Around 207 Million People Are Living With Hiv In Southern And Eastern Africa
That translates to over half of all people with HIV. Whats more, two-thirds, or 67%, of children with HIV are also found in this region. That said, AIDS trends worldwide suggest that nearly all nations in that region have a generalized HIV epidemic, meaning their national HIV prevalence is higher than 1%.
People With Hiv Now Face Chronic Disease In Living Longer
Dr Adeeba Kamarulzaman notes that diabetes kills more people than HIV in South Africa and that the burden from NCDs, like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, is increasing globally.
MONTREAL, July 27 Scientists and health advocates are calling for better integration of non-communicable disease care with HIV services for people living with HIV who are now living longer lives.
International AIDS Society president Prof Dr Adeeba Kamarulzaman noted that the rollout of HIV antiretroviral drugs which she described as one of the scientific and logistical milestones over the past half a century saved millions of lives and virtually transformed HIV from a death sentence to a chronically manageable disease.
The life expectancy of PLHIV who are diagnosed early and are able to take continuous ART, in fact, now approaches that of the general population. However, Dr Adeeba pointed out that despite viral suppression, PLHIV often report poor well-being and health-related quality of life.
In the first instance, the fact of living longer means PLHIV are now faced with chronic disease challenges like the rest of society. The longer one lives, the more susceptible one is to developing chronic disease, Dr Adeeba said in her keynote at the Why is HIV/NCD integration important pre-conference session at AIDS 2022, the 24th International AIDS Conference, organised by IAS in Montreal, Canada.
Covid Provided An Opportunity For Integration
Men Who Have Sex With Men
Men who have sex with men account for the lion’s share of HIV infections in the United States. Although MSM represent between 2% and 6.8% of the U.S. population, no less than 65% of all new infections are attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, according to the latest CDC report.
MSM are at risk of HIV for many reasons. Anal sex is an efficient means of transmission since rectal tissues are vulnerable to rupture, allowing the virus easy access into the body. Scientists estimate that the risk of infection from unprotected anal sex is, in fact, 18 times greater than the risk of unprotected vaginal sex.
But beyond the physiological risks, MSM are commonly faced with homophobia, stigma, and other biases that only amplify their vulnerability to infection. Because of this, some MSM will evade testing out of the fear that a positive diagnosis will force them to “out” their sexuality to family, friends, and coworkers.
The fear of abandonment, discrimination, and even violence will force others to hide their HIV status and manage their disease in secrecy. Faced with isolation and a lack of social support, some will even turn to alcohol and drugs to deal with anxiety and depressionbehaviors that increase sexual risk-taking and promote the spread of infection.
The risk is further compounded when other issues like race and poverty are involved.
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Us Response To The Global Epidemic
The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief is the U.S. Governments response to the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and represents the largest commitment by any nation to address a single disease in history. Through PEPFAR, the U.S. has supported a world safer and more secure from infectious disease threats. It has demonstrably strengthened the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to new and existing riskswhich ultimately enhances global health security and protects Americas borders. Among other global results, PEPFAR provided HIV testing services for nearly 50 million people in Fiscal Year 2020 and, as of September 30, 2020, supported lifesaving ART for nearly 18.2 million men, women, and children.
In addition, the National Institutes of Health represents the largest public investment in HIV/AIDS research in the world. NIH is engaged in research around the globe to understand, diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV infection and its many associated conditions, and to find a cure.
New Hiv Diagnoses And People With Diagnosed Hiv In The Us And Dependent Areas By Area Of Residence 2020*
Data for 2020 should be interpreted with caution due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on access to HIV testing, care-related services, and case surveillance activities in state and local jurisdictions.* Among people aged 13 and older.Source: CDC.Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2020. HIV Surveillance Report2022 33
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How Is Hiv Diagnosed
An HIV antibody test, either from a blood sample or an oral sample , can tell whether you have been infected. A negative test result means no HIV antibodies were found. This usually means you are not infected. However, if you engaged in behavior that could spread the virus within three months of having the test, antibodies may not be detectable and you should be re-tested. A positive test result means antibodies to HIV were found. This means you are infected with the virus and can pass HIV to others even if you have no symptoms. You are infected for life. Even if you think you have a low risk for HIV infection, consider getting tested whenever you have a regular medical check-up.
Is There A Cure For Hiv
There is no cure for HIV. But if you acquire the virus, there are drugs that help suppress the level of HIV in the body and prevent its spread to other people. Doctors use a combination of drugs called HAART to treat HIV/AIDS. Although it is not a cure, HAART has greatly reduced the number of deaths from HIV-related complications in the United States. HIV has become like a chronic disease, and people living with HIV receiving successful treatment can live a long and healthy life.
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Do Some Parts Of The Country Have More Hiv Than Other Parts
Yes. HIV is largely an urban disease, with most cases occurring in metropolitan areas with 500,000 or more people. The South has the highest number of people living with HIV, but if population size is taken into account, the Northeast has the highest rate of people living with HIV.
HIV in the United States by Geographic Distribution is a fact sheet that explains the geography of HIV in the United States.
Is Hiv/aids Different In Older Adults
A growing number of older people are living with HIV/AIDS. One reason is because improved treatments are helping people with the disease live longer. Nearly half of people living with HIV in the United States are age 50 and older. Many of them were diagnosed with HIV in their younger years. However, thousands of older people get HIV every year.
Older people are less likely than younger people to get tested, so they may not know they have HIV. Signs of HIV/AIDS can be mistaken for the aches and pains of normal aging. Older adults might be coping with other diseases and the aches and pains of normal aging, which can mask the signs of HIV/AIDS.
Some older people may feel ashamed or afraid of being tested. Plus, doctors do not always think to test older people for HIV. Some people may not have access to high-quality health facilities and services, which can limit their treatment options. By the time the older person is diagnosed, the virus may be in the late stages and more likely to progress to AIDS.
Remember, if you are at risk, get tested regularly for HIV.
For people who have HIV, it is important to start treatment as soon as possible after diagnosis. Treatment can help reduce the level of HIV in the blood to undetectable levels. When treatment makes HIV undetectable, the possibility of spreading the virus to a sexual partner becomes very low. This is known as treatment as prevention .
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Top 10 Stats And Facts About Hiv
- The HIV virus spread to humans from chimps back in the 1920s.
- Over 90% of children with HIV contracted it from their infected mothers.
- First-stage HIV symptoms are flu-like.
- More than 15% of people who have HIV in the US are not aware they are infected.
- In 2019, 690,000 people worldwide died from AIDS-related illness.
- In 2019, the US spent over $34.8 billion to fight HIV.
- People who have HIV have a 63%130% higher chance of dying from COVID-19.
- In 2019, 36,060 people lived with HIV in Atlanta, as per Atlanta HIV rates.
- Around 95,000 children under 15 died from AIDS and its complications in 2019.
- There were 31 AIDS-related deaths in 1980 or earlier.
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Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men b are the population most affected by HIV in the U.S.:
- In 2019, MSM accounted for 69% of new HIV diagnoses in the United States.c
- From 2015 through 2019 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, Black/African American MSM accounted for more than 36% and White MSM accounted for more than 30% of HIV diagnoses among MSM annually.
- In 2019, Black/African American MSM accounted for 26% of new HIV diagnoses and 37.9% of diagnoses among all MSM.
- In 2019, Hispanic/Latinod MSM made up 22% of new HIV diagnoses and 32.5% of diagnosis among all MSM.
The number of HIV diagnoses decreased among MSM overall, but trends varied by race/ethnicity. From 2015 through 2019:
- Among MSM aged 1324 years, HIV diagnoses decreased or were stable among all racial/ethnic groups.
- HIV diagnoses increased among American Indian/Alaska Native and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander MSM, ages 24 and older.
Transgender people accounted for approximately 2% of new HIV diagnoses in 2019.
- From 2015 through 2019 in the United States and 6 dependent areas, the number of diagnoses of HIV infection for transgender adults and adolescents increased.
- In 2019, among transgender adults and adolescents, the largest percentage of diagnoses of HIV infections was for transgender male-to-female people.
Blacks/African Americans and Hispanics/Latinx continue to be severely and disproportionately affected by HIV:
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Older People With Hiv Might Be At Increased Risk For Severe Covid
That also refers to people with other medical conditions and HIV, as per facts about HIV. Also, the risk of people with HIV getting very sick from this virus is greatest in people who are not on ART and those with low CD4 cell count. However, based on limited data, people with HIV on effective HIV treatment have the same risk for COVID-19 as people without HIV.
Around 254 Million People Who Live With Hiv Received Art Treatment In 2019
This translates to a worldwide ART coverage rate of approximately 67%, based on HIV statistics for 2019. Also, somewhere around 53% of children with HIV received ART in the same year. Generally speaking, this type of treatment can significantly increase the lifespans of people living with HIV/AIDS.
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Worldwide Rates And Yearly Shifts
HIV diagnoses and mortality rates have continually decreased over the past decade. This is due to continuing public health efforts in HIV prevention, early recognition, and treatment. However, progress has been unequal among and within countries. Also, the pace of decline has varied widely by age, sex, and religion.
The disease burden of HIV remains entirely too high given the advances made in HIV screening and treatment.
Recent data have shown that there were about 1.7 million new HIV diagnoses in 2019, nearly 5,000 new diagnoses per day. This highlights the need for continued and sustained efforts.
In 2020, 37.7 million people globally were living with HIV, down from 39 million in 2019. HIV is now slightly more common in women than men53% of all people living with HIV worldwide are women and girls.
Black women, both cis and trans, are disproportionately affected by HIV and account for about 60% of all new infections among women. Black women also carry the largest burden of HIV globally.
But the most troubling statistic is the number of preventable deaths caused by HIV/AIDS. In 2020, 680,000 people died from AIDS-related illnessesa number far too high given the prevention and treatment options that exist.
Ensuring Equal Access To Treatment
A number of challenges contribute to the global HIV disparities and unequal access to testing and treatment, including:
- Lack of access to healthcare
- Higher rates of some STIs
- Smaller sexual networks
- Lack of awareness of HIV status
- Little or no education about HIV prevention
- Cultural stigma
The number of people who need antiretroviral therapy is much greater than the resources that are available to help them in many countries. Therefore, additional investments are needed to properly identify and prioritize those who need critical lifesaving treatment.
Public health organizations around the world are encouraged to establish policies that clearly and objectively identify and prioritize groups disproportionately impacted when making healthcare decisions. Policies should ensure access for women and the most vulnerable, poor, and marginalized populations.
Recent advances in treatment technologies mean that ART can be provided successfully in settings in which basic health services are weak. However, decision-makers in each country need to carefully design policies that address financial and other barriers and give access to the poor and marginalized while supporting essential health services.
These efforts on the community, national, and federal levels must be coordinated so that the cost of care is offset for underserved populations.
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Hiv Prevalence Rate Ratios By Race/ethnicity 2019
The rate of Black males living with an HIV diagnosis is 5.6 times that of White males.
The rate of Hispanic/Latino males living with an HIV diagnosis is 2.9 times that of White males.
The rate of Black females living with an HIV diagnosis is 17.2 times that of White females.
The rate of Hispanic/Latina females living with an HIV diagnosis is 4.9 times that of White females.
In 2011 Over 7 Million People Worldwide Did Not Have Access To Hiv Treatment
Facts about HIV/AIDS indicate that treatment can significantly mitigate the symptoms of AIDS and HIV and greatly prolong a patients lifespan. Namely, what was once a death sentence is now a condition that people can live with and reach old age. Unfortunately, in 2011, 72% of the children with HIV didnt get treatment.
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Hiv Infections By State
In the United States, where you live plays a large part in how likely you are to get HIV. While it is clear that dense urban populations with high prevalence rates contribute to the risk, there are other unique factors that account for a growing disparity between U.S. states.
A prime example is the rate of infection in states that have either adopted or refused Medicaid expansion, intended to expand healthcare to economically disadvantaged people.
According to the CDC, the 13 states that refused Medicaid expansion account for 42% of all new infections. Florida, Texas, Georgia, and North Carolina represent the lion’s share of these infections.
Poverty remains a driving force for HIV infections, particularly in the South where the rates of poverty are highest. Moreover, nearly half of all Americans without health insurance live in the South.
With that being said, the Northeast has a higher prevalence rate overall, centered mainly in dense urban populations like New York City, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C.
These dynamics are reflected in the 10 U.S. states with the highest HIV prevalence rates, according to the CDC.
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Youth also accounts for the highest rate of undiagnosed infections. Today, nearly half of all HIV-positive youth between the ages of 13 and 24 are unaware of their status and, as a result, are more likely to infect others. The picture is little improved among adults 25 to 34, where one in three remains undiagnosed.
National Hiv Infection Exposure Categories
This section explains the classification of positive HIV test reports by exposure category, and provides a broad overview of the HIV epidemic in Canada.
2.6.1 Exposure Category Classification
Most positive HIV test reports and AIDS cases reported to the Agency through routine surveillance include one or more reported risk factors, such as sex with a male, sex with a female, injection of non-prescription drugs, and received blood transfusion.
For the purpose of national reporting, positive HIV test reports and reported AIDS cases are assigned to a single exposure category within a risk exposure hierarchy . The exposure category hierarchy was developed as a way of classifying positive HIV test reports and reported AIDS cases where the actual route of transmission for acquisition of HIV was unknown, or more than one risk factor is reported. If more than one risk factor is reported, the case is classified according to the exposure category listed first in the hierarchy. For example, if a positive HIV test report or AIDS case cites the risk factors ‘injection drug use’ and ‘heterosexual contact’, the report or case would be attributed to the IDU exposure category for the purpose of national data collection, as IDU is accepted as the higher risk activity.Footnote 8
Figure 6: National hierarchy of HIV infection exposure categories
The hierarchy is as follows:
- Perinatal transmission
2.6.2. Overview of HIV in Canada, by Exposure Category
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Hiv Diagnoses Among Gay And Bisexual Men In The Us And Dependent Areas 2015
* Changes in subpopulations with fewer HIV diagnoses can lead to a large percentage increase or decrease.Black refers to people having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. African American is a term often used for people of African descent with ancestry in North America. Hispanic/Latino people can be of any race.Source: CDC. Diagnoses of HIV infection in the United States and dependent areas, 2019. HIV Surveillance Report 2021 32.