Ways In Which Hiv Is Not Transmitted
- Following proper safety practices when giving first aidthis includes cardiopulmonary resuscitation
- Contact with blood or other body fluids on intact skin
- Donating blood or blood products
- Caring for someone with HIV/AIDS when appropriate precautions are in use
- Food, water, and air
- Toilet seats, shared bedding, and clothes
- Mosquitoes or other biting insects
What You Need To Know About Blood Spill Cleanup
Cleaning up blood requires special precautions to reduce the risk of pathogen exposure. You need proper cleaning products and equipment to contain and disinfect the area. Individuals involved in the clean-up must know and follow safety procedures.
The first step in cleaning blood spills is donning personal protective equipment . Youll also need effective chemicals and materials for containment, disinfection, and decontamination.
The supplies and equipment needed depends on the size of the spill. This may include the following:
- Approved leak-proof sharps containers
- Disposable gloves
- Disposable gowns
Depending on the nature of the spill and the materials in the spill you may need additional items. These may include tongs, forceps, broom, brush, dustpan, or other specific tools.
Individuals conducting the cleaning must always wash their hands before and after cleaning. If other parts of their body come in contact with the blood, they must also be thoroughly cleansed. Its important to always wear the appropriate PPE during this process.
How To Be Safe When Coming Into Contact With Infected Blood
A condom will act as a barrier against any contact with blood during sex.
As well as sex, sharing equipment for injecting drugs is a way blood can get into someones body. This can be avoided by using fresh needles and not sharing needles, syringes and other equipment.
If a woman has HIV, her menstrual blood also carries a risk of transmission if she has a detectable viral load.
If youre HIV negative and taking pre-exposure prophylaxis youll be protected against getting HIV if you come into contact with infectious blood.
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Recommendation For The Cleaning And Decontamination Of Environmental Surfaces14
- The space for cleaning and other work should be clearly demarcated and separated by walls.
- The hospital staffs should be properly trained regarding the cleaning and decontamination practices of hospital surfaces.
- The staffs should wear personal prophylactic equipment , i.e., gowns, gloves, masks, and boots. There must be separate area for removing PPE.
- Fresh preparation of detergents or disinfectants should be made every day and used with the appropriate dilution as per the manufacturer instruction.
- Wet mopping of floors should be encouraged as dry mopping generates dust aerosols.
- Avoid using HLD for environmental surfaces of the hospital and offices. Mopping of the hospital surfaces should be done using detergent. Table tops and counters should also be cleaned regularly by detergent only.
- Mopping of high-risk areas such as the intensive care units , burn wards, transplant units, isolation wards, operation theaters , and dialysis machines should be done using HLD instead of detergent. Cleaning by vacuum pump and use of high-efficiency particulate air filters for the exhaust are preferred in these places.
Means And Requirements For Hiv Transmission
People may become infected with HIV if they engage in specific risk behaviors or if they are exposed through needlestick injuries . Other blood contact with mucous membranes or non-intact skin provides a possible, but not probable, chance of transmission.
HIV is transmitted through:
- Unprotected anal, vaginal, and oral intercourse
- Sharing needles or other injection equipment
- A mother passing the virus to her baby either before or during birth
- An infected woman breastfeeding her infant
- Accidental needlestick injuries, or infected body fluid coming into contact with the broken skin or mucous membranes of another person
- A transfusion prior to 1986 of HIV-infected blood or blood products
In extremely rare cases, HIV can be transmitted by sharing razors or toothbrushes, if infected blood from one person was deposited on the toothbrush or razor and the blood entered the bloodstream of another person.
The transmission of HIV depends upon:
- The availability of the infectious agent in sufficient quantity
- The viability of the infectious agent
- The virulence of the infectious agent
- The ability of the infectious agent to reach the bloodstream, mucous membranes, or broken skin of a potential host
One of the predictors of the infectious level of an HIV-positive person is viral load, which is how much HIV is present in the bloodstream. Studies show a clear connection between higher viral load in the blood and increased transmissibility of HIV.
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A Better Understanding Of Universal Precautions
In 1987, the Center for Disease Control published Recommendations for Prevention of HIV Transmission in Health-Care Settings, which recommended that blood and body fluid precautions be used for all patients, regardless of their infection status. Prior to this, blood and body fluid precautions were only recommended when a patient was known or suspected to be infected with a bloodborne pathogen. Universal precautions include:
- Using disposable gloves and other protective barriers while examining all patients and while handling needles, scalpels, and other sharp instruments.
- Washing hands and other skin surfaces that are contaminated with blood or body fluids immediately after a procedure or examination.
- Changing gloves between patients and never reusing gloves.
Can I Get Hiv From A Mosquito
No, it is not possible to get HIV from mosquitoes or other biting and bloodsucking insects. The results of experiments and observations of insect biting behavior indicate that when an insect bites a person, it does not inject its own or a previously bitten person’s or animal’s blood into the next person bitten. Rather, it injects saliva, which acts as a lubricant so the insect can feed efficiently.
Diseases, such as yellow fever and malaria are transmitted through the saliva of specific species of mosquitoes. However, HIV lives for only a short time inside an insect. Unlike organisms that are transmitted via insect bites, HIV does not reproduce in insects. Thus, even if the virus enters a mosquito or another insect, the insect does not become infected and cannot transmit HIV to the next human it bites.
There are several reasons why a mosquito or other insect cannot transmit HIV from one person to another even if there is HIV-infected blood left on its mouth parts: 1) Infected people do not have constantly high levels of HIV in their blood streams. 2) Insect mouth parts retain no blood on their surfaces. 3) Finally, scientists who study insects have determined that biting insects normally do not travel from one person to the next immediately after ingesting blood. Rather, they fly to a resting place to digest the blood meal. Epidemiological studies have shown no relationship at all between HIV and the existence of mosquitos or mosquito bites.
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First Aid For People With Hiv/aids
The human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome pandemic is a catastrophe to communities all over the world. Over 1 million people in the US are living with HIV, but 1 in 7 of them do not know they have the disease. At the end of 2016, approximately 36.7 million people worldwide were living with HIV/AIDS.
Pacific Medical Training recognizes the magnitude of the problem and the need for all of us to respond accordingly. It is critical for each of us to understand how this bloodborne pathogenis, and is not, transmitted.
The following guidelines on the first aid for people with HIV/AIDS address the concern of transmission in first-aid situations, present preventative measures and hygienic practices, and enable you to provide care without discrimination.
Disposal Of Sharps / Syringes / Needles
Sharps in this context are needles, sharp-edged instruments, broken glassware or any other item which may be contaminated by blood or body fluids and may cause laceration or puncture wounds, such as razors, sharp tissues such as spicules of bone and teeth may also pose a risk of injury. Sharps injury is a cut or skin penetration which has been used on a patient or in contact with a patients blood components or other body fluids.
Improper management of discarded needles and other sharps can represent a serious threat to the health and well-being of anyone handling clinical waste. In the worst cases, they can be fatal. Discarded needles may expose people to potential needle stick injuries and potential infection. People also risk injury if loose sharps poke through plastic refuse bags. Used needles can transmit serious diseases, such as HIV and hepatitis.
Lehane Environmental can provide a wide range of UN-approved containers which will keep staff safe from the risk of injury and infection. Our personnel are fully trained to cleanse sites and handle sharps correctly .
Ineffectively secured vacant properties are always at risk from vandals, habitation by squatters or an undisturbed location for drug takers. Site clearance of such premises poses its own risks at Lehane Environmental we provide a complete site cleansing service to include the safe removal and disposal of all waste and sharps.
Dont take the risk, call Lehane Environmental today 021 4351020.
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How Can I Safely Clean A Spill Or A Wound
When cleaning spills, wear clean, disposable gloves and always use absorbent material, such as paper towels, first. Then clean the area of the spill more thoroughly with soap and water, and then disinfect it with household bleach. A fresh solution of bleach should be used for disinfecting and can be prepared by mixing 1 part of bleach to 9 parts of water. The bleach solution should be left in contact with the spill area for at least 10 minutes before wiping it up.
Wear gloves when handling any body fluids or cleaning cuts, scrapes or wounds. Wash your hands carefully after disposing of your gloves in a plastic bag. Add gloves to your first aid kit so you are prepared.
Dealing With Someone Who Is Bleeding
- Follow universal precautions. If you have gloves with you, wear them, especially in the case of fighting or mass casualties.
- If possible, instruct the victim to apply direct pressure to the wound.
- If the person cannot stop the bleeding, you can use a clean, thick cloth as a barrier to avoid direct contact with the blood. If this is not efficient or possible, apply proximal pressure to the main artery, which is a pressure on the artery above the injury site to stop the bleeding.
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Human Biological Specimens In Laboratory Practical Classes
In some laboratory practical classes, exercises using blood have been devised where the blood samples used are obtained from staff or students by venepuncture or a finger prick or from patients with diseases of special interest. Other body fluids may be used and obtained from students and patients.
If patient blood samples are used, the samples should be screened just as blood would be at the blood bank prior to use in the practical class.
If student blood samples are used, individual students should, if practicable, use their own blood.
Note: Students or staff who know they are HIV-positive should be requested not to participate in these exercises.
How Can Hiv Be Spread
Anyone living with HIV may pass it to another person through:
- Sexual contact .
HIV is present in sexual fluids including semen, vaginal fluids and anal fluids
- Blood contact .
HIV is present in blood and in body fluids that are visibly contaminated with blood
- Pregnancy, delivery and/or breastfeeding .
Breastfeeding is not recommended for infants born to mothers living with HIV because of the risk of HIV transmission. Free formula is available to infants born to mothers living with HIV from birth to approximately one year of age.
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Universal Precautions In First Aid
- Wash your hands before and after providing basic first aid. If gloves are available, wash your hands before and after use.
- Wear PPE whenever possible.
- Be attentive to avoiding contact with blood, body fluids, or soiled items.
- Be careful of broken glass or sharp objects near the injured person.
- Cover cuts or open skin with a clean, dry dressing.
Blood Spills In Pools
For blood in the pool, there is no action required other than attending to the injured individual and making sure the blood does not contaminate anywhere else. A properly maintained pool contains enough chlorine to kill any bloodborne pathogens.
From the CDC: Germs found in blood are spread when infected blood or certain body fluids get into the body and bloodstream . Chlorine kills germs found in blood and CDC is not aware of any instances in which a person has become infected with these germs after being exposed to a blood spill in a pool.
- Does chlorine kill the germs in blood? Yes. These germs do not survive long when diluted into properly chlorinated pool water.
- Swimmers want something to be done after a blood spill. Should the pool be closed for a short period of time? There is no public health reason to recommend closing the pool after a blood spill. However, some pools choose to do so temporarily to satisfy patrons.
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Am I At Risk Of Becoming Infected With Hiv When Visiting The Doctor Or Dentist
Transmission of HIV in a health care setting is extremely rare. All health professionals are required to follow infection control procedures when caring for any patient. These procedures are called Universal Precautions for infection control. They are designed to protect both patients and health care professionals from the transmission of blood borne diseases such as Hepatitis B and HIV.
What To Do If Exposed To Another Person’s Blood Or Body Fluid
An exposure occurs when a person comes in contact with the blood or body fluids of another person. Types of exposures include:
- Needle stick injury
- Blood/body fluid splash to an open wound, or to the eyes, mouth or nose
- Condom failure/break
If you think you have been exposed to another person’s blood or body fluids, you need to seek immediate medical attention at your nearest Emergency Room, as soon as possible.
For assistance disposing needles found in Regina, call Street Project at 306-766-7799. Outside of Regina, contact the local Public Health office or Fire Department.
More information is available by calling Healthline at 811 or visiting the Healthline Online website.
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What Is The Proper Way To Clean A Hiv Positive Blood Spill
The individual cleaning the blood spill need to use the proper personal protective equipment , e.g. Water impervious gloves, outerwear, goggles, etc. * Make a disinfectant solution by pouring 1oz. House bleach to 10 oz. Of water.
This will give you a 1 to 10 ratio of chlorine disinfectant. * As you enter the spill area, be careful not to step in any contaminated fluids. Flood the spill area with the bleach and water solution allowing it to stand for fifteen minutes.
Note: Under certain conditions, a micro-encapsulation absorbent material may be applied to pooled blood so that the bulk of the contamination can be removed to a biohazard bag prior to decontamination. * Disperse the disinfected spill with a 5 gallon bucket of clear water or a spray from a fire hose.
First, protect yourself and your family. Quarantine the area. Wear gloves, eye goggles, an apron.
You don’t want to come in contact with the blood. Use bleach to kill the germs. Use disposable towels to clean the area.
Watch out for sharp objects that could pierce your gloves. Put all the towels and gloves into a bag and seal Then put it in another bag for your own protection. These are considered hazardous medical waste and should be disposed of as such.
Contact your local trash authority for instructions on getting the contaminated. Thoroughly wash eyewear and clothing .
Blood Spills On Carpeted Floors
Blood spills on carpeted floors are some of the most difficult to clean up due its absorbent nature. The majority of buildings contain at least some amount of carpeting, which is why it is important to know how to respond to spills in these areas. Many of the procedures for cleaning up blood on carpet will be the same as any other area, but there are a few additional concerns. In addition, there is no way to disinfect carpet completely so the best option is to sanitize as thoroughly as possible.
The basic protocol for cleaning carpets and removing the threat of bloodborne pathogens is listed below. Please note that even when these steps are followed there is no guarantee that the threat of bloodborne pathogen exposure is 100% eliminated.
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Bloodborne Pathogen Cleanup Supplies Checklist
Bodily fluid spills may require some specialized equipment depending on their location within the facility, the size of the spill and the type of spill, but most can be cleaned safely using the equipment recommended in OSHAs Bloodborne Pathogen Cleanup Kit.
- Disposable gloves
- Absorbent materials
- Disinfecting towelettes
- Biohazard bag with zip tie