Thursday, May 19, 2022

What Is The Number One Killer Of Persons With Hiv

Who: Aids Now The Number One Killer Of Adolescents In Africa

“What Black Men Think” part II WHAT IS THE NUMBER 1 KILLER OF BLACK PEOPLE???
Friday June 06 2014

The United Nations body says one in every six deaths among teens is due to the virus.

Summary

  • WHO says the threat of HIV to the youth in Africa is major, as one in every six deaths among adolescents are due to the virus.
  • Apart from being the leading global killer of adolescents, road accidents also top the unintentional injuries category, ahead of drowning.
  • The organisation analysed figures from its member countries to identify the leading killers of adolescents in the world.

HIV/Aids is the number one killer of adolescents in Africa.

According to the World Health Organisation, in its latest Health for the Worlds Adolescents report, East Africa is one of the regions where the disease kills more youths than road accidents, the number one global killer of 10-19-year-olds.

On the global level, HIV is the second most common cause of death among adolescents. Other leading causes of death are suicide, lower respiratory infections and interpersonal violence.

According to the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/Aids , as at 2012, Kenya had 200,000 children aged 0 to 14 living with HIV, Uganda had 190,000, Tanzania 230,000, Rwanda 27,000 and Burundi 17,000.

In sub-Saharan Africa, adult and child deaths due to Aids were 1.2 million. The numbers were higher when those in the 14-15 years bracket were included.

Very vulnerable

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Prof Orago said about 60 per cent of new HIV infections are found in adolescents.

Infectious diseases

Completeness Of Ascertainment And National Coverage Of Survey

The completeness of ascertainment of deaths was examined in a sample of 27 wards which had reported 114 deaths. Among the 186 patients identified as lost to follow-up, the vital status of 118 could be documented through the National Repertory for Identification of Physical Persons, which identified 4 additional deaths in 2000. Incorrect identification made it impossible to check the vital status of the remaining 68 patients. Moreover, during these visits, seven additional deaths were identified after checking hospital files. Therefore, the estimated completeness of death ascertainment for these wards was 91% . The underlying causes of the 11 additional deaths were AIDS , cancer , HCV , suicide , and unknown .

The capturerecapture exercise for January 2000 showed that 17 of 104 deaths identified in the survey could not be matched to deaths in the national death registry whereas 38 of 120 deaths whose death certificate in the national registry mentioned HIV infection were not included in the survey database. Based on these two sources, the estimated number of deaths in January 2000 was 149 , resulting in an estimated national coverage of the survey of 69% . Most of the 38 additional deaths identified in the national death registry were reported by physicians not routinely involved in the management of HIV infection. The underlying causes of death included AIDS in 19 patients, cancer in 6, HCV in 4, and non-specified sepsis or pneumonia in 3 patients.

Few Know More About The History Of Hiv In Greece Its Social Impact And Stigma And The Often Inadequate And Biased Response Of The State Than Nikos Dedes One Of The Founders Of The Association Of Hiv

It was only when fashion designer Billy Bo , who catapulted to fame at a very young age, opened his own boutique on 5th Avenue in Manhattan, and was referred to in the Greek press as an Adonis or Apollo due to his beauty, and Alexandros Iolas, a world-renowned gallery owner and art collector who was friends with some of the towering divs in 20th century art, were diagnosed and died of AIDS that it drew public attention in Greece.

Beloved by the public and the darling of the Greek rich and famous, Billy Bos suffering and death at age 33 in 1987 brought an outpouring of sympathy. Iolas, who was better known to the international art world and the jet set, died five days earlier in a New York hospital.

Few know more about the long history since then of HIV in Greece, its social impact and stigma, and the often inadequate and biased response of the state than Nikos Dedes, one of the founders of the association of HIV-positive individuals, named Thetiki Foni , which stepped in with its successful Check Point organisation to offer free, confidential testing when the state did not.

In an exclusive interview with in.gr, tovima.gr, and tanea.gr, he details the longstanding indifference and bias at various levels of the state.

There were delays and tragic omissions in offering proper services to patients.

The situation with HIV viral load testing started to become normalised, Dedes says, after February, 2021 .

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Can Pcp Be Prevented

The best way to prevent PCP is to use strong antiretroviral therapy . People who have less than 200 CD4 cells can prevent PCP by taking the same medications used for PCP treatment

Combination ART can make your CD4 cell count go up. If it goes over 200 and stays there for 3 months, it may be safe to stop taking PCP medications. However, because PCP medications are inexpensive and have mild side effects, some researchers think they should be continued until your CD4 cell count reaches 300. Be sure to talk with your doctor before you stop taking any of your prescribed medications.

Questioning The Assumed Causes Of Death

The Number One Killer of People With HIV

Sudden cardiac death occurs when electrical signaling in the heart abruptly goes awry and the heart stops pumping blood. Risk factors include coronary artery disease, heart attack, and previously diagnosed arrhythmias, but SCD often kills individuals with no previously identified risks.

Tseng first envisioned POST SCD when he identified a need to more accurately identify cases of sudden cardiac death, after the results of his retrospective study of a potential risk-factor gene in survivors of documented cardiac arrest did not agree with a well-known earlier study in which sudden cardiac deaths were not well investigated.

Cardiac arrest is typically an assessment made by emergency medical personnel on the scene. SCD has traditionally been defined by World Health Organization criteria, in which cardiac cause may be assumed if the death occurred within an hour of symptoms, or the deceased had been seen alive without symptoms within the previous 24 hours.

Almost all these out-of-hospital deaths are never investigated, so its often a guess as to whether a sudden death was actually due to cardiac causes, Tseng said. In my opinion we as researchers have not made progress into discovering risk factors for sudden cardiac death because we previously mixed many non-cardiac conditions into the studies in which SCD has been presumed.

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How Do Our Football Sessions Work

Each football drill contains a sexual health message that unfolds as you play. For example a ball might represent a condom, and you can only play if you have the ball. This reinforces the importance of condoms during play, ie sexual relationships.

Drills are designed to be fun and interactive, so young people learn about sexual health through play, in a way they enjoy, remember and understand.

Through the messages in these drills, we inform and challenge young players to make safer decisions, limiting the impact of HIV and poor sexual health within their families and communities.

Study Design And Data Collection

This study is a retrospective observational cohort study in Zhejiang province with continued enrollment of HIV-infected persons at least 15 years old who were diagnosed between 2006 and 2013.

Data on PLWH were collected from the AIDS Prevention and Control Information System, which generates the national epidemiology database. The data in this system are collected compulsorily during routine tracking and clinical treatment of patients. The forms used for data collection are standardized nationwide, and include demographic, treatment, death, and laboratory information completed by health care facilities every 3 months for AIDS patients and every 6 months for HIV+ patients.

All the data from January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2013 were downloaded on July 1, 2014. shows our subject selection procedure. Patients who were not from mainland China or could not be located by the health care facility after diagnosis were excluded.

Study design flow chart for the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome cohort study, 20062013.

An individual was defined as eligible for this study when his/her HIV infection was confirmed by Western blotting. Date censoring occurred at: a) the date of the last visit for those lost to follow-up for at least half a year b) the date of death and c) the end of this study on December 31, 2013 for patients who continued to be followed up.

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The Number One Killer Of People With Hiv

TB Project Officer at RESULTS Canada, a national advocacy organization with a network of volunteers committed to creating the political will to end global poverty.

As advocates, we often like to use analogies to explain the scourge of pandemics like HIV: It’s a runaway train with no conductor, a loaded gun in the hands of a madman, a tide that needs to be turned.

The problem with analogies though is that they have a way of detracting from the overarching, inevitable truth: People are dying. Real people.

By the end of 2012, there were 35.3 million people across the world living with HIV. That’s more than the entire population of Canada. No analogies needed here.

Even more jarring is the fact that one third of those people also have tuberculosis , and many of them will die before they even know that they have it.

TB is the number one killer of people with HIV worldwide, and modern science has only recently caught up enough to be able to accurately and efficiently test for this deadly co-infection. In December of 2010, the WHO first endorsed GeneXpert, a revolutionary new diagnostic tool that they heralded as a major milestone for global TB diagnosis. Not only does it cut the testing time down from weeks to mere hours, but it is the first tool to be able to detect TB in HIV patients.

“We cannot win the battle against AIDS if we do not also fight TB.” – Nelson Mandela

So what’s next?

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HIV overview

Living with HIV can result in a weakened immune system. This makes the body more susceptible to a host of illnesses. Over time, HIV attacks the bodys CD4 cells. These cells play a critical role in maintaining a healthy immune system. People living with HIV can proactively reduce the likelihood of developing common, life-threatening illnesses by taking their prescribed daily medications and practicing healthy living habits.

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Determination Of The Underlying Cause Of Death

Information contained in the questionnaire was used to determine one underlying cause of death according to the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision rules. The underlying cause of death is the disease or injury which initiated the train of morbid events leading to death. The algorithm of determination was adapted to specific concerns in HIV infection and allowed categorization of deaths as follows: AIDS-related causes according to the 1993 clinical classification deaths related to infection with HCV or HBV, including hepatocarcinoma cancers and other causes not related to AIDS or HCV/HBV, and adverse effects of treatment. The latter was considered the underlying cause of death only when this was the explicit conclusion of the physician. AIDS-defining causes were grouped in one underlying cause of death, followed by descriptions of individual AIDS-defining pathologies. If the standardized questionnaire was missing, the abstracted quarterly notifications were used to establish the underlying cause of death, if possible.

Mortality 2000 Study Group

Financial support. Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida Coordinated Action n° 5 , SidactionEnsemble Contre le Sida12th Call for Tender.

Other support. Association des Professeurs de Pathologie Infectieuse et Tropicale , Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Sida , Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne , Société de Pathologie Infectieuse de Langue Française , Centre d’Information et de Soins de l’Immunodéficience Humaine , Réseau ville-hôpital .

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Cause Of Death By Age And Disease Status

Of all deaths in our study, 64.9% were among AIDS patients, and 49.5% and 60.2% of deaths occurred at ages over 40 years in HIV patients and AIDS patients, respectively. Leading causes of death for HIV patients were accidental death and suicide , non-AIDS-associated malignancies , and lung disease . For AIDS patients, the most frequent underlying causes of death were AIDS-associated death and non-AIDS-defining malignancies . There were more suicides among HIV patients under 40 years old . For all deaths, 49.6% died from AIDS-associated diseases, followed by suicide, accidental death, substance use , non-AIDS-associated malignancies , and lung disease .

Scientists Find Aggressive New Hiv Strain

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A new strain of HIV agressively progresses into full-blown AIDS.

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Dec. 3, 2013 — Swedish scientists have identified a new strain of HIV that appears to progress much faster than most previously identified variations of the virus.

The new strain, known as A3/02, is a recombinant, meaning it is a cross between two previously identified HIV strains. Writing in the Journal of Infectious Diseases, Lund University researchers said that the infection moves from HIV to full-blown AIDS in about five years, nearly two- to two-and-a-half years faster than most previously known strains.

So far the new infection seems confined to West Africa. But experts fear that recombinants are becoming more common and could start to spread globally, especially to highly mobile regions such as Europe and the United States. The researchers said recombinants develop faster than the “parental” strains they spring from, though fortunately, this latest strain seems treatable with existing drugs.

An HIV diagnosis changes to AIDS when a person’s white blood cell count dips below 200, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Gupta, however, said it was misleading to say that this new strain was the most aggressive form of AIDS yet known.

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“There are some HIV types here in the United States that take as little as two years to develop into AIDS,” he noted.

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Why Do We Need To Know The Reasons People Die

It is important to know why people die to improve how people live. Measuring how many people die each year helps to assess the effectiveness of our health systems and direct resources to where they are needed most. For example, mortality data can help focus activities and resource allocation among sectors such as transportation, food and agriculture, and the environment as well as health.

COVID-19 has highlighted the importance for countries to invest in civil registration and vital statistics systems to allow daily counting of deaths, and direct prevention and treatment efforts. It has also revealed inherent fragmentation in data collection systems in most low-income countries, where policy-makers still do not know with confidence how many people die and of what causes.

To address this critical gap, WHO has partnered with global actors to launch Revealing the Toll of COVID-19: Technical Package for Rapid Mortality Surveillance and Epidemic Response. By providing the tools and guidance for rapid mortality surveillance, countries can collect data on total number of deaths by day, week, sex, age and location, thus enabling health leaders to trigger more timely efforts for improvements to health.

The routine collection and analysis of high-quality data on deaths and causes of death, as well as data on disability, disaggregated by age, sex and geographic location, is essential for improving health and reducing deaths and disability across the world.

Leading Causes Of Death In Zambia

Zambia is one of the landlocked countries in the southern part of Africa bordered by DRC, Malawi, Tanzania, Mozambique, and Namibia. The country has a population of 16.2 million people with the majority of its population living in towns like Lusaka, Kitwe, Chipata, and Ndola. The Ministry of Health has the responsibility of handling health -related activities and infrastructure in the country. Zambias expenditure on health accounts for 5% of GDP. The life expectancy in the country is 59 and 65 years for male and female respectively. The probability of one dying between the age of 15 and 60 per 1000 people is 356 and 303 among the male and female respectively. The under-5 mortality rate in the country is 145 deaths per 1000 live births. Some of the leading causes of death in Zambia include

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Study Population And Setting

We used data from the Comparative Outcomes And Service Utilization Trends study. COAST is a large population-based retrospective cohort study including longitudinal data of HIV-infected adults and a control group from the general population of BC residents meeting the age criterion and recruited into the cohort in the period between April 1, 1996 and March 31, 2013. Briefly, the COAST cohort was designed to characterize health outcomes and healthcare utilization of persons living with HIV infection since the introduction of cART and to evaluate differences in these parameters from those observed in the general population. COAST contains de-identified health-related data arising from a unique data linkage between the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS Drug Treatment Program and Population Data BC . The Drug Treatment Program manages the province-wide antiretroviral therapy dispensation program. It prospectively collects demographic, immunologic, virologic, ART-use and other clinical data on all known HIV-infected individuals who have ever accessed ART, which is accessible at no cost through the BCCfE. Population Data BC is BCs repository of individual-level longitudinal data from health administrative databases data that are collected by public bodies for all four million BC residents.

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