestick injury. It can also be passed on from a mother to her baby during pregnancy and delivery. If you think you may have been exposed to HIV, you should get a test. You can use the NZ AIDS Foundation’s Been exposed tool to find out the likely risk of a specific event or encounter and advice for what to do next.
Letting Partners Know You Have Hiv
If you have just been diagnosed with HIV, it will likely be a difficult time. You might still be struggling to come to terms with diagnosis.
During this time, it is important to let any sexual or injecting partners know they may have been exposed to HIV as soon as you can, so they can be tested and offered PEP if appropriate.
You do not have to do this alone. Your doctor or the Department of Health and Human Services Partner Notification Officers can help you through this process and ensure your identity is not revealed.. Both groups can provide information, support, and guidance for people living with HIV.
Read Also: Does Cookie Johnson Have Hiv
Getting Your Hiv Test Results
Most HIV test results are available within a week.
If the test result is negative, you may receive your results within a few days.
If the initial test result is positive, then additional testing to confirm the result needs to be performed in a reference laboratory and this can take up to a week to get a result.
Benefits Of Knowing Youre Hiv Positive
Whatever your result might be, there are now many good reasons to test and few reasons to avoid testing. The earlier HIV is diagnosed, the more likely it is that treatment will be successful. This means you are more likely to have a healthy life and have fewer problems with symptoms of the infection.
It will also help to protect your sexual partners.
For pregnant women, the chances of passing on HIV infection to your baby either during pregnancy, at delivery or afterwards by breastfeeding, can be greatly reduced through:
- careful management
Don’t Miss: Hiv Causes Hair Loss
How Can I Get Hiv
HIV is found in body fluids, such as blood, semen, breast milk, and fluids from the vagina and anus. HIV can be passed on by:
- having vaginal or anal sex without using a condom
- having oral sex
- a mother with HIV can pass it to her baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or while breastfeeding
- exposure in the work environment
- sharing needles, syringes or other injecting equipment
- receiving a blood transfusion
- unsterilized body art equipment like tattoo or piercing equipment
A person has significant amounts of the virus in their body when they first contract HIV, which increases the possibility of transmitting it to others. You can greatly reduce your risk of transmitting HIV to others by taking antiretroviral medications. These medications decrease the amount of HIV in the body, which reduces the chance of passing it on.
You can not get HIV through casual contact, such as sharing food or drinks, insect bites, hugging or kissing.
Can A Blood Hiv Test Be Wrong
False positive results from HIV tests are highly sensitive and can be used to determine whether a person is truly ill. A follow-up test can be used to confirm a false positive. A positive HIV result from a second test means that the person is HIV-positive. False-positive results can also be obtained.
Recommended Reading: Does Hiv Cause Hair Loss
Viral Load And Cd4 Levels
When someone contracts HIV, the virus begins to take over specific cells in the immune system, called CD4 cells.
When the CD4 cells replicate, the HIV cells inside them also replicate. HIV hijacks the cellular machinery of CD4 cells to reproduce and shed more HIV, which means the viral load increases.
As the HIV viral load increases, the number of healthy CD4 cells decreases as they are destroyed creating HIV copies.
Treatment aims to produce a low viral load and a high CD4 count. When a person has achieved this, their HIV is well controlled.
A low or undetectable viral load means the virus is not progressing. It also means that HIV is not attacking the immune system as actively. This gives the immune system the chance to rebuild its healthy cell count. As a result, the number of CD4 cells in the persons body will increase as their viral falls.
A doctor will usually test a persons viral levels when they first diagnose HIV. Doctors will recommend an HIV test if someone presents symptoms of HIV or if they may have come into contact with the virus.
People living with HIV will have repeat viral load tests throughout their lives to monitor the condition. They should get tested once every 3 to 4 months during treatment.
Additionally, a person should get tested due to any alteration in their medication or if their symptoms change.
When You Should Take An Hiv Test
What testing service you should use, and which type of test, depends on when you might have been exposed to HIV. Signs of HIV infection dont show up in the blood right away. It normally happens within four weeks of infection, but can be longer.
If you think you might have been exposed to HIV in the last 72 hours , its possible to take post-exposure prophylaxis to help stop an infection from happening.
If your risk was recent, then your test provider will probably advise you to take a test immediately, followed by a second one a few weeks later. The second test will pick up any infection the first one may have missed.
If your risk was in the last three months, make sure you tell the person testing you, as it may affect the type of test youre given.
A self test is not guaranteed to pick up an infection thats occurred in the previous three months. If you think youve been exposed in the last three months, you should get a test in person.
Very occasionally it can take up to three months for antibodies to appear in the blood, so an HIV negative result is only totally accurate if three months have passed between the test and the last time a risk was taken. However, a negative result four to eight weeks after taking a risk is a very good sign that HIV infection hasnt happened.
Don’t Miss: Average Hiv Life Expectancy
Im Pregnant When Should I Test
Testing for HIV during your pregnancy is very important. Left undiagnosed and untreated women living with HIV can pass the virus on to their unborn babies. In most countries, HIV tests are a routine part of the care women receive during pregnancy . Partners of pregnant women should also get tested during this time.
The earlier you test in your pregnancy the better. Youll usually be tested in your first appointment, ideally before your tenth week. These tests should be repeated, either every three months or at least once again in your third trimester.
Your doctor will tell you everything you need to know about HIV testing alongside the other blood tests they do during pregnancy.
If you find out you are positive, youll be given treatment to prevent passing HIV on to your child. The earlier you start treatment, the greater the chance your child will be born HIV-negative. Check out our section on Pregnancy, childbirth & breastfeeding for more information.