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How Do You Avoid Getting Hiv

What Is Your Chance Of Getting Other Infections

How to have unprotected Sex without getting HIV

There are other infections besides HIV that can be passed through sex or from sharing equipment for using drugs. Some of the most common sexually transmitted infections are human papillomavirus , herpes, chlamydia, gonorrhea and syphilis. You can get hepatitis B through sex and by sharing drug equipment if you havent been vaccinated against it. ;Hepatitis C can also be passed by sharing drug use equipment.; Sexual transmission of hepatitis C is not common, but it is possible under certain circumstances.

Some HIV prevention methods only help to prevent HIV, and some also help to prevent STIs and other infections. If you are concerned about getting an STI or other infection, you may want to use a method that helps to prevent both HIV and other infections.

STIs and other infections often do not have symptoms, so the only way to know if you have them is to get tested. Some infections, such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis and hepatitis C, can be cured, while others, such as hepatitis B and herpes, cant be cured but they can be treated.

Is It Hard To Take These Drugs

The HIV medicines that currently are recommended are usually very simple and easy to take. Several drug combinations are available that package 3 separate medicines into only 1 pill, taken once a day, with minimal side effects.

For the great majority of people, HIV medicines are tolerable and effective, and let people with HIV live long and healthy lives. For some people, the drugs may be difficult to take every day, and for a small number, they cause serious side effects or don’t work well.

Once patients are on medications, they must work with their health care providers to find solutions for side effects and monitor how well the drugs are working.

The good news is that there are many excellent HIV medicines. Finding the right combination of medicines for each person is usually possible–a combination that controls the virus but does not cause side effects.

How To Prevent Hiv Infection

This article was co-authored by Dale Prokupek, MD. Dale Prokupek, MD is a board certified Internist and Gastroenterologist who runs a private practice based in Los Angeles, California. Dr. Prokupek is also a staff physician at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and an associate clinical professor of medicine at the Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles . Dr. Prokupek has over 25 years of medical experience and specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the liver, stomach, and colon, including chronic hepatitis C, colon cancer, hemorrhoids, anal condyloma, and digestive diseases related to chronic immune deficiency. He holds a BS in Zoology from the University of Wisconsin Madison and an MD from the Medical College of Wisconsin. He completed an internal medicine residency at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center and a gastroenterology fellowship at the UCLA Geffen School of Medicine.There are 16 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 154,813 times.

HIV is a serious, lifelong infection that can lead to AIDS when left untreated. There are many myths about how HIV is transmitted, so do not assume that what you’ve heard is correct. Educate yourself before you inject drugs or have sex, even if you think it’s safe or “not real sex.”

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Hiv And Aids: Causes Symptoms Prevention And Treatment

Learning that youre HIV positive can be devastating, but with proper treatment, you can live a long and healthy life. There are a number of drugs available to help you manage your health and infection status. In spite of that, there are some real health concerns that come with the diagnosis. Heres everything you need to know about the causes, symptoms, and treatment of HIV and AIDS, and how to prevent infection in the first place.

Hiv Treatment As Prevention


People with HIV can take ART to lower their chance of transmitting HIV to others.

ART reduces the quantity of HIV in the body, or viral load, and keeps it at a low level.

The term viral load refers to the number of HIV copies per milliliter of blood.

Healthcare professionals define successful viral suppression as having a viral load of less than of HIV per milliliter of blood. Achieving and maintaining viral suppression significantly reduces the risk of HIV transmission.

Other ways to prevent HIV transmission include:

  • using a condom or other barrier method during sex
  • reducing the number of sexual partners
  • getting vaccinated against other STIs, such as HPV and hepatitis B
  • avoiding using injectable drugs, if possible
  • if using injectable drugs, avoiding sharing needles and syringes
  • following all workplace safety protocols

People can speak with a doctor to learn more about their individual risk of contracting HIV.

Anyone concerned about HIV exposure should contact a healthcare professional or a local emergency room to get testedand receive PEP.

Recommended Reading: How Hiv Is Transmitted During Intercourse

How Is Hiv Transmitted

The person-to-person spread of HIV is called HIV transmission. People can get or transmit HIV only through specific activities, such as through sex or injection drug use. HIV can be transmitted;only in certain body fluids from a person who has HIV:

  • Blood
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Breast milk

HIV transmission is only possible if these fluids come in contact with a mucous membrane or damaged tissue or are directly injected into the bloodstream . Mucous membranes are found inside the rectum, the vagina, the opening of the penis, and the mouth.

In the United States, HIV is spread mainly by:

  • Having anal or vaginal sex with someone who has HIV without using a condom or taking medicines to prevent or treat HIV
  • Sharing injection drug equipment , such as needles, with someone who has HIV

HIV can also spread from a woman with HIV to her child during pregnancy, childbirth , or breastfeeding. This is called mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

You can’t get HIV from casual contact with a person who has HIV, such as a handshake, a hug, or a closed-mouth kiss. And you can’t get HIV from contact with objects such as toilet seats, doorknobs, or dishes used by a person who has HIV. Use the ClinicalInfo You Can Safely ShareWith Someone With HIV infographic to spread this message.

What Is Your Chance Of Getting Hiv

While there is no perfect formula for knowing your exact chance of getting HIV, you can estimate your risk by thinking about:

  • the types of sex you are having
  • if you are sharing drug use equipment
  • the number of people you have sex or use drugs with
  • how often you are having sex or sharing drug use equipment
  • what prevention method you and the people you have sex or take drugs with use and if they are used every time

The highest chance of getting HIV comes from having vaginal or anal sex or sharing injection drug use equipment when no prevention method is used by either partner.

You are most likely to get HIV from someone who has HIV but doesnt know it. This is because when someone doesnt know that they have HIV, they will not be taking treatment to stay healthy and prevent passing HIV to others. The only way for someone to know if they have HIV is to be tested.;;

If youre at risk of HIV, its important you are prepared to use a prevention method that is right for you!

If youre not sure about your risk of getting HIV, talk to a healthcare worker or someone at your local HIV organization.

Also Check: Is Hiv And Herpes The Same

Know Your Partners Viral Load Count

For ART to be effective, your partner has to take the medication every day, at the same time each day. Skipping doses can cause the virus to replicate unchecked and possibly mutate into a form thats resistant to the medication. If that occurs, your partners viral load count may increase, which means there is a greater likelihood that the virus can be transmitted to you.

Encourage your partner to get their viral load tested at least twice a year, if not more often. If the results demonstrate undetectable levels of HIV, then Its pretty safe ,” says Monica Gandhi, MD, MPH, associate division chief of the division of HIV, infectious diseases, and global medicine at University of California, San Francisco/San Francisco General Hospital.

To Avoid Sexual Transmission Of Hiv

How to Avoid HIV and AIDS

1. Always use condoms.Male or females condoms can reduce your risk of getting HIV.2. Be faithful to one partner or have fewer partners.Having one sexual partner or fewer sexual partners can reduce your risk of being exposed to HIV infection or other STDS, which in turn can reduce your risk of HIV infection.3. Male circumcisionIf youre a man, consider getting circumcised. Male circumcision in a hospital or clinic setting is shown to reduce the risk of getting HIV from a woman by 50 per cent. In comparison, female circumcision or female genital cutting/mutilation hasnt been shown to be preventative for HIV infection.4. If youve got an unusual discharge, sores, or pain when you urinate get tested for STDs.These symptoms are signs that something is wrong. Chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital herpes, trichomoniasis, and bacterial vaginosis have all been shown to increase your risk of getting and spreading HIV. So if you have these symptoms, get them checked out. Also, let your partner know, so he or she can get tested or treated too.5. Get tested with your partner for HIV.Whenever youve got a new partner, before having unprotected sex, get tested. You or your partner could be infected with HIV and not know it.

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What Are The Signs Of Hiv

The first signs of an HIV infection can appear like a common cold or flu, which is why most people arent aware that theyve been infected.If you notice signs like a fever, headache, rash, diarrhoea, and sore throat three to six weeks after youve had unsafe sex, it may be wise to get tested for HIV. But of course, the trouble is most people wouldnt first consider these signs of an HIV infection.Without treatment, these flu-like symptoms clear up by themselves. However, if youre infected with HIV, the infection doesnt go away. Instead, over the next eight to ten years, the infection silently destroys your immune system. And you progress to the late stages of HIV infection also known as AIDS.Late stages of HIV infection/AIDSIt often takes eight to ten years after being infected with HIV to develop serious illnesses. This is because by this time, HIV has destroyed your immune system to the point where your body can’t fight off other infections.;; ;Late signs of HIV infection/AIDS:

  • Severe weight loss
  • Skin cancer
  • Meningitis

The only way to know for sure whether youve got an HIV infection is to get tested.

Get A Prescription For Prep

Short for pre-exposure prophylaxis, PrEP is a daily pill that can reduce a persons risk of contracting HIV by about 99 percent when taken daily, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . If you regularly have sex with someone who is HIV positive, have sex without using condoms, or share needles with others, PrEP can be a powerful tool for preventing the spread of HIV.

If you believe you were exposed to HIV during sex for example, if a sexual partner was recently diagnosed with HIV you can take emergency pills called PEP, or postexposure prophylaxis. A 28-day course of medication, PEP needs to be taken within three days after a potential infection to help block the virus from taking root in your body.

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Blocking The Aids Virus

3. Diaphragms and Other Cervical Barriers

“Diaphragms physically block the virus from reaching the cervix, where there is good reason to believe most infections occur,” says Nancy Padion, PhD, professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of California, San Francisco.

Results of a trial of over 5,000 women comparing use of the diaphragm plus condoms with condoms alone are expected in 2007.

Future research will look at using the diaphragm in conjunction with a microbicide for dual protection, Ramjee says.

4. HIV ‘Prevention Pills’

Testing of an AIDS “prevention pill” on about 860 high-risk women in Cameroon, Ghana, and Nigeria suggest that the approach is safe and feasible, according to research presented at the conference.

While the numbers were too small to prove effectiveness, the research is encouraging enough to “suggest it is good for HIV prevention,” Ramjee says. “Now we need further study to figure out how it should be given.”

How Can I Avoid I Giving Someone Hpv

How to prevent spreading of HIV infection

The truth is, unless you have a high-risk type of HPV, or have genital warts, youll probably never know you had HPV. So the best way to avoid giving it to someone is to never have it to begin with, by getting the HPV vaccine.

Here are some things you can do to help prevent HPV:

  • Avoid skin-to-skin contact by not having sex.

  • Use condoms and/or dental dams every time you have vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Though condoms and dental dams are not as effective against HPV as they are against other STDs like chlamydia and HIV, safer sex can lower your chances of getting HPV.

Get the HPV vaccine and encourage your partner to do the same.

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How Do You Get Or Transmit Hiv

You can only get HIV by coming into direct contact with certain body fluids from a person with HIV who has a detectable viral load. These fluids are:

  • Blood
  • Semen and pre-seminal fluid
  • Rectal fluids
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Breast milk

For transmission to occur, the HIV in these fluids must get into the bloodstream of an HIV-negative person through a mucous membrane ; open cuts or sores; or by direct injection.

People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners.

What Activities Are Safe

While certain sexual activities, such as mutual masturbation, barrier-protected oral sex, and oral to anal contact have little or no risk of HIV transmission, some of these activities may have the potential for transmitting other STIs. While HIV is transmitted only by blood, semen, vaginal fluid, and breast milk, other STIs can be transmitted by simple genital skin-to-skin contact or oral sex.

Recommended Reading: How Do You Know If You Contracted Hiv

For Intravenous Drugs Or Other Encounters With Needles

Sharing needles with other people or using unsterilized needles to take illegal or IV drugs can increase your chance of contracting HIV and other conditions like hepatitis.

Here are a few methods to lower your chance of contracting HIV if you inject needles into yourself.

7. Dont share needles

Never share needles with another person. You can contract HIV even doing this just one time.

8. Use sterilized needles

You should only inject yourself with sterilized needles. There are helpful ways to make sure your needles are clean. Make sure your needles are:

  • new
  • from reputable sources like a pharmacies or medical suppliers
  • sanitized with bleach

Frequently Asked Questionsexpand All

How to prevent HIV
  • How do I know if I can take PrEP?

    If you are thinking about taking PrEP, you will be tested for HIV. If you are infected with HIV, you will need HIV treatment. If you are not infected, your obstetriciangynecologist may prescribe PrEP.

  • How often do I take PrEP?

    You must take a pill once a day. Missing doses can lower the medications effectiveness and put you at risk of HIV infection.

  • What are some possible side effects of PrEP?

    The most common side effects of PrEP include

  • stomach pain

  • weight loss

  • nausea and diarrhea

  • These side effects usually go away on their own after a few weeks. Serious side effects of PrEP include liver problems and a condition called lactic acidosis, which happens when there is too much acid in the blood.

  • Do I need to use condoms while taking PrEP?

    PrEP by itself is not guaranteed to prevent HIV infection. You also need to follow safe sex practices while taking PrEP:

  • Know your sexual partners and limit their numberYour partners sexual history is as important as your own. The more partners you or your partners have, the higher your risk of getting HIV or other STIs.

  • Use condomsUsing a latex or polyurethane condom every time you have vaginal, oral, or anal sex decreases the chances of HIV infection.

  • What steps are needed if I want to get pregnant with my HIV-positive male partner?

    Talk with your ob-gyn about how to prevent infection. Steps to prevent HIV infection include the following:

  • Your partner should have treatment for HIV infection .

  • Recommended Reading: How Long It Take For Hiv Test Results

    How Do You Get Hiv

    Body fluids that can contain HIV include the following:

    • Semen and possibly pre-seminal fluid
    • Vaginal secretions

    In order for HIV to be transmitted;

    • HIV must get inside the body.

    ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;Sexual behaviors that can transmit HIV;

    The risk of transmitting HIV is greatly reduced by using a condom.;Other ways that HIV can be transmitted;

    • Sharing needles when shooting drugs
    • Home tattooing and body piercing
    • Accidental needle sticks
    • Organ transplantation

    ;It is important to know;

    • Most people with HIV infection do not look sick.
    • Many people with HIV infection have not been tested and don’t know they are infected.

    ;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;It is important to remember that HIV is NOT transmitted through;

    • Saliva, tears, sweat, feces, or urine
    • Hugging
    • Living in the same house with someone who has HIV
    • Sharing showers or toilets with someone with HIV

    ;To avoid getting HIV;HIV is a virus that infects people by getting inside their blood cells. To avoid getting HIV, you must prevent the blood, semen, vaginal fluids, or breast milk of someone who is infected from entering your body through your mouth, vagina, anus, tip of your penis, or breaks in your skin.;

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