Tuesday, September 20, 2022

Why Does Anal Sex Cause Hiv

Who Has Ai To What Extent Is It Practiced In Heterosexual Populations

STIs: What you need to know

AI appears to be almost ubiquitous across populations, age groups, and countries, with some studies reporting that up to 20% or more of selected populations in America, Africa, and elsewhere have ever engaged in AI., For example, among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa, 0 to 43% have reported ever having practiced AI, with 40% of FSW from Kenya reporting AI in the previous 3 months . In comparison, among the general population in sub-Saharan Africa, where the majority of HIV-infected individuals live, prevalence ranged from 2% reporting ever having had AI in Kenya to 20% of Angolan soldiers reporting it in the previous 3 months and 28% of sexually transmitted infection clinic attendees in South Africa reporting it with their current partner . Among young populations in sub-Saharan Africa, often in those where HIV incidence is highest, rates have ranged from 1.3% of South African high school students reporting ever having had AI to 56% and 64% of university students in Nigeria and Zimbabwe, respectively, reporting its practice in the previous 2 months . Studies have found differences in gender for various sexual behaviors in Western countries, including for AI, with some studies suggesting that men are more likely to report experience of AI., However, a systematic review of AI practice is required to formally investigate differences by gender in other settings.

The Myth: Your Anus Will Get All Stretched Out

The truth: Just like the myth that the vagina gets irreparably stretched out from childbirth, this is also a misconception. There were rumors in the late 70s of groups of men who engaged in so much anal activity that they actually lost control of their bowel movements. Regular, healthy use of anal sex will not lead to this outcome. Through regular anal sex, your anus does learn to become more relaxed, but much of that has to do with your ability to relax yourself mentally for the act. And we all know that the vagina accommodates a wide range of penises, so the anus can toowith the right introduction.

The Myth: Only Sluts Have Anal Sex

The truth: Youve always heard that bad girls are the only ones willing to have anal sex. In actuality, anal sex was once voted the number one taboo sexual behavior that heterosexual couples want to try. So obviously, we all cant be sluts. Theres a natural curiosity about our bodies and if there is pleasure to be had, you should feel you can explore that in a safe and healthy way.

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I Had Unprotected Anal Sex What Are The Chances Of Having Hiv

By | June 28, 2011, 9:41 p.m.

Category:

I had unprotected anal sex with another man for the first time in over a year. We were versatile and used a lot of lube. I asked him about his HIV status and he said he was negative but, Im still not sure. He precummed and cummed outside of my body well after anal sex but, still precum may have gotten inside of me at some point, Im not sure. What are the chances of having HIV? Im still getting tested but, this happened just a week ago.

Like unprotected vaginal sex, unprotected anal sex is high risk for many sexually transmitted infections, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, herpes, hepatitis, HIV, and syphilis. While many of these can be diagnosed immediately by getting tested, it generally takes at least three months for HIV antibodies to show up on a test.

The fact that your partner ejaculated outside of your body decreases the chance of HIV transmission, but its impossible for us to tell you what the chances are that you contracted HIV. The only way you can know that is by getting tested.

Its important to remember that about one out of three people will lie about their infection status in order to have sex, so always protect yourself and use a condom whether or not partners say they are negative.

Good luck with your test.

Tags:STDs, anal sex, HIV

When Is The Risk Greater

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These risk factors can increase the chances for transmission of HIV:

  • Status: Risk varies based on whether the person with HIV is giving or receiving oral sex. If the person with HIV is receiving oral sex, the person giving it may have a higher risk. Mouths may have more openings in the skin or lesions. Saliva, on the other hand, is not a carrier of the virus.
  • Viral load: The risk of contracting HIV is higher if the person with HIV has a high viral load. Higher viral loads increase infectivity.
  • Ejaculation: During oral sex, ejaculation may increase risk for sharing the virus, but ejaculation alone isnt the only possible way of contracting HIV.
  • Cuts or sores: Openings in the mouth, vagina, anus, or on the penis are possible routes for HIV. These may be cuts or lesions from another infection or condition. For example, HIV-related infections like candidiasis can cause sores that compromise the integrity of the tissue in the mouth. Any break in the skin puts a person at risk for transmitting or contracting the virus.
  • Menstruation: HIV-bearing cells do shed from the cervix during menstruation. Coming into contact with menstrual blood with the mouth may increase contraction risk.
  • Urethritis: This condition causes inflammation and irritation in the urethra. It may increase the chances of HIV contraction, too. People with HIV are likely to shed the virus when they have this condition.

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How Can You Prevent Getting Or Transmitting Hiv Through Sex

There are several ways to prevent getting or transmitting HIV through anal or vaginal sex.

If you are HIV-negative, you can use HIV prevention medicine known as pre-exposure prophylaxis or post-exposure prophylaxis to protect yourself. You can also use other HIV prevention methods, below.

If you have HIV, the most important thing you can do to prevent transmission and stay healthy is to take your HIV medicine , every day, exactly as prescribed. People living with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners. Read more about Treatment as Prevention. There also are other options to choose from, below.

Hiv And Maternal Transmission

HIV can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or through breastfeeding. If left untreated throughout these stages, there is a 15-45% chance of an HIV positive mother transmitting the virus to their child . However there are treatment options to prevent this from happening.

If pregnancy occurs and there has been potential HIV exposure, ask a healthcare provider about getting tested for HIV as early as possible. Taking medications called antiretroviral therapy as prescribed can reduce the viral load so that the baby has a very low chance of contracting HIV .

A person with HIV should not breastfeed their child, as breast milk can transmit HIV. Even if a person is taking ART and their viral loads are undetectable, they should still not breastfeed.

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Factors That Affect Men Who Have Sex With Men

In the United States, gay men are affected by human immunodeficiency virus more than any other people. Men who have sex with men is a term that refers to gay men as well as those who may identify in other ways, such as bisexual or heterosexual. MSM are disproportionately at risk of acquiring HIV.

While men who have sex with men represent only 2% to 7% of the U.S. population, 70% of all new HIV infections in 2019 were in this group. One-third of these were among Black MSM.

There are many reasons for this and several risk factors unique to men who have sex with men that can compound the odds of infection. It is these overlapping risk factors that account for the high rate of HIV among this group.

This article takes a closer look at four key factorsphysiological, sexual, social, and culturalthat place gay men and other men who have sex with men at the highest risk of HIV compared to all other groups.

How To Reduce The Risk

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To minimize these risks, a person should take some precautions to prevent the skin from tearing:

  • Use a water-based lubricant to minimize friction-related tears.
  • Change condoms if moving from anal to vaginal sex to avoid introducing different bacterial forms to each.
  • Move slowly until a person establishes enough lubrication.
  • Slow or stop anal sex if a person experiences pain or discomfort.
  • Using spermicides can also increase the risk of anal irritation. People should avoid them during anal sex.

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    Talk With Your Partner

    Anal sex shouldnt be a surprise request mid-tryst, and no Oops! It slipped! excuses here thatd be a major violation of trust and consent. If youre interested in trying anal sex, have a conversation with your partner. Just out with it one day, and let them know youre curious.

    If the feeling is mutual, adventure awaits. If one of you decides anal sex just isnt your thing, thats OK. There are lots of options for spicing things up in the bedroom without adding anal sex.

    What Is The Main Cause Of Hiv Aids

    Humanimmunodeficiency virus is responsible for the transmission of HIV. Blood, semen, or vaginal fluids that have been infected with HIV can cause the disease. In most cases, people who have HIV are infected by having unprotected sex with someone who has the virus. In addition to sharing needles, HIV-positive people are also more likely to acquire the disease through drug use.

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    Younger Men Weren’t Around For The Height Of The Hiv/aids Epidemic

    Among men who have sex with men, the youngest population saw the largest increase in annual HIV diagnoses by far. But the change in HIV diagnoses varied among older age groups.

    “I don’t think it’s really clear why we’re seeing different patterns across different age groups,” Lansky says. “But we do know some of the things that I think in particular are affecting the younger men.”

    One explanation commonly voiced by other HIV/AIDS experts and advocates is that younger populations are less likely to know the dangers of the disease, because they weren’t around during the height of the HIV epidemic in the 1980s and early 1990s. During this era, the disease quickly spread throughout the world, and few treatment and prevention options were known. The disease ravaged the gay community in particular, infecting and killing millions.

    Older gay and bisexual populations who lived through the height of the HIV epidemic do appear more likely to practice safe sex, based on CDC data for HIV-negative or HIV-unknown men in 20 US cities with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. About 60 percent of under-40 gay and bisexual men said they had anal sex without a condom in the past year. Only half of gay and bisexual men 40 and older reported having anal sex without a condom in the same time span.

    “I don’t think it’s really clear why we’re seeing different patterns across different age groups”

    The Myth: You Should Use A Desensitizing Lube During Anal Sex

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    The truth: You absolutely should not use a desensitizing or numbing lube during anal. While the idea of a lube to help ease you into anal seems good at first, in reality you should never use one of these during anal, or any sex, really. Why? Pain is your bodys way of letting you know to slow your roll. If you dont feel any discomfort during sex because your anus is numbed TF out, you may still feel discomfort later on and worse, you wont have the option to go back in time and slow down. Not only that, but desensitizing lubes can also potentially keep you and your partner from enjoying the pleasurable experience of anal, adds King.

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    The Myth: You Need An Enema First

    The truth: Mmm, pretty sure theres no such thing as needing an enema before a sex act. But understandably, a major concern about anal sex is that itll make you poop. First off, its highly unlikely that youll actually poop because of anal stimulation. But if youre extremely worried about it, there are a few things you can do to avoid An Accident. The most obvious thing is to act like youre preparing for a road trip by going to the bathroom before you embark on this venture. And avoid things like, you know, black bean tacos or that takeout you know always gives you crazy poops. You may feel like you have to go, because anal penetration stimulates the muscles around your rectum in a similar way to having a bowel movement, but that doesnt necessarily mean you will.

    Access To Antiretroviral Treatment For Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Accurate statistics comparing treatment access among men who have sex with men is rarely available. What evidence exists suggests uptake is fairly limited.80

    Worldwide, only 40% of men who have sex with men living with HIV are thought to be accessing treatment. Those living in low- and middle-income countries generally report the lowest access to ART, with especially low rates in countries which criminalise same-sex behaviour.81 Reasons cited for such low access include homophobia, stigma and discrimination. These can cause men who have sex with men to delay, interrupt or avoid treatment altogether. Experiencing these reactions from healthcare workers is also given as a predominant reason.82

    For example, between 10% and 40% of HIV-positive men who have sex with men in Burkina Faso, Côte dIvoire, Eswatini and Lesotho avoid or delay healthcare due to fear of stigmatising behaviour towards them from healthcare providers.83

    In Moscow, where LGBT rights are broadly denied, a survey looking at the treatment care cascade among men who have sex with men found that just 36% of those who knew their HIV status were accessing antiretroviral therapy, and just under two-thirds of those accessing treatment were virally suppressed.84

    WHO has produced comprehensive guidance on HIV services for men who have sex with men and recommends that adherence can be increased significantly by addressing HIV stigma and discrimination.

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    The Myth: As Someone Pegging Your Partner You Wont Be Able To Orgasm

    The truth: Not true! Orgasming is much more than just being penetrated , and many pegging toys have built-in vibrators or pockets for vibrators you can use. Some pegging strap-ons are even strapless meaning you hold the dildo inside your vagina using your pelvic muscles to peg your partner. And of course, youre also more than free to touch yourself while pegging your partner.

    How Does Hiv Spread

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    HIV spreads when infected blood, semen or vaginal fluids enter the body. Because symptoms can be mild at first, people with HIV might not know they’re infected. They can spread HIV to others without knowing it.

    HIV can spread:

    • during sex
    • through sharing needles for injecting drugs or tattooing

    HIV also can pass from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.

    HIV does not spread through:

    • pee, poop, spit, throw-up, or sweat
    • coughing or sneezing
    • sharing eating utensils or drinking glasses

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    The Impact Of Hiv Treatment On Transmission Risk

    As previously noted, almost all the studies come from the pre-HAART era. The investigators therefore carried out mathematical modelling work to estimate reductions in the transmission risk in individuals with a suppressed viral load.

    To do this they used two different calculations for the relationship between viral load and transmission, derived from studies with heterosexuals in Uganda and Zambia.

    The first calculation has been widely used by other researchers. In it, each log increase in viral load is assumed to increase transmission 2.45-fold. While this 2.45-fold relationship is thought to be accurate for viral loads between 400 and 10,000 copies/ml, Baggaley and colleagues believe that it overestimates transmission both at lower and higher viral loads.

    The second, more complex, calculation reflects transmission being extremely rare at low viral loads and also transmission rates being pretty constant at higher viral loads.

    Using the first method, the HIV transmission risk for unprotected receptive anal intercourse is 0.06%, which is 96% lower than without treatment. However using the second method, the predicted transmission risk would be 0.0011%, which is 99.9% lower than without treatment.

    Extrapolating from these figures, the authors calculated the risk of HIV transmission in a relationship involving 1000 acts of unprotected receptive anal intercourse. Using the first method, the risk would be 45.6% and using the second method it would be 1.1%.

    What Factors Put Men Who Have Sex With Men At Risk Of Hiv

    The fact that HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men is so high in many countries means that members of this group have an increased chance of being exposed to the virus. This is mainly due to having unprotected sex.10 However, there are other factors that put men who have sex with men at heightened risk of HIV.

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    Who Is More At Risk Of Anal Fissure

    Anal fissure can develop in people at any age. But younger people are more at risk as they have tight anal sphincter. As people get older, the anal sphincter starts to loosen up reducing the risk of developing anal fissure. People who had suffered from instances of fissure in the past are also more at risk of fissure.

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