A Complex Interplay Of Factors
While a few interviewees explained their infection in termsof a single factor, most participants thought that a combination of factors contributedto risk behaviours and HIV infection.
The sex and the drugs and the apps all intertwinedsimultaneously and I cant really say which one led to the other.
The researchers note that there was often an interplaybetween individual, community and structural factors. For example, one man inhis twenties felt that his self-harming sexual behaviours stemmed fromchildhood and a violent relationship with his mother, but also highlighted therole of the abusive environment, including gay saunas.
I think with the sex, I think itsenvironment,especially in South London. The increase of risk sex, chemsex, is becoming anepidemic, in my opinion. You hear of so many young gay men now who arepositiveand through this lifestyle. Its very hedonistic, really nastyIthink, subsequently, living in South London has made me get HIV.
Psychological issuesand drug use were often mentioned in combination. For example, a man in hisforties identified the important factors in his HIV infection as:
The drugsbut also depression because I didnt careabout taking risksI gave up.
Some participantswho had experienced stressful events suggested that changing perceptions of HIVhad consciously, or subconsciously, influenced their behaviour. Risk-benefitdecisions were altered.
Do All Gay People Have Aids
By | Oct. 11, 2010, 6:53 p.m.
Do all gay people have AIDS?
No, absolutely not. HIV the human immunodeficiency virus that causes AIDS can infect anyone who has unprotected sex or shares IV drug equipment with someone who has HIV. It doesnt matter if a person is gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, or straight. Both women and men get HIV. In fact, the fastest growing group of people with HIV is heterosexual women.
These are the other ways a person can get HIV:
- getting HIV-infected blood, semen, or vaginal secretions into open wounds or sores
- being deeply punctured with a needle or surgical instrument contaminated with the virus
HIV can also be passed from a woman to her fetus during pregnancy or birth.
Why Do Gay Men Have An Increased Risk Of Hiv
In the United States, gay men are at a disproportionately high risk of getting HIV and AIDS. In 2016, 68% of all HIV infections in the U.S. affected men who have sex with men. The risk is even higher for gay black men. Why are gay men more likely to get HIV?
There are several reasons why gay and bisexual men are at higher risk of HIV than their straight counterparts. Some of the reasons are based on certain types of sex that result in greater risk of infection due to how HIV is biologically transmitted. Other reasons reflect social realities about how men who have sex with men live in the world and are treated by society.
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Tops Bottoms And Prep: What You Need To Know About Hiv Prevention
Nearly 70% of people living with HIV are homosexual and bisexual men and thankfully the use of PrEP for HIV prevention is increasing among this group. According to a recent study, the number of gay and bisexual males taking PrEP increased by 500% from 2014 to 2017. However, only 35% of gay and bisexual males who were at high-risk of HIV transmission were taking the medication.
It is important that everyone takes the proper precautions to protect themselves from HIV transmission. While some people are at more risk than others due to lifestyle choices or other practices, there is a common misconception that your risk of HIV transmission is higher or lower depending on your sexual orientation or preferred sexual position.
PrEP is designed to help protect any person regardless of sexual orientation from HIV transmission. But, you may be wondering if PrEP could affect you differently or be more or less effective depending on if you are a top, bottom, or vers.
For instance, many tops assume they do not need to take PrEP since they are at a lower risk of contracting HIV than a bottom since they are not penetrated.
So, does PrEP work differently for tops and bottoms?
Well first, lets explain what puts you most at risk for HIV transmission and why you should consider taking PrEP in the first place regardless of sexual orientation.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Hiv
Within a few weeks of getting HIV, some people get flu-like symptoms that last for a week or two, but others have no symptoms at all. After initial infection, people may not have any symptoms for years. HIV can be controlled with the right medical treatment and care. However, if its left untreated, it may develop into AIDS .
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Causes Of Increased Risk
Understanding the stark differences in lifetime HIV risk is not always easy. The common, knee-jerk response might be to conclude, dispassionately, that sexual practices paired with cultural attitudes and behavior are the sole factors that place gay black men at such profoundly high risk.
But the simple fact is that gay black men in the U.S. sit in the epicenter of numerous intersecting vulnerabilities, which together make infection all but inevitable in certain individuals.
From a broader social perspective, it is known that any epidemicbe it HIV or any other communicable diseasetends to strike groups that are stigmatized well in advance of the disease event. This happens because there are generally few systems in place to intervene, either medically and legally, and often little interest to act from those outside the stigmatized population.
We saw this in the early part of the AIDS epidemic in the 1980s, when gay men, just emerging from an era of police abuse and judicial apathy, were hit by a wave of infections with no means to stop it, There was nothing in the way of gay health services or advocacy groups to combat inaction on either the state or federal level.
So, with deaths rising from the hundreds to thousands, the gay community took it upon themselves , to mount their own healthcare services and civil action groups .
It’s a vicious cycle that only further stigmatizes gay black men while fueling the already high new infection rate.
Anal Sex Without A Condom
HIV can be transmitted through sex without a condom or other barrier method.
The chance of transmission is higher during anal sex without a condom or other barrier method than vaginal sex without a condom or other barrier method.
This is because the skin around the anus is thinner than the skin around the vagina, so small tears are more likely to occur during anal sex.
Someone without HIV is more likely to contract the virus during anal sex if they are the receptive partner .
Early diagnosis and treatment for HIV are important. Treatment with antiretroviral therapy prevents progression to AIDS. It can also reduce the virus to undetectable levels, at which point it cant be transmitted to others.
The CDC recommends that MSM get tested for HIV at least once a year. People at higher risk of HIV may benefit from more frequent testing, such as every 3 to 6 months.
Not all MSM follow these recommendations. As a result, some may have HIV without realizing it. This can lead to delays in treatment and increase the chances of transmission.
As of 2018, approximately 1 in 6 MSM with HIV in the United States didnt know they had the virus, reports the . In that same year, per the CDC, only 65 out of 100 gay and bisexual men with HIV in the United States received some HIV care.
Some MSM dont seek testing or treatment due to homophobic stigma or fear of discrimination.
Medications are available to reduce your likelihood of acquiring HIV.
In 2017, the CDC reported, PrEP was taken by:
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How Do I Get Prep
PrEP can only be prescribed by a doctor, so you will need to talk to a physician about taking it. Your doctor may ask you some questions to determine your risk factors for HIV transmission and then discuss your options.
You will first need to be tested to ensure that you do not currently have HIV. This involves a simple blood test and the results will be available in a matter of days.If you have insurance, the cost of HIV should be completely covered or you may have to make a small co-pay. Some or all of your medication costs may also be covered under Medicare or Medicaid. If you do not have insurance, there are some options to help you be able to afford PrEP, including the Cost Assistance program from Gilead.
Mental Health: A Major Issue Affecting Hiv In Lgbtq Communities
LGBTQ people are disproportionately at risk for a variety of mental health issues, including major depression, bipolar disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. These issues can lead to detrimental outcomes, like drug use, suicideand, of course, HIV.
Poor LGBTQ mental health comes from a myriad of factors. Some are societal, including the stigma and shame associated in some communities with having a queer or transgender identity. Others are interpersonal, like the need to stay in the closet or the fear of being outed. Often, queer and transgender children are told that they are not good at performing their assigned gender, which can lead them to internalize a sense of failure early in their lives.
Most of the research studying LGBTQ people and mental health centers around gay and bisexual men. Researchers tend to consider mental illness and HIV to be a syndemic in gay and bisexual men, meaning they intertwine with one anothereach epidemic perpetuates the other. Depression, trauma, and substance use are all linked to HIV acquisition risk in different ways.
In addition, as with so many other health disparities in the U.S., racism worsens the impact of mental health issues on people living with HIV.
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Responses To The Gay Voice
I believe that gay men use a female persona to be campy. It’s a form of acting a part in a movie or a play, except that the audience is anyone within earshot!
This article seems to be addressing a stereotype rather than looking at why this is a topic at all.
I have always thought that gay men tend to speak far more quickly than straight men do. Of the gay friends I have/have had/I have met, they always tend to speak very quickly, compared with straight men.
I wonder if it was a genetic attribute. For example, some male singers who have higher ranges and more “feminine” sounding voices cannot be differentiated from a female the majority have been gay. This could further back studies that argue sexuality is a genetic attribute.
I have a family member who is gay. We are close in age and I’ve always known he was gay. He’s always had “the voice” – even as a small child. It wasn’t a learned thing with him, he literally sprang from the womb knowing who and what he was, just not how to articulate it. But the voice he eventually articulated it in? That had always been there.
I believe some men are born with the so-called gay-sounding voice. I knew two boys as a child who had the stereotypical lisp and came out later in life.
Anal Intercourse Between Men And Women
Anal intercourse between men and women has generally not received as much attention as anal intercourse between men. However, there is evidence that anal sex is practised by large numbers of sexually active adults. In 2010, 11% of women and 13% of men in the United Kingdom report having anal intercourse in the past year, with younger generations being more likely to report it .
Unprotected heterosexual anal sex probably plays an important role in HIV transmission among heterosexuals, although reliable estimates are lacking .
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How Do I Lower My Risk For Stds
You can do many things to protect your health. You can learn about how STDs are spread and how you can reduce your chances of getting an STD.
- Talk honestly with your partner about STDs and getting testedbefore you have sex.
- Use a condom correctly and use one every time you have sex.
- Think twice about mixing alcohol and/or drugs with sex. They can lower your ability to make good decisions and can lead to risky behaviorlike having sex without a condom.
- Limit your number of sexual partners. You can lower your chances of getting STDs if you only have sex with one person who only has sex with you.
- To find out more about lowering your chances of getting HIV, please go to the HIV section of this website.
Risks To Insertive And Receptive Partners
There is a widespread belief among gay men that the insertive partner is at very low risk of HIV infection. It is true that HIV infection occurs less frequently in men who solely take the insertive role than in men who engage in both roles, or men who practise receptive anal intercourse only .
However, being the insertive partner in condomless sex remains a high-risk activity. The per-act risk for the insertive partner in anal sex is comparable to the per-act risk for the male partner in vaginal sex.
The receptive partner is at risk of infection from HIV in the semen and pre-seminal fluids of the infected partner. Rectal tissue is delicate and easily damaged, which can give the virus direct access to the bloodstream. However, such tissue damage is not necessary for infection to occur: the rectal tissue itself is rich in cells which are directly susceptible to infection.
The insertive partner is also at risk of infection, as there are high levels of HIV in rectal secretions, as well as blood from the rectal tissues . This creates a risk of transmission to the insertive partner through the tissue in the urethra and on the head of the penis particularly underneath the foreskin.
Several systematic reviews of studies have calculated that condomless receptive anal intercourse posed approximately ten to twelve times greater risk of infection than insertive anal intercourse.
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I Felt Bombs Were Dropping
A year before King’s life-changing phone call, in 1984, Nelson Vergel was settling into Houston. An immigrant from Venezuela, Vergel told NBC News he left his home country because he was gay and seeking a more supportive environment. As an aspiring chemical engineer, he also wanted to attend a better school. When he met and fell in love with his boyfriend, Calvin, at a chemical engineering conference in Houston, Vergel decided to live there.
The gay plague, as it was referred to at the time, was rocking the nation. But it was thought to be confined to the coasts, to San Francisco, Los Angeles and New York. Vergel was 24, a recent immigrant ready to try to make it in the U.S. with a new boyfriend on his arm and a promising career ahead of him. Then Calvin got tested behind his back.
Back then, we werent keen to get tested, because there was nothing you could do, and the stress would just kill you faster, Vergel said. Calvin got tested without me knowing and told me he was positive. I got tested right away, and I found out.
Amid the depression that followed his diagnosis, Vergels friends began to die. He “recloseted” himself, he said, both at work and in the gay community. At work, he didnt want anyone to know he was gay. At the gay clubs, he didnt want anyone to know he was HIV positive.
He intended to come to the U.S. for a new life, but instead, he said it felt like he “came to this country to die.”
Where We Are Now: 2000
Since 2000, additional factors have begun contribute to the the global spread of HIV. Heroin addiction in Asia has been on the rise, which brought with it dirty needles and the risk of new infections. India suffered with over 2 million diagnoses alone, in spite of the government’s refusal to admit the epidemic had adversely affected the nation.
The WHO released its comprehensive report examining HIV and AIDS in all of its 25-year history in 2010. This report had good news for developed nations: by 2008, the U.S. domestic HIV infection rate was considered effectively stable, and has remained so to this day. The report also demonstrated that while insistent public awareness campaigns about safe sex and other methods of transmission had slowed the rate of HIV infection in developed countries, there was much to be done elsewhere.
Global Education and Aid Efforts
Under President Bush, the U.S. committed funds to help African countries, but the funds were mismanaged and the spread of HIV continued unabated. Of the 4.1 million cases in sub-Saharan Africa then, only 1% received the available drugs. This led to the WHO’s declaration of the failure to treat the 6 million AIDS patients living in developing nations as a global public health emergency.
HIV Denialism Disrupts Aid
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What Does Prep Do
PrEP is a medication that helps to reduce the risk of HIV transmission by preventing the virus from multiplying or growing within the body. PrEP is a combination of two drugs which help to fight off infection and also stop HIV from reproducing within a healthy host.
Before a person can be prescribed PrEP by their doctor, they must first be tested for HIV. PrEP is intended to be taken before a person is exposed therefore, if they already have HIV, they need to seek another HIV treatment as opposed to PrEP.
PrEP must be taken daily for at least seven days before it is effective at preventing HIV transmission through anal sex. This is because PrEP tends to collect in the colorectal tissue first before it is more present in other bodily tissues. However, it is still recommended that condoms are used during intercourse for additional protection.