Catie Resources For Service Providers
Clinical Indications For Hiv Testing
Individuals requesting an HIV test.
Individuals with symptoms and signs of HIV infection.
Individuals with illnesses associated with a weakened immune system or a diagnosis of tuberculosis.
Unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse or use of shared drug equipment with a partner whose HIV status is known to be positive.
Pregnant or planning a pregnancy; and their partners as appropriate.
Victims of sexual assault.
Accuracy Of Hiv Testing
Modern HIV testing is highly accurate. The evidence regarding the risks and benefits of HIV screening was reviewed in July 2005 by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The authors concluded that:
…the use of repeatedly reactive enzyme immunoassay followed by confirmatory western blot or immunofluorescent assay remains the standard method for diagnosing HIV-1 infection. A large study of HIV testing in 752 U.S. laboratories reported a sensitivity of 99.7% and specificity of 98.5% for enzyme immunoassay, and studies in U.S. blood donors reported specificities of 99.8% and greater than 99.99%. With confirmatory Western blot, the chance of a false-positive identification in a low-prevalence setting is about 1 in 250 000 .
Many studies have confirmed the accuracy of current methods of HIV testing in the United States, reporting false-positive rates of 0.0004 to 0.0007 and false-negative rates of 0.003 in the general population.
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Should You Get Tested For Hiv If Youre Pregnant
All pregnant women should be tested for HIV so that they can begin treatment if they’re HIV-positive. If a woman is treated for HIV early in her pregnancy, the risk of transmitting HIV to her baby can be very low. Testing pregnant women for HIV infection, treating those who are infected, and treating their babies with antiretroviral therapy after delivery have led to a big decline in the number of children born with HIV.
The treatment is most effective for preventing HIV transmission to babies when started as early as possible during pregnancy. If pregnant women are treated for HIV early in their pregnancy, the risk of transmitting HIV to their baby can be 1% or less. However, there are still great health benefits to beginning preventive treatment even during labor or shortly after the baby is born.
Learn more about how to protect yourself and your partners, and get information tailored to meet your needs from CDC’s HIV Risk Reduction Tool .
Best For Quick Results: Stdcheckcom
Type of Testing: Lab-based testing
STD Tests Available: Chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV, early HIV, Hepatitis A, B & C
Time to Receive Results: 1 to 2;days
Cost: $24 to $349
With STDCheck.com you choose which STD tests youre interested in and order them online or by phone. That order is then sent to a lab near you, where you provide a urine and/or blood sample. This company has an option for HIV tests that can detect a new infection, and they also provide in-depth information about each STD they test for. You can use an FSA or HSA card to pay for these tests. A doctor is also available for you to consult with by phone.;
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What Exactly Is An Hiv Home
There are two kinds of HIV tests you can do at home.
HIV postal test: with this kind of test you take a sample and send it to a laboratory. Your result is then provided by text message or telephone call from a healthcare worker.
HIV self-testing: this is when you take a sample yourself and also receive an immediate result. You dont send any sample to a laboratory: instead, you read the result yourself from the testing kit.
Who Will Know The Results Of My Testing
It depends on where you get your testing. Testing sites have different privacy rules. Ask about privacy rules at your testing site so you understand whether anyone else will know you got tested or see your results.
If you go to an anonymous test site, only you know the results. No written record of the test result is kept.
If you go to a confidential test site, the results will go in your medical record. Positive results are sent to the state or local health department. Your insurance company will have access to your results. Depending on the state you live in, your parent or guardian may be contacted.
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Whats Next If The Test Is Negative
If a person gets a negative test result and its been more than 3 months since they may have been exposed, they can be fairly certain that they do not have HIV.
If its been less than 3 months since exposure, they should consider taking another HIV test at the end of the 3-month period to be sure. During that time, its best that they use condoms during sex and avoid sharing needles.
Who Can I Talk To If Im Worried
Its always good to have someone you trust on hand to talk through your emotions and worries while you wait for the result. You might also want to have a trusted friend there with you when you get your results back.
If you take a postal test and your result is positive, in most countries when you are informed of your result you will also be put in touch with an HIV clinic in your area.
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The Only Way To Know Your Hiv Status Is To Get Tested
Learn more about the symptoms and treatments. This informational overview, which includes information from the national institutes of health and the mayo. Answers to questions that include what kinds of tests are available, and how do they work?, how long does it take to get results?, how soon after an exposure to hiv can a test detect if i have the virus? Information and links related to hiv testing questions and answers are also provided. At the end of 2015, human immunodeficiency virus affected over 1.1 million people in the united states. Hiv and aids are two distinct diseases that can affect humans of all ages. Molly edmonds we’ve come a long way in our understanding of hiv since june 1981, when doctors saw the first cases of what would come to be known as aids. The.gov means it’s official.federal government websites often end in.gov or.mil. Hiv kills or damages the body’s immune system cells. How to take an hiv test in your home. Get answers to your personal questions about hiv testing and learn more about the benefits of knowing your hiv status. The only way to know your hiv status is to get tested. Aids is the most advanced stage of infection.
Appendix A: Ethical And Professional Considerations
Policy concerning the ethical and professional roles and responsibilities of care providers is informed by the providers’ respective institutional code of ethics as well as the professional colleges under which they are governed.
The following is designed to complement, not supersede, existing codes of conduct or jurisdictional health policies and regulations or any applicable laws and regulations of the jurisdiction.
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Appendix D: Natural History Of Hiv Infection
Human immunodeficiency virus is a retrovirus that infects the cells of the immune system. It is transmitted via exposure to body fluids that contain lymphocytes or free infectious viral particles . The routes of infection are: unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing of injection-drug use equipment and from an HIV-infected mother to her unborn child. Although rare, HIV can also be transmitted through an occupational exposure such as a needlestick injury or other event where blood to blood exposure could occur. All blood and blood products used in Canadian healthcare settings now undergo extensive screening for HIV prior to use, so new infections related to their use have been virtually eliminated .
The virus can enter the body through unprotected mucous membranes where cells may become infected with HIV . The presence of a sexually transmitted infection can enhance HIV transmission because of lesions and/or an increased number of lymphocytes. Using a needle contaminated with HIV-infected blood deposits the virus directly into the blood system, where infection of lymphocytes will occur. Transmission from mother to child can take place in utero, during delivery through exposure to the mother’s blood or vaginal secretions, and through breast milk . Seroconversion occurs when an individual changes from being HIV antibody negative to HIV antibody positive.
Why Is Hiv Testing Important
The CDC recommends that everyone between the ages of 13 and 64 years old be screened for HIV at least once as part of their routine health care. More frequent testing is recommended for people who have a higher risk of infection because of behaviors such as having sex without condoms, having sex with multiple partners, or injecting drugs using shared needles.
When people know their HIV status, they have powerful information they can use to take care of themselves.
For people who are HIV positive, there are FDA-approved medicines that can help keep the virus under control.;These medicines do not cure HIV, but they can help people live longer, healthier lives and reduce the chance theyll spread the virus to someone else. For people who are HIV negative, there are FDA-approved PrEP drugs that may help protect against infection. HIV medicines can sometimes cause side effects. It is important to talk with your health care provider before starting a new medicine and about side effects and warnings for any medicines you take.
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Will I Have To Pay For The Test Out Of Pocket
Most insurance companies pay for HIV tests, as do most plans under the Affordable Care Act. Some pharmacies or community health centers offer free testing too.
Some at-home tests can be paid for with a health spending account. But directly purchased tests may not be covered by private health insurance or Medicaid. Check with your insurance provider or your doctor about reimbursement before buying one.
A Summary Of Hiv Self
In an effort to document HIV self-testing program models in the United States;pdf ico pdf icon, two capacity building agencies funded by CDC:; Denver Prevention Training Center and Washington University St. Louis , contacted CDC-funded health departments and community based organizations that were conducting HIVST. Between July and September 2020, the CBAs had telephone discussions about program implementation from 42 agencies , and collected HIVST standard operating procedures and training materials.
Conversations covered topics such as if/how agencies screen for eligibility, type of HIV test used, distribution methods, follow-up and linkage to prevention/care resources, data collection and management, and incentives. Discussions were summarized to produce this executive summary and a descriptive table .
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Anal Sex Without A Condom
HIV can be transmitted through sex without a condom or other barrier method.
The chance of transmission is higher during anal sex without a condom or other barrier method than vaginal sex without a condom or other barrier method.
This is because the skin around the anus is thinner than the skin around the vagina, so small tears are more likely to occur during anal sex.
Someone without HIV is more likely to contract the virus during anal sex if they are the receptive partner .
Early diagnosis and treatment for HIV are important. Treatment with antiretroviral therapy prevents progression to AIDS. It can also reduce the virus to undetectable levels, at which point it cant be transmitted to others.
The CDC recommends that MSM get tested for HIV at least once a year. People at higher risk of HIV may benefit from more frequent testing, such as every 3 to 6 months.
Not all MSM follow these recommendations. As a result, some may have HIV without realizing it. This can lead to delays in treatment and increase the chances of transmission.
As of 2018, approximately 1 in 6 MSM with HIV in the United States didnt know they had the virus, reports the . In that same year, per the CDC, only 65 out of 100 gay and bisexual men with HIV in the United States received some HIV care.
Some MSM dont seek testing or treatment due to homophobic stigma or fear of discrimination.
Medications are available to reduce your likelihood of acquiring HIV.
In 2017, the CDC reported, PrEP was taken by:
Things To Expect From An Hiv Home
HIV home-testing kits are available in a growing number of countries. They offer you the convenience of taking an HIV test in your own time and in the privacy of your own home but are they for everyone?
Stigma around HIV, concerns about the attitudes of health workers and worries about what a positive result would mean are all barriers to us taking a test. But knowing your HIV status is the best way to keep yourself and other people healthy.
So the privacy and control that home testing can provide should mean its a more attractive option for some people. Here are some questions to think about when deciding if a home test is for you.
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How Soon After Exposure To Hiv Can An Hiv Test Detect If You Are Infected
No HIV test can detect HIV immediately after infection. If you think youve been exposed to HIV, in the last 72 hours, talk to your health care provider about;post-exposure prophylaxis , right away.
The time between when a person gets HIV and when a test can accurately detect it is called the window period. The window period varies from person to person and also depends upon the type of HIV test.
Should I Share My Result With Others
Yes. Its very important to share your status with your sexual partners. You may disclose your status to others if you wish, but youre under no obligation.
While insurance companies must have your permission to view your health record, you may be charged higher prices with a chronic condition.
Federal law now prevents insurance companies from denying coverage to people who have HIV or AIDS. And there may be a waiting period before a chronic condition is covered by insurance.
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Does There Have To Be Consent To Have An Hiv Test
HIV testing must only be performed after a person gives consent that is explicit, informed and voluntary.
It is understood in Canada that respecting and protecting peoples rights needs to be central to HIV testing. HIV testing is voluntary in Canada, meaning that a person is free to accept or refuse an HIV test without threat or coercion. Under no circumstances should the person be pressured to receive an HIV test.
What is informed consent?
A person being tested for HIV must provide informed consent. To be able to provide informed consent, the person must be able to:
A pre-test discussion should ensure that the person being tested is able to provide informed consent. The Public Health Agency of Canadas;HIV Screening and Testing Guide;recommends that verbal informed consent be sufficient, as with other medical tests.
Is There A Period When The Virus Isnt Transmittable
HIV is transmittable soon after its introduced into the body. During this phase, the bloodstream contains higher levels of HIV, which makes it easy to transmit it to others.
Since not everyone has early symptoms of HIV, getting tested is the only way to know if the virus has been contracted. An early diagnosis also allows an HIV-positive person to begin treatment. Proper treatment can eliminate their risk of transmitting the virus to their sexual partners.
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What Do The Test Results Mean
There are three possible test results:
1) Negative . The test did not find any evidence of HIV infection. You probably dont have HIV .
2) Reactive . The test assay has reacted to a substance in your blood. This does not necessarily mean that you are HIV positive. It means you need to take more tests to confirm the result. These extra tests are best done at a healthcare facility where they have access to the most accurate HIV testing technologies.
3) Indeterminate, equivocal or invalid. The test result is unclear. Another test needs to be done.
How Does Hiv Testing At Home Work
You can use the EverlyWell at-home HIV test to screen for HIV from the privacy of your home. Hereâs how it works:
Order the at-home HIV test . The kit will then be shipped to your address .
Register your kit online using the unique ID, then follow the instructions in the kit to collect your sample.
Place your sample in the biohazard bag, slip the bag into the envelope thatâs included with the kit, and apply the prepaid shipping label . This allows you to easily ship your sample to the lab for testing.
After the lab analyzes your sample, youâll be notified that your test results are readyâand youâll be able to view your results on our secure, online platform.
If your HIV test results do come back positive, share your results with your healthcare provider as soon as possible to learn the next steps for treatment. Your healthcare provider may give you HIV treatment . Studies show benefits when people start ART sooner rather than later after they are diagnosed with HIV. By working with your healthcare provider to manage your HIV, it is possible to remain healthy for many years.
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