Which Link Do Standard Precautions Break
Infection control experts agree that following standard precautions, isolation guidelines when required and engaging in proper handwashing is essential to breaking the chain of infection. Following aseptic technique is especially critical when caring for patients with hardy microorganisms such as MRSA.
The Future Of Hiv In The Usa
The United States will become a place where new HIV infections are rare, and when they do occur, every person, regardless of age, gender, race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, gender identity, or socio-economic circumstance, will have unfettered access to high quality, life-extending care, free from stigma and discrimination.
– The US National HIV/AIDS Strategys mission statement144
In order to break the cycle of transmission among key affected populations, increasing the impact of targeted HIV prevention and treatment campaigns towards people in these groups is vital. Expanding access and uptake to HIV testing, and increasing the number of people who are aware of their status and who are using condoms, will also go a long way to controlling the epidemic in the USA.
However, unless the complex set of economic and socio-economic factors that drive these groups risks to HIV are addressed including discrimination, stigma and poverty it is likely that HIV will continue to disproportionately affect men who have sex with men, African Americans/black people, Latino/Hispanic men, transgender women, prisoners and people who use drugs.
In addition, the rollback of certain LGBTI rights and inadequate sex education may support HIV-related stigma, already so damaging to Americas HIV response, grow and thrive.
Proposed Actions To Improve The National Outlook
Were often asked how metropolitan areas can take actions to improve STD rates. For this, were inclined to turn to the STI National Strategic Plan released by the HHS. It provides recommended approaches and enhancements aimed at turning our trends in a positive direction. Among its proposals are:
- Partnering with pharmacies and clinics to increase easy local access to STD testing and treatment.
- Establishing express clinics, where people could access walk-in testing and treatment without full exams.
- Harnessing the potential of telehealth/telemedicine as a convenient method of testing and consultation for people across the country, including in rural areas.
The CDC stresses, If you are sexually active, getting tested for STDs is one of the most important things you can do to protect your health. Make sure you have an open and honest conversation about your sexual history and STD testing with your doctor
Our STD testing and treatment infrastructure had been strained prior to the pandemic, contributing to increased STD rates each year. Its up to all of us to decide whether reports next year and the year after reveal the 7th and 8th consecutive years of record-high infections or we instead make this tide turn, addressing budget shortfalls and improving public education and access to testing and treatment in our communities.
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Funding For The Hiv Response In The Usa
Funding for the HIV response has increased significantly over the course of the epidemic. Primarily, this growth has been driven by increased spending on mandatory domestic care and treatment programmes, as more people are living with HIV in the USA, as well as by greater investments to combat HIV in low and middle-income countries.135
The USAs domestic HIV budget includes funding for HIV care, housing support, HIV prevention and research.136 In May 2017, President Trump released his first federal budget request for the 2018 financial year, which included an estimated US $32 billion for combined domestic and global HIV efforts. The proposal signalled a decrease in funding for HIV of US $834 million, or 2.5%. Most of the cuts were made to the USAs global spending for the HIV response . Domestic discretionary programmes faced a US $789 million or 10% reduction, although mandatory funding was set to increase.137 The budget was rejected by Congress and spending remained at levels similar to the 2017 financial year.138
President Trumps proposed budget for the 2019 financial year, submitted in February 2018, again suggested spending cuts. This includes cutting US $40 million from CDCs HIV prevention programme, and US $26 million from a federal housing programme for people living with AIDS. It also includes cutting global HIV programmes by US $1 billion.139 However, this was rejected by Congress.140
Civil Societys Role In The Usa
Freedom of expression in the USA has allowed political activism has been a key part of the countrys HIV response since the very beginning.
In the early days of the response, HIV activism was closely associated with gay communities in the USA . To some extent, grassroots activism in many parts of the USA declined as antiretroviral treatment became more available in the late 1980s and the early 1990s. During the early 1990s, activists shifted their focus more into providing HIV prevention and treatment programmes for people most affected by HIV.117 However, concerns over the rollback of sexual and reproductive health rights, and rights for people who are lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex under President Trump has seen a resurgence of activism in recent years.118
There is a systematic and sinister erasing of LGBTQ protections and policies happening at the hands of this Administration. Now more than ever, its vital LGBTQ Americans and marginalised communities raise their voices and tell their stories. The LGBTQ community will not go into hiding, and we will not be silenced.
– Zeke Stokes, Chief Programs Officer at GLAAD.119
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Hiv Care & Viral Suppression
92% of people newly diagnosed with HIV in 2019 entered care within one month of their diagnosis .
Between January and June 2020, 77% of persons diagnosed were virally suppressed within six months .
Among all people living with HIV in San Francisco, 67% have their virus under control in 2020. . People who are virally suppressed have better health outcomes and do not transmit HIV to other people.
The proportions of persons with HIV who received care and were virally suppressed in 2019 were higher in San Francisco than in California and the U.S. .
Black/African Americans had a lower proportion of linkage to care and viral suppression. Trans women, persons aged 30-39 years, MSM-PWID, and persons experiencing homelessness at diagnosis had a lower proportion of viral suppression. .
Among persons diagnosed with AIDS in the years 2012-2019, survival probability at 36 months was lower among Black/African Americans and Whites compared to Latinx and Asians/ Pacific Islanders. .
Men Who Have Sex With Men
Men who have sex with men are the group most affected by HIV in the USA, accounting for an estimated 2% of the population, but 66% of new annual HIV infections.13 At the end of 2015, the most recent data available, around 632,300 USA-based men who have sex with men were living with HIV. One in six of these people were unaware they were HIV positive.14
Between 2010 and 2016, new HIV infections among men who have sex with men remained stable at about 26,000 a year.15 However, trends vary greatly by age and ethnicity. For example, new infections among African American/black men who have sex with men remained stable overall, at about 10,000 new infections but they increased by 65% among those aged 25 to 34 . Among Latino and Hispanic men who have sex with men, new infections rose by around 30%, from 6,400 to 8,300. Again, the greatest rise was among 25 to 34-year-olds, where new infections increased by 68%. Among white men who have sex with men, new infections decreased to less than a-fifth overall, from 8,000 to 6,700.16
In 2016, it was estimated that, if current diagnosis rates continued, one in six American men who have sex with men would be diagnosed with HIV in their lifetime. This equates to one in two African American/black men who have sex with men, one in four Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men and one in 11 white men who have sex with men.17
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Where Does The Majority Of New Hiv Diagnoses Occur
More than 50 percent of new HIV diagnoses in 2016 and 2017 occurred in 48 counties, Washington, D.C., and San Juan, Puerto Rico. These 50 jurisdictions are prioritized in phase I of Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America, along with seven states with a disproportionate occurrence of HIV in rural areas. Source: CDC.
Do Some Parts Of The Country Have More Hiv Than Other Parts
Yes. HIV is largely an urban disease, with most cases occurring in metropolitan areas with 500,000 or more people. The South has the highest number of people living with HIV, but if population size is taken into account, the Northeast has the highest rate of people living with HIV.
HIV in the United States by Geographic Distribution is a fact sheet that explains the geography of HIV in the United States.
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Which Us Region Sees The Highest Rates Of Hiv Diagnoses And Deaths
For answers, check out these nine takeaways from the report HIV in the U.S. Deep South: Trends From 20082019.
Looking at 11 years of HIV data in the United States, researchers found that the U.S. South, particularly the U.S. Deep South, experiences a disproportionate burden of HIV. For example, the nine states in the Deep South comprised 29% of the U.S. population in 2019 but accounted for nearly 44% of all new HIV diagnoses that year. That means the Deep South has the highest rate of new HIV cases. It also experiences the highest rate of HIV-related deaths.
The data are compiled in HIV in the U.S. Deep South: Trends From 20082019, a 24-page report created by the Southern AIDS Coalition, the Center for Health Policy and Inequalities Research at Duke University and the Duke Global Health Institute.
ICYMI: On #SHAAD, we announced the new trends report with our partners ! Read more about how were coming together to share data & bring more Southern community voices to the national level.
Southern AIDS Coalition
The Deep South consists of the following nine states, which share similar cultures: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas. The remaining Southern States are Arkansas, Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, Oklahoma, Virginia, West Virginia and the District of Columbia.
Below are two graphics from the report that illustrate overall trends in HIV diagnoses, comparing regions and Deep South states:
Top 10 States With The Highest Hiv/aids Rate In Nigeria
Do you want to know the 10 states with the highest HIV/AIDs rate in Nigeria? Read on to find out.
Nowadays, people dont die naturally again because the earth has worn a garment of deadly diseases. HIV/ AIDs has remained one of the deadly diseases that have taken many Nigerians to the great beyond as a result of their ignorance. I know you might be wondering why I used ignorance, I used it because many Nigerians still think HIV/AIDS is a spiritual attack from bad belle people. This might seem funny to you but its the gospel truth.
Though the common way of contracting this deadly virus is through virginal or anal sex, there are other ways, These include sharing of syringes or needles, piercings, blood transfusion, vaginal fluids or semen into open cuts or sore on the body. HIV currently has no cure but can be prevented and controlled with proper medication.
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How We Collected Data For This Report
All of the STD data found in our report including case statistics for HIV, syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia are from the CDCs latest data release from April 2021. Syphilis data includes only primary and secondary syphilis cases and does not include congenital and early latent syphilis cases. HIV cases are not reported for some cities. Statistics for other relatively common STDs, such as herpes, are not collected by the CDC at this time and hence are left out of our analysis. For more information about which statistics the CDC does and does not track, see its STD Data & Statistics page.
All estimated metro area and state population data is from the CDC and the US Census Bureau. For our interactive map, our research team decided to use counties as visual proxies for most metro areas. The CDC does not have STD data for all US counties.
For our rankings, we chose to include only city metro areas with an estimated population of 200,000 or more. Though Washington, DC is technically a district, we chose to include it as a city. No statistical testing was used during the production of this research.
Cities With The Highest Hiv Rates
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Around 1.1 million people are living with HIV in the United States of America . Nearly one in seven of these people are unaware they have HIV. The size of the HIV epidemic is relatively small compared to the countrys population but is heavily concentrated among several key affected populations. Around 70% of annual new HIV infections occur among gay and other men who have sex with men , among whom African American/Black men are most affected, followed by Latino/Hispanic men.
Heterosexual African American/Black women and transgender women of all ethnicities are also disproportionately affected.
According to GetTested.com, HIV infection rates in Baltimore are on the rise due to a lack of education. HIV is a lifelong infection that, if left untreated, can lead to AIDS , according to HIV.gov.
AIDS occurs when a persons immune system becomes damaged, and people who are diagnosed with AIDS typically survive about three years.
With antiretroviral therapy, someone who is HIV-positive can keep the illness under control and reduce their risk of infecting others.
Moving down the list from number 4 last year to number seven this year, more than 1,000 people are diagnosed with HIV each year in Atlanta. Whats even more interesting is that 50 percent of those people arent diagnosed until they already have AIDS.
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List Of Countries By Hiv/aids Adult Prevalence Rate
|This article needs to be . Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
The human immunodeficiency virus , which causes AIDS, varies in prevalence from nation to nation. Listed here are the prevalence rates among adults in various countries, based on data from various sources, largely the CIA World Factbook.
As of 2018, 38 million people are estimated infected with HIV globally.
The HIV pandemic is most severe in Southern Africa. Over 10% of all people infected with HIV/AIDS reside within the region. Adult HIV prevalence exceeds 15% in Eswatini, Botswana, and Lesotho, while an additional six countries report adult HIV prevalence of at least 10%. Outside Africa, the highest prevalence rate is found in the Bahamas .
In absolute numbers, South Africa , followed by Mozambique , India and Nigeria had the highest HIV/AIDS number of cases by the end of 2019. While South Africa’s large population of HIV-positive people is attributable to its high disease prevalence , Nigeria’s is lower at 1.3%, with India’s prevalence rate at 0.2%. However, countries such as Nigeria with high HIV rates above 1% are classified as having Generalized HIV Epidemics by UNAIDS, while India’s prevalence is well below this threshold, with a prevalence lower than the US’s and about the same as France.
Impact Across The Country
- Although HIV has been reported in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, and U.S. dependencies, the impact of the epidemic is not uniformly distributed.
- Ten states accounted for about two-thirds of HIV diagnoses among adults and adolescents in 2019 .31 Regionally, the South accounted for more than half of HIV diagnoses in 2019.32
- Rates of HIV diagnoses per 100,000 provide a different measure of the epidemicâs impact, since they reflect the concentration of diagnoses after accounting for differences in population size across states. The District of Columbia has the highest rate in the nation, compared to states, nearly 3 times the national rate and Georgia was the state with highest rate , twice that of the national rate.33,34 Nine of the top 10 states by rate are in the South.35
- New HIV diagnoses are concentrated primarily in large U.S. metropolitan areas , with Miami, Orlando, and Atlanta topping the list of the areas most heavily burdened.36
|Table 1: Top Ten States/Areas by Number and Rate of New HIV Diagnoses , 2019
|CDC. HIV Surveillance Report, Diagnoses of HIV Infection in the United States and Dependent Areas, 2019 vol. 32. May 2021.
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Florida Leads The Nation In New Hiv Cases
Florida leads the U.S. in the number of new HIV cases and has the nations third highest infection rate, according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data.
The state reported almost 4,400 new HIV infections in 2019, the most recent data available for the federal agencys HIV surveillance report. Floridas infection rate averages out to 23.7 cases per 100,000 people, trailing only the District of Columbia and Georgia. Florida is also well above the national average rate of 13.
Hillsborough and Pinellas counties have been listed by the federal government as among 48 areas of concern in the nationbased on infection rates. Hillsborough reported 266 cases in 2019 and another 184 people in Pinellas were diagnosed with the virus.
Despite the increase, Floridas 2019 caseload is still below 4,700 infections it recorded in 2016. But Tampa Bay groups that work with AIDS patients remain concerned that people are putting themselves at risk because of a lack of awareness that theyre infected and could potentially transmit it and the availability of antiretroviral medications allows those who have HIV to lead relatively normal lives.
There is also concern that Florida is failing to persuade enough people to use PrEP, or pre-exposure prophylaxis, a daily medication targeted at high risk individuals that significantly reduces the risk of catching HIV.
I want to say, Whats wrong with these people?