Tuesday, September 27, 2022

What Is Hiv And Aids

Mode Of Transmission Of The Hiv

What Is HIV?

The virus spreads primarily by the following routes:

  • Sexual transmission having unprotected sex with a person who is HIV positive. It may be vaginal, anal or oral sex between a male and a female or between two males. Having multiple sexual partners or the presence of other sexually transmitted diseases also increases the risk.
  • Sharing of needles or syringes by the drug addicts.
  • Bloodborneinfected mothers can transmit this infection to babies during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
  • Contaminated blood transfusion.

Resources For Hiv And Aids Prevention

These are among the U.S. government agencies that provide helpful information for individuals and health care professionals about the most effective approaches for preventing the spread of HIV and AIDS.

Can Hiv Be Prevented

To reduce the risk of getting HIV, people who are sexually active should:

  • use a condom every time they have sex
  • get tested for HIV and make sure all partners do too
  • reduce their number of sexual partners
  • get tested and treated for STDs having an STD increases the risk of HIV infection
  • consider taking a medicine every day if they are at very high risk of getting infected

For everyone:

  • Do not inject drugs or share any kind of needle.
  • Do not share razors or other personal objects that may touch blood.
  • Do not touch anyone else’s blood from a cut or sore.

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Who Should Be Tested For Hiv

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends all people between the ages of 13 and 64 get tested for HIV at least once as a part of routine health care. People at high risk of contracting HIV should be tested at least once a year. High risk groups include men who have sex with men, people who inject drugs, those who have sexually-transmitted infections, and those who have multiple sex partners. Several different types of tests are available to detect HIV. At-home tests are available that may provide results in as soon as 20 or 30 minutes. If you test negative for HIV but have recently engaged in high-risk behavior, get retested 3 months later because it can take that long for the body to make HIV antibodies.

Having A Medication Routine

World AIDS Day

Taking HIV medication as prescribed is essential missing even a few doses might jeopardize the treatment.

A person should design a daily medication-taking routine that fits their treatment plan and schedule.

Sometimes, side effects keep people from sticking with their treatment plans. If any side effect is hard to manage, contact a healthcare provider. They can recommend a drug that is easier to tolerate and suggest other changes to the treatment plan.

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What Is The Outlook For Someone With Hiv/aids

If you are diagnosed with HIV and you start ART soon after, your immune system will not be as compromised. If you continue to take your medicines every day, your outlook is very good.

ART can keep blood levels undetectable but cannot entirely rid the body of the virus . If you do not keep up on your medication, the virus goes back into the blood.

If you have HIV and dont treat it, it can take about 10 years to lead to AIDS. If you have AIDS and dont treat it, the survival rate is about three years.

It is so important to know that people who have HIV and who follow treatment guidelines are able to live full lives for nearly as long as HIV-negative people.

Where Did Hiv Come From

The earliest known case of infection with HIV-1 in a human was detected in a blood sample collected in 1959 from a man in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Genetic analysis of this blood sample suggested that HIV-1 may have stemmed from a single virus in the late 1940s or early 1950s.

We know that the virus has existed in the United States since at least the mid- to late 1970s. From 19791981 rare types of pneumonia, cancer, and other illnesses were being reported by doctors in Los Angeles and New York among a number of male patients who had sex with other men. These were conditions not usually found in people with healthy immune systems.

In 1982 public health officials began to use the term “acquired immunodeficiency syndrome,” or AIDS, to describe the occurrences of opportunistic infections, Kaposi’s sarcoma , and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in previously healthy people. Formal tracking of AIDS cases began that year in the United States.

In 1983, scientists discovered the virus that causes AIDS. The virus was at first named HTLV-III/LAV by an international scientific committee. This name was later changed to HIV .

For more information on this discovery, visit the NIH National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases press release. For information on the theory that HIV originated in polio vaccines, visit the CDC Vaccine Safety site.

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Who Is At Risk For Hiv

Anyone can get HIV at any age, but certain populations are more at risk than others. Men who have sex with other men and people who inject drugs are at high risk of contracting HIV. Infected mothers who are pregnant may pass the virus on to the fetus in utero. Infected moms may also pass the HIV virus on to their babies in breast milk. A man who is infected may pass the virus on to a woman. Approximately 1.1 million people in the United States were living with HIV as of 2014. About 1 in 7 people who have HIV do not know they have it.

Spread To The Western Hemisphere

What is HIV and AIDS? | Transmission, Prevention, Treatment | Infectious Diseases | Don’t Memorise

Further isolated occurrences of this infection may have been emerging as early as 1966. The virus eventually entered gay male communities in large United States cities, where a combination of casual, multi-partner sexual activity and relatively high transmission rates associated with anal intercourse allowed it to spread explosively enough to finally be noticed.

Because of the long incubation period of HIV before symptoms of AIDS appear, and because of the initially low incidence, HIV was not noticed at first. By the time the first reported cases of AIDS were found in large United States cities, the prevalence of HIV infection in some communities had passed 5%. Worldwide, HIV infection has spread from urban to rural areas, and has appeared in regions such as China and India.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Hiv/aids

The first signs of HIV infection may be flu-like symptoms:

  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Mouth ulcers

These symptoms may come and go within two to four weeks. This stage is called acute HIV infection.

If the infection is not treated, it becomes chronic HIV infection. Often, there are no symptoms during this stage. If it is not treated, eventually the virus will weaken your body’s immune system. Then the infection will progress to AIDS. This is the late stage of HIV infection. With AIDS, your immune system is badly damaged. You can get more and more severe infections. These are known as opportunistic infections .

Some people may not feel sick during the earlier stages of HIV infection. So the only way to know for sure whether you have HIV is to get tested.

Unresolved Questions About Hiv Origins And Emergence

The discovery of the main HIV / SIV phylogenetic relationships permits explaining broad HIV biogeography: the early centres of the HIV-1 groups were in Central Africa, where the primate reservoirs of the related SIVcpz and SIVgor viruses exist similarly, the HIV-2 groups had their centres in West Africa, where sooty mangabeys, which harbour the related SIVsmm virus, exist. However, these relationships do not explain more detailed patterns of biogeography, such as why epidemic HIV-2 groups only evolved in the Ivory Coast, which is one of only six countries harbouring the sooty mangabey. It is also unclear why the SIVcpz endemic in the chimpanzee subspecies Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii did not spawn an epidemic HIV-1 strain to humans, while the Democratic Republic of Congo was the main centre of HIV-1 group M, a virus descended from SIVcpz strains of a subspecies that does not exist in this country. It is clear that the several HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains descend from SIVcpz, SIVgor, and SIVsmm viruses, and that bushmeat practice provides the most plausible cause of cross-species transfer to humans. However, some loose ends remain.

It is not yet explained why only four HIV groups spread considerably in human populations, despite bushmeat practices being widespread in Central and West Africa, and the resulting human SIV infections being common.

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Is There A Cure For Hiv And Aids

FAST FACTS

  • There is no cure for HIV, although antiretroviral treatment can control the virus, meaning that people with HIV can live long and healthy lives.

  • Most research is looking for a functional cure where HIV is permanently reduced to undetectable and harmless levels in the body, but some residual virus may remain.

  • Other research is looking for a sterilising cure where HIV is removed from the body completely, but this is more complicated and risky.

  • Trials of HIV vaccines are encouraging, but so far only offer partial protection.

There is no cure for HIV yet. However, antiretroviral treatment can control HIV and allow people to live a long and healthy life.

For some people, treatment can reduce the level of HIV in their body to such a low amount that they are unable to pass it on . Having an undetectable viral load can keep you healthy, but its not a cure for HIV. To maintain an undetectable viral load a person must keep adhering to their antiretroviral treatment.

How Do You Get Hiv

Types of HIV Test

HIV is carried in semen , vaginal fluids, anal mucus, blood, and breast milk. The virus gets in your body through cuts or sores in your skin, and through mucous membranes . You can get HIV from:

  • having vaginal or anal sex

  • sharing needles or syringes for shooting drugs, piercings, tattoos, etc.

  • getting stuck with a needle that has HIV-infected blood on it

  • getting HIV-infected blood, semen , or vaginal fluids into open cuts or sores on your body

HIV is usually spread through having unprotected sex. Using condoms and/or dental dams every time you have sex and not sharing needles can help protect you and your partners from HIV. If you do have HIV, treatment can lower or even stop the chances of spreading the virus to other people during sex. If you dont have HIV, theres also a daily medicine called PrEP that can protect you from HIV.

HIV can also be passed to babies during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. A pregnant woman with HIV can take medicine to greatly reduce the chance that her baby will get HIV.

HIV isnt spread through saliva , so you CANT get HIV from kissing, sharing food or drinks, or using the same fork or spoon. HIV is also not spread through hugging, holding hands, coughing, or sneezing. And you cant get HIV from a toilet seat.

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What Is The Treatment For Hiv

Antiretroviral therapy is the use of HIV medicines to treat HIV infection. People on ART take a combination of HIV medicines every day.

ART is recommended for everyone who has HIV. ART prevents HIV from multiplying, which reduces the amount of HIV in the body . Having less HIV in the body protects the immune system and prevents HIV infection from advancing to AIDS. ART cannot cure HIV, but HIV medicines help people with HIV live longer, healthier lives.

ART also reduces the risk of HIV transmission. A main goal of ART is to reduce a persons viral load to an undetectable level. An undetectable viral load means that the level of HIV in the blood is too low to be detected by a viral load test. People with HIV who maintain an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partner through sex.

Phases Of Hiv Infection

Clinical HIV infection undergoes 3 distinct phases: acute seroconversion, asymptomatic infection, and AIDS. Each is discussed below.

Acute seroconversion

Animal models show that Langerhans cells are the first cellular targets of HIV, which fuse with CD4+ lymphocytes and spread into deeper tissues. In humans, rapid occurrence of plasma viremia with widespread dissemination of the virus is observed 4-11 days after mucosal entrance of the virus.

There is no fixed site of integration, but the virus tends to integrate in areas of active transcription, probably because these areas have more open chromatin and more easily accessible DNA. This greatly complicates eradication of the virus by the host, as latent proviral genomes can persist without being detected by the immune system and cannot be targeted by antivirals. See the image below.

During this phase, the infection is established and a proviral reservoir is created. This reservoir consists of persistently infected cells, typically macrophages, and appears to steadily release virus. Some of the viral release replenishes the reservoir, and some goes on to produce more active infection.

The proviral reservoir, as measured by DNA polymerase chain reaction , seems to be incredibly stable. Although it does decline with aggressive antiviral therapy, the half-life is such that eradication is not a viable expectation.

Asymptomatic HIV infection

AIDS

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Hiv Infection Can Be Diagnosed By A Simple Test

On HIV transmission, the immune system produces antibodies against the virus. A blood or saliva test can detect those antibodies to determine if the virus is present. It can take several weeks after transmission for the HIV antibody test to come back positive.

Another test looks for antigens, which are proteins produced by the virus, and antibodies. This test can detect HIV just days after infection.

Both tests are accurate and easy to administer.

Should I Get Vaccines If I Have Hiv/aids

What is HIV and AIDS? | Infectious diseases | NCLEX-RN | Khan Academy

Check with your healthcare provider. Certain vaccines are generally recommended, including:

  • Influenza vaccine.
  • Human papillomavirus vaccine if you are age 26 or younger.
  • Meningococcal series of shots.
  • Pneumonia vaccine.
  • Tetanus, diphtheria and pertussis vaccine, with a repeat every 10 years of the tetanus/diphtheria vaccine.

You should probably avoid live vaccines, such as the ones for chickenpox and measles, mumps and rubella . This is true especially if your CD4 numbers are 200 or lower. Make sure you discuss vaccine questions with your healthcare provider.

HIV can affect how well the vaccine works. It can also make your viral load increase for a time because your immune system is stimulated by the vaccine.

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Populations Impacted The Most By Hiv And Aids

About 1.2 million people in the U.S. have HIV, although approximately 13% of infected individuals dont know it.

  • Age groups. In 2019, the highest HIV infection rates per 100,000 people in the U.S. were among people ages 25 to 34 and ages 35 to 44 . The infection rate for all age groups was 12.6 per 100,000 people.
  • Race/ethnicity. In 2019, the highest infection rates by race or ethnicity were among African Americans , Latinx/Hispanics , and people of multiple races . African Americans accounted for 44% of new HIV diagnoses, and Latinx/Hispanics accounted for 30% of new infections these groups represent only 13% and 18%, respectively, of the total U.S. population.
  • Sex. In 2019, gay and bisexual men, as well as other men who have sex with men, accounted for 69% of new HIV infections in the U.S. Heterosexual women accounted for 16% of new infections, and heterosexual men accounted for 7% of new HIV infections.

Initiation Of Antiretroviral Therapy

Antiretroviral drug treatment guidelines have changed over time. Before 1987, no antiretroviral drugs were available and treatment consisted of treating complications from opportunistic infections and malignancies. After antiretroviral medications were introduced, most clinicians agreed that HIV positive patients with low CD4 counts should be treated, but no consensus formed as to whether to treat patients with high CD4 counts.

In April 1995, Merck and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases began recruiting patients for a trial examining the effects of a three drug combination of the protease inhibitor indinavir and two nucleoside analogs. illustrating the substantial benefit of combining 2 NRTIs with a new class of anti-retrovirals, , namely . Later that year became an advocate of this “hit hard, hit early” approach with aggressive treatment with multiple antiretrovirals early in the course of the infection. Later reviews in the late 90s and early 2000s noted that this approach of “hit hard, hit early” ran significant risks of increasing side effects and development of multidrug resistance, and this approach was largely abandoned. The only consensus was on treating patients with advanced immunosuppression . Treatment with antiretrovirals was expensive at the time, ranging from $10,000 to $15,000 a year.

Treatment as prevention

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How Do You Get Or Transmit Hiv

You can only get HIV by coming into direct contact with certain body fluids from a person with HIV who has a detectable viral load. These fluids are:

  • Blood
  • Semen and pre-seminal fluid
  • Rectal fluids
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Breast milk

For transmission to occur, the HIV in these fluids must get into the bloodstream of an HIV-negative person through a mucous membrane open cuts or sores or by direct injection.

People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners.

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