Countries With The Highest Hiv Rates In Europe
While you might consider HIV to be a virus prevalent only in Africa, the 10 countries with the highest HIV rates in Europe prove otherwise. When HIV and AIDS were first discovered, the victims were shunned and treated like lepers. They were treated like social pariahs and people avoided contact with them. There were a couple of reasons behind this treatment firstly, initially HIV was thought to be a disease limited to the gay community and at the time, associating with gay people was often a controversial issue. Secondly, since little was known about HIV as significant research was yet to be conducted, people thought that it could be spread through physical contact, and hence, completely avoided those who were known to be infected.
As the research improved, the realization that HIV and AIDS could not be transferred by casual or non-sexual physical contact, increased the acceptance of people who were suffering from the disease. However, AIDS was extremely deadly back then, and knowing that you were infected was often almost as good as a death sentence. One of the many famous persons who was responsible for spreading awareness regarding the disease was Freddie Mercury, lead singer of the band Queen, who himself succumbed to the disease. An AIDS awareness concert was held in respect of his memory, and his public acknowledgment of contracting the disease gave courage to many people to come forward as well.
Characteristics Of The Epidemic In The Region1
Although the AIDS epidemic in the broader Latin America and Caribbean region is not as pervasive as in Africa, over 1.8 million people were estimated to be living with HIV in the region in 2007, including 230,000 in the Caribbean and 1.6 million in Latin America. Moreover, the adult prevalence rate in several countries in the Caribbean and Central America are among the highest outside of sub-Saharan Africa.
In terms of sheer numbers, Brazil accounts for about one-third of those living with HIV in Latin America, but its prevalence rate of 0.5% 2 is low compared to many countries in Central America and the Caribbean. Furthermore, Brazil’s active prevention efforts have lowered prevalence among the high risk groupsâintravenous drug users and homosexualsâand the government’s extensive antiretroviral treatment program has lowered death rates.3 In contrast, the mode of transmission in several Caribbean and Central American countries has been primarily through unprotected heterosexual contact, which has made it more difficult to contain the epidemic because it affects the general population.
Hiv In The United States
Based on the most recent information from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , about 1.14 million Americans had HIV at the end of 2016. About 1 in 7 of those with the virus are unaware that they have it.
In 2018, 37,832 people received an HIV diagnosis, according to the CDC. Among those, 42% were black or African American, 27% were Hispanic or Latino, and 25% were white. Also among the new diagnoses, 69% were among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men 24% were among heterosexuals, and 7% were among people who inject drugs.
In the United States, there are five categories of laws pertaining to HIV and other STDs. As of 2018, 26 states have HIV-specific laws that criminalize behaviors that can potentially expose another person to HIV.
States with the Highest Rates of HIV
These numbers are based on the CDCs HIV Surveillance Report.
California has the highest number of people living with HIV of 128,153, a rate of 389.7 people with HIV per 100,000 residents. Of those living with HIV in California, the largest group is White with 48,155 people and the second-largest is Hispanic/Latino with 48,029.
New York has the second-highest number of people living with HIV of 126,495, a rate of 760.2 per 100,000. This rate is more than double that of Californias. The largest group living with HIV in New York is Black/African American with 47,164 people living with the virus.
Here are the 10 states with the highest rates of HIV:
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What Are The States With The Highest Hiv Rate In Nigeria
It may surprise you to find out that your state of origin or state of residence is among the states with the highest HIV rate in Nigeria. Although most people dont know, Nigeria has the second highest HIV infected population in the world, and the people affected cut across the different spheres of life in the country.
The rate of HIV infection is usually attributed to immoral lifestyle, especially among the youths. While this is not always the case, although it contributes, many people get infected with the virus while maintaining their high moral standards. Some people get infected with HIV during their cosmetic routine, such as barbering their hair, or getting their ears pierced.
In this article, we will discuss the things that are peculiar to the states with the highest HIV rate in Nigeria, after identifying them. We will also look at where Nigeria stands in the continent and in the world with regards to HIV infection spread and curbs.
The Future Of Hiv In Latin America And The Caribbean
While some countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have made significant progress, particularly in terms of treatment availability, it has been patchy. Even where treatment is available, a number of cultural and legal barriers prevent many groups from accessing the services they need. For example, homophobic crimes, which need to be addressed by laws and policies that protect the rights of all people.
Prevention programming needs to focus on key populations and although regional prevention targets have been endorsed by country stakeholders, and by prominent civil society organisations, financial investment in prevention is lacking.115116
Brazil has played a major part in advancing Latin Americas HIV response and improving rights for LGBTI people and other marginalised communities. The success of the far-right is seen as a severe threat to progress in Brazil, with unwelcome consequences for Latin America as a whole.
In the Caribbean, early diagnosis and linking to care, retention in treatment and adherence need special attention. In addition, focusing on the knowledge and service access gaps facing young people and key populations is necessary.117118
In both sub-regions, implementing sensitisation programmes that target national uniformed personnel, aimed at reducing stigma and discrimination towards key affected populations and people living with HIV, are needed in order to reduce hate crimes and improve access to HIV, health and other essential services.
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Countries With The Lowest Rates Of Hiv Among Young Men
Young men are generally exposed to HIV in two stages. In their initial years of life, the virus can be transmitted from mother-to-child. Adolescent life that comes with new vulnerability to the virus. Unprotected sex is a major cause of HIV among young men aged between 15 and 24. Young men aged 15-24 years account for 11% of worlds HIV infections. While infection among the young men is rampant in Sub-Saharan Africa, some countries have recorded as low as 0.1% of HIV prevalence among the males aged 15-24 according to the UNAIDS data. The contributing factors to these low infections vary from one country to another. Some of the countries with the lowest rates of HIV infections among the young men are outlined below.
Hiv Prevention Programmes In South Africa
South Africa aims to reduce the annual number of new infections to under 100,000 by 2022.73
The government plans to achieve this by intensifying prevention efforts in the 27 districts that account for 82% of all people living with HIV and for the majority of new infections. It has also committed to achieving zero new infections due to mother-to-child transmission by 2022.74
In addition, the 2017-2022 South African National LGBTI HIV Plan commits to reaching 95% of people from the LGBTI community with HIV prevention and ensuring 90% of LGBTI people living with HIV know their status.75
A number of South Africas HIV prevention strategies being implemented to reach these targets are outlined below.
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Us Makes $10 Million Available For Hiv/aids
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Luanda – The United States government made available $10 million this year in the fight against AIDS in Angola.
Investment in facilities supported by the Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief in Angola, states a press release sent to ANGOP, has the capacity to cover approximately 85,000 Angolans affected by the virus.
Angola has an estimated HIV prevalence of 2.0% in people aged between 15 and 49, according to the Multiple Health Indicators Survey , which gives an estimated 310,000 people living with HIV in the country.
The southern Cunene Province has the highest HIV/AIDS incidence and prevalence rate in the country, with a 6.1 percent rate of new transmissions.
According to data from the Ministry of Health , after Cunene, come the provinces of Cuando Cubango with 5% and Moxico with 4%, while Zaire has the lowest rate, that is 0.5%.
PEPFAR, led by the US government, helps ensure that every individual in every community has access to life-saving HIV prevention and treatment services.
US government agencies supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Department of Defense work with the Ministry of Health to identify and provide antiretroviral treatment for people with HIV, use data to inform policies and strategies, and measure impact on communities, reads the note.
- Primary country
The Status Of The Hiv/aids Epidemic In Sub
Senior Fellow, Futures Group International
Despite the fact that sub-Saharan Africa contains only about 11 percent of the Earths population, the region is the worlds epicenter of HIV/AIDS. The numbers are daunting. Adult HIV prevalence is 1.2 percent worldwide , but it is 9.0 percent in sub-Saharan Africa. UNAIDS estimates that at the end of 2001, there were 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS, 28.5 million of them from sub-Saharan African. Five million adults and children became newly infected with HIV in 2001, 3.5 million of them from sub-Saharan Africa. Three million people died from AIDS-related causes in 2001, and 2.2 million of these deaths were among sub-Saharan Africans.2
AIDS is now the leading cause of death in sub-Saharan Africa. Life expectancy at birth has plummeted in many African countries, wiping out the gains made since independence. The combination of high birth rates and high AIDS mortality among adults, including many parents, has meant that more than 90 percent of children who have been orphaned as a consequence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic are in this region.2
According to UNAIDS, all the worst affected countries are contiguous to one another in the lower part of the continent. These include South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Botswana, Namibia, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Botswana, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe have prevalence rates above 30 percent.4
|Total Adults and Children|
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Response To The Epidemic
The response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Caribbean and Central America has involved a mix of support by governments in the region, bilateral donors , regional and multilateral organizations, and nongovernmental organizations . Many countries in the region have national AIDS programs that are supported through these bilateral, regional, and multilateral programs.
The World Bank has provided significant support to combat HIV/AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean, with Brazil becoming the first country in the region to receive such assistance. In June 2001, the Bank approved a $155 million lending program for the Caribbean to help countries finance their national HIV/AIDS prevention and control projects. Under this program, the Bank has approved loans to Barbados , the Dominican Republic , Jamaica , Grenada , St. Kitts & Nevis , Trinidad & Tobago , the Caribbean Community’s Pan Caribbean Partnership Against HIV/AIDS , Guyana , St. Lucia , and St. Vincent . In March 2005, the World Bank approved an $8 million Central America regional project to manage and control the epidemic.
The Inter-American Development Bank has supported HIV/AIDS activities in such countries as the Bahamas, Belize, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Suriname, and a regional program through CARICOM. Moreover, its assistance to support health infrastructure in the region has been important for HIV/AIDS treatment and care programs.
Young Women And Adolescent Girls
In the same year, 69,000 young women became HIV-positive, compared to 28,000 young men, meaning they are over three times more likely to acquire HIV than their male counterparts. The difference is particularly acute among 10 to 19-year-olds, with 33,000 adolescent girls becoming HIV-positive in 2018, compared to 4,200 adolescent boys.16
Intergenerational relationships between older men, a group with high HIV prevalence, and young women are understood to be driving a cycle of infections. The National Strategic HIV Plan has centred its approach to HIV prevention around interrupting this cycle.1718
CASE STUDY: Sugar daddies
Lebogang Motsumi was 27 when she acquired HIV from a ‘sugar daddy’ a significantly older man who showered her with gifts, which she believed she needed to fit in with her friends and feel more accepting of herself. She was reluctant to use a condom in case she was perceived as promiscuous by men and felt she was not in control of the situation when she was with her sexual partners.
Now a mother, Motsumi says she wishes she had received more information at home and at school about risky sexual behaviour, and is using her experience to advocate non-judgemental, face-to-face conversations with young people about relationships with older men.19
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Hiv Testing And Counselling In Latin America And The Caribbean
In 2017, 77% of people living with HIV in Latin America and 73% of people living with HIV in the Caribbean were aware of their status.40
Different approaches to testing are being taken in the region to increase the number of people who are aware of their status. Around a third of LAC countries that offer testing services within flexible hours, are generally provided by civil society organisations .41
HIV self-tests are available in the Bahamas, Brazil, El Salvador, Jamaica, Peru, and Trinidad and Tobago. However, as of 2017, most governments were yet to document their use, provide them at subsidised cost, or use this method to expand testing to people from key populations, whose need is significantly greater due to the concentrated nature of the epidemic.42
An exception is Brazil, which introduced self-testing kits in 2015. These kits were made available free of charge from pharmacies, medication distribution centres, health services and government health programmes, as well as through the mail. The oral self-testing kits feature clear instructions and a telephone helpline.43
Just under two-thirds of countries in the region offer testing in community centres. Argentina, Dominica, Guatemala, Jamaica, Mexico and Paraguay allow HIV testing to be done by trained individuals who are not health professionals.44
Effects Of Hiv/aids On Society
HIV/AIDS has far-reaching adverse effects on the economic, cultural, and social spheres of society. The epidemic drains the economy of the country as funds need to be diverted to treat the infected patients. It is also a great economic burden on individual families with HIV/AIDS as a significant portion of the income needs to be spent on treatment procedures. High prevalence of HIV/AIDS cripples the entire society and reduced the nation’s productivity.
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Tracking The Spread Of Hiv
The oldest HIV-1M sequences that have been analyzed were sampled in 1959 and 1960 from individuals in Central Africa and appear to be quite closely related to ancestral subtype A and D viruses. Although all HIV-1M subtypes have been identified in the DRC and Cameroon, subtype A dominates in the DRC, and CRF02_AG dominates in Cameroon . This AG recombinant, and subtypes A1 and G, are very successful in Western Africa where they today collectively dominate the epidemics in Nigeria, Ghana, Senegal, Mali, and Cote d’Ivoire .
Outside of West Africa, East Africa has the oldest epidemic that is driven primarily by infections with subtypes A and D and their derived recombinants. Subtype A was likely to have entered East Africa some time shortly after 1950, with subtype D being introduced about ten years later . Today, subtype A dominates in Kenya , whereas both subtypes A and D have emerged in Uganda . Tanzania, which lies between the subtype A/D epidemic on its northern border and the subtype C epidemic on its southern border, is a melting pot of subtype A, C, and, to a lesser extent, D infections and various recombinant forms. Subtype C accounts for almost all infections in southern Africa.
The Top 5 Countries With The Highest Hiv Aids Prevalence Rates
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