Challenges In Calculating A Number
It isn’t easy for researchers to calculate the risk of transmission from an exposure to HIV through sex. To do this effectively, a group of HIV-negative individuals need to be followed over time and their exposures to HIVboth the number of times they are exposed and the types of exposureneed to be tracked.
As you can imagine, accurately tracking the number of times a person is exposed to HIV is very difficult. Researchers ask HIV-negative individuals enrolled in these studies to report how many times they have had sex in a given period of time, what type of sex they had, how often they used condoms and the HIV status of their partner. Because a person may have trouble remembering their sexual behaviour or may not want to tell the whole truth, this reporting is often inaccurate.
Furthermore, a person does not always know the HIV status of their partner. For this reason, researchers usually enroll HIV-negative individuals who are in stable relationships with an HIV-positive partner . Researchers can then conclude that any unprotected sex reported by a study participant counts as an exposure to HIV.
How Do You Get Hiv From Sex
HIV is transmitted through semen , vaginal fluid, blood, and anal mucus. During sex without a condom the bodily fluids from one person can pass into the body of their sexual partner. This can happen through the mucous membranes of the penis, vagina and rectum, or sores in the mouth and throat.
You can only get HIV from someone who is living with HIV and has a detectable viral load.
How To Use Condoms Most Effectively
How do you use condoms most effectively? The trick is to use them consistently and correctly every time you have sex. That doesnt mean you should give up hope if you fail to use a condom once. You can always do better the next time. STIs arent transmitted every time you have sex, so its always worthwhile to use protection.
Don’t Miss: How Long Does It Take For Hiv
Interpreting The Numberswhat Additional Information Needs To Be Provided
Some clients may see these numbers and think their risk of HIV transmission is low. Therefore, caution is needed when interpreting them. If these numbers are provided to clients, they should be accompanied by information that helps shed light on why the risk may be higher than it seems.
Transmission can occur after one exposure.
It is important to emphasize that a person could become infected from having unprotected sex once or a person could have unprotected sex many times and not become infected, regardless of how low or high the risk per exposure is.
A risk of 1% would mean that an average of one infection would occur if 100 HIV-negative people were exposed to HIV through a certain type of sex. It does not mean that a person needs to be exposed 100 times for HIV infection to occur.
These are estimates of average risk in the absence of biological factors that increase risk.
The numbers in the table above are rough estimates. They are averages and do not represent the risk from all exposures to HIV through a certain type of sex.
The risk of HIV transmission may be much higher than these averages if biological risk factors are present. For example, research shows that STIs and some vaginal conditions, such as bacterial vaginosis, can increase the risk of HIV transmission by up to 8 times.6,7,8 As a result, the risk of an HIV-negative woman becoming infected through unprotected receptive vaginal sex could be closer to 1% if she has a vaginal STI.
Condoms: Tried Tested And True
Since the beginning of the HIV epidemic, condoms have been a cornerstone of our HIV prevention efforts — often promoted as the most effective way to prevent the sexual transmission of the virus. However, in the past few years the number of HIV prevention options has increased and some people are interested in, or are already using, newer strategies. As a result, frontline service providers are being asked challenging questions: Are condoms the most effective strategy available? How do they compare to other strategies? This article explores the evidence on how effectively condoms prevent HIV transmission and the implications for our HIV prevention messaging.
Also Check: Youngboy Has Herpes
Can You Get Hiv From Having Sex With Someone Who Has Aids
If you have sex with someone who has AIDS, not HIV, can you still get HIV? Sarah*
Yes. People who have AIDS are infected with the HIV virus. This means they can pass HIV on to others.
AIDS happens after someone has had HIV for many years. In AIDS, the immune system is severely weakened. When someone gets HIV, that person can spread the infection to other people immediately. And if HIV develops into AIDS, the virus can spread to others.
HIV/AIDS spreads when infected blood or body fluids enter the body. This can happen:
- during sex
- through sharing needles for injecting drugs or tattooing
HIV/AIDS also can pass from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
To reduce your risk of getting HIV/AIDS if you are sexually active:
- Use a condom every time you have sex .
- Get tested for HIV and make sure all partners do too.
- Have fewer sexual partners.
- Get tested and treated for STDs having an STD increases the risk of HIV infection.
- Consider taking a medicine every day if you are at very high risk of getting infected .
It’s also important to:
- not inject drugs or share any kind of needle
- not share razors or other personal objects that may touch blood
- not touch anyone else’s blood from a cut or sore
*Names have been changed to protect user privacy.
How To Keep A Condom From Breaking
Use these tips to reduce the risk of a torn condom:
- Never use an expired external condom or one that has been stored in either hot or cold temperatures .
- Don’t double up on external or internal condoms. Wearing two at once creates friction that can cause one of them to break.
- Never use oil-based lubricants, such as Vaseline, and avoid spermicides that contain nonoxynol-9. They can inflame vaginal and rectal tissues. Look for an approved water- or silicone-based lubricant and use lots of it.
- Use properly sized external condoms. An external condom that’s too big could slip off. One that’s too small is more likely to break.
- Never reuse an external or internal condom.
You May Like: Do Nba Youngboy Got Herpes
Implications For Hiv Prevention Messaging
Although there is excitement surrounding new HIV prevention strategies, safer sex messaging and prevention counselling need to emphasize that the correct and consistent use of condoms remains the most effective method of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV .
When answering questions about the effectiveness of condoms, it’s important to emphasize that they have several advantages over other options. Key messages include the following:
Despite the advantages of condoms, we can’t ignore the important role that other prevention strategies may play in helping someone reduce their risk of HIV transmission. Condoms are not without their disadvantages and these can make it difficult for people to use them consistently and correctly. For example, condom use can be difficult to negotiate, condoms can decrease sexual pleasure and intimacy, they need to be available at the time of intercourse, they may be difficult to use when under the influence of alcohol or drugs, and they do not allow a woman to conceive. For these reasons, some people may choose to reduce their risk of HIV transmission in other ways.
What Medication Is Available
There are currently two medications approved by the FDA for PrEP: Truvada and Descovy.
Both of these medications can be up to 99% effective at HIV prevention when taken correctly. However, the notable difference between these medications is that Descovy is currently only approved for use in cisgender males and transgender females, while Truvada is approved for all genders.
PrEP does not have any significant health effects even with long-term use, but you may experience some side effects, such as:
- Abdominal pain
- Changes in weight
Some more severe side effects that may occur can be kidney issues, liver problems, or bone density loss. But these often occur in people who had health issues prior to taking PrEP. Ultimately, it is between you and your doctor to determine whether or not PrEP is the best choice for you.
You May Like: How Long Does Hiv Take To Show
Men Who Have Sex With Men
A 2018 paper analyzed the findings of four studies that looked at self-reported condom use in men who have sex with men . Researchers reported the effectiveness of condoms per number of HIV-positive sexual partners.
It was found that people who reported that they always used condoms with each sexual partner reduced their odds of contracting HIV by 91 percent.
Meanwhile, people who reported never or only sometimes using condoms with each sexual partner increased their odds of contracting HIV by 83 percent.
When To Use A Condom
To reduce the risk of transmission of HIV and other STIs to the greatest extent possible, condoms can and should be used for any type of sexual activity involving a penis.
The exception is for couples who have both tested negative for HIV and other STIs and are only sexually active with each other. However, the most recent test for both members of the couple should have been after the window period for any possible previous exposure.
Also Check: Hiv Stays Alive In Dried Blood
What Does Prep Do
PrEP is a medication that helps to reduce the risk of HIV transmission by preventing the virus from multiplying or growing within the body. PrEP is a combination of two drugs which help to fight off infection and also stop HIV from reproducing within a healthy host.
Before a person can be prescribed PrEP by their doctor, they must first be tested for HIV. PrEP is intended to be taken before a person is exposed therefore, if they already have HIV, they need to seek another HIV treatment as opposed to PrEP.
PrEP must be taken daily for at least seven days before it is effective at preventing HIV transmission through anal sex. This is because PrEP tends to collect in the colorectal tissue first before it is more present in other bodily tissues. However, it is still recommended that condoms are used during intercourse for additional protection.
Treatments That Help Reduce The Risk Of Hiv Transmission
If your partner is HIV positive, talk to your doctor about whether you should start taking a medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP. These pills, which help prevent HIV from establishing itself in the body, can reduce a persons risk of permanent infection by up to 92 percent if taken consistently, according to the CDC.
If youre HIV negative and believe you might have been exposed to the virus, you can take an emergency medication called post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, which can lower your odds of being permanently infected with HIV. In order to work as effectively as possible, the medication has to be started within 72 hours of exposure and must be taken consistently once or twice a day for 28 days.
Finally, if your partner is HIV positive, he or she can drastically reduce the odds of passing along the virus by taking antiretroviral therapy, or ART. These medications can lower the amount of HIV that resides in the body to a level thats undetectable by modern testing. An international study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in July 2016 found that none of the more than 1,000 HIV-positive people whose levels were undetectable passed the virus to their HIV-negative partners during unprotected anal or vaginal sex during an average of two years.
Read Also: How Long Can Hiv Be Dormant
Do Male And Female Condoms Provide The Same Protection Against Hiv
Yes. Studies show that female condoms are as effective at protecting against HIV as male condoms. Female condoms are made of nitrile, which is an effective barrier to HIV. Male and female condoms should not be used at the same time. Female condoms, like latex male condoms, are available in some drug stores, community health centers, and AIDS service organizations.
How Is Hiv Transmitted Through Sex
HIV can be transmitted through semen, vaginal secretions, blood, and anal secretions. When a person doesnt use a condom during sex, its easier for semen, vaginal fluids, blood, and anal secretions to enter their body either being absorbed across the mucous membrane of the vagina or anus or entering the bloodstream directly.
Anal sex is a known risk factor for contracting HIV if other prevention methods are absent, especially for the receptive partner whose anus is being penetrated by the penis.
Vaginal sex can also lead to HIV transmission if other prevention methods are absent, especially for the receptive partner whose vagina is being penetrated by the penis.
Both anal and vaginal sex can also carry a risk of HIV transmission for the insertive partner .
Oral sex is thought to be very low risk. Rimming is also thought to very low risk.
Don’t Miss: Is Hair Loss A Symptom Of Hiv
Condom Broke And Later Learnt He’s Hiv+
Almost 2 months ago I hooked up with a friend , it was a group of about 7 people. I suggested we test me and my friend carried it ,everyone’s kit at that moment had one stripe till his was getting the 2nd line and one friend hide it The rest saw us with condoms and didn’t make a big deal about my friend’s kit now having 2 lines since we were already in the bedroom. While in there the CD broke up and he only made one thrust then I realised I helped him put another rubber we finished and joined the rest. In btn these months we never talked since it was just a friendly match and were never that close.
Now one friend called me today , he told me everything on how they confronted him after I had left and to his shock he didn’t know that he was infected it really affected him . My worry is , what are chances of me getting the virus since he didn’t cum in me nor was there any rubbing ?
I rarely have sex and since then I haven’t slept with any man. My instincts tells me I’m well buy you know there’s an inner fear .
How Can You Get Hiv
HIV is found in the following bodily fluids of someone living with the virus:
- vaginal fluids
For you to get HIV, these bodily fluids need to get into your blood through a mucous membrane , via shared injecting equipment, or through broken skin .
There is not enough HIV virus in other bodily fluids, like saliva, sweat or urine, to transmit it from one person to another.
Someone living with HIV who has an undetectable viral load, meaning effective treatment has lowered the amount of virus in their blood to levels where it cannot be detected by a normal blood test, cannot pass on HIV.
A person living with HIV with a detectable viral load can pass the virus to others whether they have symptoms or not.
HIV is most infectious in the first few weeks after infection. At this time many people are unaware of their status.
The main ways you can get HIV are:
Don’t Miss: Hiv To Aids Time
How Is Hiv Transmitted
The person-to-person spread of HIV is called HIV transmission. People can get or transmit HIV only through specific activities, such as sex or injection drug use. HIV can be transmitted only in certain body fluids from a person who has HIV:
- Vaginal fluids
- Breast milk
HIV transmission is only possible if these fluids come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or are directly injected into the bloodstream . Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, the vagina, the opening of the penis, and the mouth.
In the United States, HIV is spread mainly by:
- Having anal or vaginal sex with someone who has HIV without using a condom or taking medicines to prevent or treat HIV
- Sharing injection drug equipment , such as needles, with someone who has HIV
HIV can also spread from a woman with HIV to her child during pregnancy, childbirth , or breastfeeding. This is called perinatal transmission of HIV. Perinatal transmission of HIV is also called mother-to-child transmission of HIV.
You cannot get HIV from casual contact with a person who has HIV, such as a handshake, a hug, or a closed-mouth kiss. And you cannot get HIV from contact with objects, such as toilet seats, doorknobs, or dishes used by a person who has HIV.
Use the You Can Safely ShareWith Someone With HIV infographic from HIVinfo to spread this message.
No Contraceptive Method Can Give You 100 Percent Protection Against Hiv
Written by Tania Tarafdar | Updated : November 28, 2017 10:47 AM IST
You should know that there is no contraception method that is 100 percent safe and prevent pregnancy or AIDS and condoms cannot guarantee protection either. According to sexologist Dr. V Raina, there is always a risk of transmission when you have sex with an HIV-positive person. While wearing a condom can reduce your chances of contracting STD, any condom failure like a breakage or a tear will only have you contracting HIV.
There are few reasons why a condom failure happens, the most common ones being wearing the wrong size condom or wearing it the wrong way. Apart from this, lack of lubrication in the vaginal area, using a condom that is way past its expiry date and using wrong lubricants can also lead to a tear. However, the way you wear it makes the most difference. So, be careful while wearing the condom. If you have taken care of the other parameters then you can minimise the risk by wearing it the right way. Here are diseases that affect people with HIV.
The same applies even if you are having oral sex. If there is a condom breakage and you have an open cut or lesion in your mouth, you may contract the disease.
Recommended Reading: Nba Youngboy Got Herpes