Does Hiv Is Easy To Catch It
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No 6 Having Oral Sex: Negligible
The odds of contracting HIV during oral sex are slim to none. Thats because the virus isnt transmitted through saliva, tears, or sweat unless its also mixed with blood. If an HIV-positive man ejaculates in his partners mouth, however and, for example, the partner has an open sore or bleeding gums experts say that it might theoretically be possible to pass along the virus.
- Reduce the risk. Using a condom or dental dam can help lower the risk of transmitting not only HIV but other STDs, including syphilis, herpes, gonorrhea, and chlamydia. People can also reduce their risk by having their HIV-positive partner ejaculate into a condom or by removing their mouth from the penis before ejaculation.
To Prevent Hiv Infection Couples Try Testing Together
In other words, particular versions of the virus, with particular DNA sequences, are most likely to pass from a woman to a man. This reduces the chance an infection occurs during sex.
The restriction is less when women have sex with an HIV-positive man. And, most likely, reduced even further when men have sex with men. So the chance of an infection increases in both situations.
As HIV replicates inside a person, mutations are introduced into its DNA. This results in a large number of different HIV versions swarming about the body each with its own genetic code.
But when HIV is transmitted through sex, usually only a single version of the virus establishes a long-term infection. So the process is almost like a filter, letting only certain viruses through.
This made scientists wonder: Is there something special about the HIV versions making it through the filter?
To figure this out, a team at Microsoft Research and Emory University analyzed data from a decades-long study on HIV transmission between “discordant” heterosexual couples in Zambia. These are couples in which one person is HIV-positive and the other is HIV-negative.
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Hiv Can Spread Through Sexual Contact Between Women
During the study, the team gave the couples condoms and taught them other ways to prevent passing along HIV to their partner. But in 137 couples, transmission did occur sometime during the decade. In these cases, the team compared the viruses of the newly infected person with those of the partner.
They found that HIV was most likely to be transmitted when its genetic code had a particular pattern. These versions of the HIV genes seem to make the virus good at initially infecting and replicating within a person.
Turned out, this pattern is the average DNA sequence that scientists find when they examine HIV strains in people from around the globe. “The average sequence in the population is probably average because it works best, and we found that that is true,” says Jonathan Carlson, a computational biologist at Microsoft Research, who contributed to the study.
To establish a long-term infection through sexual contact, an HIV virus must first infect a single cell on the genitals. Then the virus multiples and spreads to adjacent cells. “Fitter” viruses are more efficient at infecting new cells and then replicating themselves, Carlson says.
And the higher the initial barrier to this initial infection, the fitter the virus has to be to complete this process.
“What was most striking was that risk factors that were known to affect the risk of transmission affected the selection,” says Eric Hunter, a virologist at Emory University, who also contributed to the study.
Risk By Sexual Activity
When discussing HIV risk, people often try to ascertain which “type” of sex is riskier;;vaginal, anal, or oral. From a purely statistical standpoint, anal sex is considered the highest risk activity with an almost 18-fold greater risk of infection compared to vaginal sex.
But this assessment is somewhat misleading, at least from an individual perspective. While vaginal sex may pose a lower risk comparatively, the figures neither take into account the way in which the disease is distributed between men and women nor the vulnerabilities which place some individuals at extremely high risk of infection.
Women are three to four times more likely to get HIV from men than the other way around. A young woman is more likely to get HIV from her first sexual encounter than her male partner.
There are some men who are far more likely to get HIV than others. Studies have shown, for example, that uncircumcised men are;more than twice as likely to get HIV after vaginal sex than circumcised men.
Vulnerabilities vary by individual, so assessing the real risk of vaginal sex requires a better understanding of the factors that place some women and men at greater risk than others.
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All Exposures Are Not Equal
The results of several meta-analyses suggest that some types of sex carry on average a higher risk of HIV transmission than others. Below are estimates from a 2014 meta-analyses that have combined the results of studies conducted in high-income countries.
A meta-analysis exploring the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected anal sex was published in 2014.1 The analysis estimated the risk through;receptive;anal sex to be 1.4%. The analysis estimated the risk for;insertive;anal sex to be 0.11%.
This 2014 meta-analysis also explored the risk of transmission through vaginal sex.1;It estimated the risk of HIV transmission through;receptive;vaginal sex to be 0.08% . The analysis estimated the risk from;insertive;vaginal sex to be 0.04% .1
No meta-analysis estimates exist for oral sex because too few good-quality studies have been completed. This is because it is difficult to find people whose only risk of HIV transmission is unprotected oral sex. The 2014 review concluded that vaginal and penile oral sex pose a low risk of transmission but was unable to calculate a risk estimate.1
Risk of HIV transmission from different types of unprotected sex
Confused About Hiv Transmission Statistics
I have searched through your extensive HIV database , but I still have some questions.
1. In one of the answers, you say: “A study published in 1994 in The New England Journal of Medicine looked at 256 heterosexual mixed status couples. Of the 124 couples that consistently used condoms, none of the HIV-negative partners were infected. Among the 121 couples that did not consistently use condoms, 12 of the HIV-negative partners became infected. Additional studies found similar results.” How is it possible that only 10 percent of the unprotected sexual activity between + and – people resulted in transmission?
2. Similarly in Sex with prostitute â HIV?, you say: “With HIV, a single act of unprotected vaginal or rectal intercourse MAY be sufficient for transmission. But, it is believed that in the vast majority of cases, repeated exposure to the virus through multiple acts of intercourse is necessary for transmission to take place.” How does the “repetition” affect the likelihood? I mean, doesn’t the virus kind of “jump” to the other side whenever it has a chance?
And my third question is: does pre-cum have significant concentrations of HIV?
Thanks for your help,Concerned
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What Is The Risk From Oral Sex
According to Public Health England, around 1-3% of sexual HIV transmissions in the UK are because of oral sex. Other studies found that the risk is very low but is not zero.
Unprotected anal and vaginal sex leads to far more HIV infections than oral sex.
The risks are higher if the person giving oral sex has:
- cuts, sores or abrasions in their mouth or gums
- a sore throat or infection in the mouth or throat.
Or if the person receiving oral sex is:
- HIV positive
How Hiv Is Contracted
To contract HIV, bodily fluids, such as blood, breast milk and sexual excretions, must be exchanged. However, it cannot be contracted through sweat or urine. The chances of infection through saliva are very low. The most common way HIV is contracted is through sexual intercourse without a condom. Other ways include transmission from mother to child through breastfeeding or during pregnancy. It can also be transmitted through sharing needles or other drug paraphernalia. There is more than one type of HIV, so its important for even HIV positive people to remember that they have a risk of reinfection. However, its also important to remember that the virus is not very stable. It cannot survive long outside of the body; only a few seconds, in fact.
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How Can I Prevent Hiv
You can take steps to prevent HIV. Heres what you can do:
Visit Act Against AIDS for more information about HIV and what you can do to stop HIV.
Does Hiv Viral Load Affect Getting Or Transmitting Hiv
Yes.;Viral load is the amount of HIV in the blood of someone who has HIV. Taking HIV medicine daily as prescribed can make the viral load very lowso low that a test cant detect it .
People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.
HIV medicine is a powerful tool for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. But it works only as long as the HIV-positive partner gets and keeps an undetectable viral load. Not everyone taking HIV medicine has an undetectable viral load. To stay undetectable, people with HIV must take HIV medicine every day as prescribed and visit their healthcare provider regularly to get a viral load test. Learn more.
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How Can You Reduce Your Risk Of Contracting Hiv
Ultimately, you shouldnt try to gauge your own risk of contracting HIV. The best thing to do is to assume that you always have a chance of contracting it when engaging in risky behavior. When it comes to sex, the best way to prevent HIV infection is to always use a condom. Not only should you use them every time, but you should use them properly, too. This may seem simple, but there are some important rules to follow. For example, no one should use a condom that has been in their wallet for the last year. Its important to use condoms as instructed and handle them with care. Taking one out of its packet with long fingernails isnt a good idea. You might also choose to use internal condoms, dental dams or gloves for protection.
There are other risks to manage, aside from having sex. Anyone who injects drugs should be sure to use clean equipment and never share with anyone else. Seeking out needle programs and other services makes this easier to do. Although it is an unlikely method of transmission, people in health care professions should be careful. They should ensure they have adequate training and knowledge. Health and safety in the workplace should involve methods for managing sharps and fluids.
Treatments That Help Reduce The Risk Of Hiv Transmission
If your partner is HIV positive, talk to your doctor about whether you should start taking a medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP. These pills, which help prevent HIV from establishing itself in the body, can reduce a persons risk of permanent infection by up to 92 percent if taken consistently, according to the CDC.
If youre HIV negative and believe you might have been exposed to the virus, you can take an emergency medication called post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, which can lower your odds of being permanently infected with HIV. In order to work as effectively as possible, the medication has to be started within 72 hours of exposure and must be taken consistently once or twice a day for 28 days.
Finally, if your partner is HIV positive, he or she can drastically reduce the odds of passing along the virus by taking antiretroviral therapy, or ART. These medications can lower the amount of HIV that resides in the body to a level thats undetectable by modern testing. An international study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in July 2016 found that none of the more than 1,000 HIV-positive people whose levels were undetectable passed the virus to their HIV-negative partners during unprotected anal or vaginal sex during an average of two years.
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If I Get Infected Fluid From An Hiv
No, HIV is not always passed on from someone living with HIV. There are lots of reasons why this is the case. For example, if the HIV-positive person is on effective treatment it will reduce the amount of HIV in their body. If a doctor confirms that the virus has reached undetectable levels it means there is no risk of passing it on.
If youre concerned that youve been exposed to HIV you may be eligible to take post-exposure prophylaxis , which stops the virus from becoming an infection. However its not available everywhere and has to be taken within 72 hours of possible exposure to be effective.
Its really important to;take a HIV test;every time;you think you have been at risk of HIV.
What Are Prep And Pep
PrEP and PEP are medications that can help prevent HIV infection. PrEP stands for pre-exposure prophylaxis. It is recommended for people engaging in behavior that increases their risk of infection. They include serodiscordant couples in which a HIV negative person is in a relationship with someone with HIV. It may also be recommended for those who have sex with multiple partners without condoms. People who have shared needles recently can benefit from it, too.
PEP stands for post-exposure prophylaxis and can help to prevent infection after exposure. Both PrEP and PEP can reduce the risk of HIV infection significantly. PrEP can reduce the risk of infection by more than 90 percent if taken consistently. PEP is an emergency medication and is most effective when taken as soon as possible. A course of PEP should be started within 72 hours of possible HIV exposure.
How hard is it to contract HIV depends on a wide range of factors. It is impossible to calculate an individuals chances of contracting HIV. However, they may fall into certain at-risk groups. The best way to avoid infection is to avoid risky behaviors.
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Blood Transfusions And Organ Donation
The risk of contracting HIV from a blood transfusion, other blood products, or organ donation is now extremely rare in the United States. All donated blood or blood products in the United States are tested for several types of bloodborne pathogens, including HIV.
Blood donations that test positive for HIV are safely discarded and dont enter the blood supply. The risk of HIV transmission during a blood transfusion is conservatively estimated to be
, there are no known instances of HIV being transmitted by receiving a tattoo or piercing. However, its technically possible for transmission to occur if equipment or ink is reused or shared.
Why Hiv Spreads Less Easily In Heterosexual Couples
HIV particles invade a human immune cell. When HIV is transmitted through sex, only the strongest versions of the virus establish long-term infection. Chris Bjornberg/ScienceSourcehide caption
HIV is sexist.
A woman is twice as likely to catch the virus from an infected partner in a heterosexual relationship than a man is.
And homosexual men are at even greater risk. They’re more than 20 times as likely to get infected from an HIV-positive partner than partners in a heterosexual relationship.
Now scientists at Microsoft Research and the Zambia-Emory HIV Project have a clue about why these disparities exist.
Only the strongest, most evolutionary “fit” versions of the virus tend to infect a man when he has sex with an HIV-positive woman, scientist report Thursday in the journal Science.
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Male Vs Female Partners
When having vaginal sex without a condom with a partner who has a penis, the vaginal membranes are more likely to tear than the partners penis.
In condomless anal sex with a partner who has a penis, the rectal membranes are also more likely to tear than the partners penis. Microscopic tears create an easier path for HIV and other STIs to enter the body when exposed.
Its possible for a partner with a penis to contract HIV during vaginal and anal sex. If a female partner is living with HIV with a detectable viral load, it can be carried in her vaginal secretions. If her partner has open sores on their mouth or penis, they can create a gateway for vaginal secretions or other bodily fluids with HIV to enter the body.
Uncircumcised men are at higher risk of contracting HIV from condomless sex than circumcised men. The delicate membranes of foreskin can tear during sex, creating a pathway for HIV to enter the body.