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Which Is The Main Goal Of Hiv Treatment Brainly

What Is An Internet Addiction


Internet and computer use are ingrained in contemporary society and have changed the way we live our lives more than any other technological medium yet. Despite this, relatively little is known about the effects of internet addiction on psychological functioning, mental health, and general well-being. Just last year, data from the Pew Research Center showed that 77% of Americans connect to the internet on a daily basis. While many believe that surfing the web or binging cat videos on YouTube is a relatively harmless act, there are some people who spend so much of their time using a computer or the internet that it has begun to interfere with their daily lives. When an action or desire becomes a hindrance and takes precedence over the most important aspects of ones life, like relationships, work, and school, it can become classified as an addiction.

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Insights Into The Design And Development Of S Protein

Since SARS-CoV-2 was identified as the causative agent of COVID-19, and its first genome sequence was released immediately and freely by a Chinese research group , SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates based on various vaccine platforms, such as inactivated or live attenuated vaccines, DNA and mRNA vaccines, viral vector-based vaccines, and recombinant protein-based vaccines, have been developed . Most of these vaccine strategies are based on the full-length S glycoprotein, the major viral surface antigen . When a vaccine strategy requires that the SARS-CoV-2 S protein be recombinantly expressed in the human body, the ERRS should be omitted to enhance the cell surface expression level of the resulting protein.

Another concern for vaccine candidates based on the full-length S glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 is raised by the observation that the S1 subunit could spontaneously dissociate from the S glycoprotein probably as a trimer that still assumes the RBD closed conformation, leaving only the postfusion S2 trimer . The resulting S1 and S2 subunits might expose immunodominant, nonneutralizing epitopes that are utilized by SARS-CoV-2 to serve as decoys to distract the host immune system, inducing a large proportion of ineffective antibody responses, as documented for HIV-1 and respiratory syncytial virus .

What Are The Four Features Of European Union

The EU in brief

  • Goals and values of the EU. Goals.
  • From economic to political union. The European Union is a unique economic and political union between 27 EU countries that together cover much of the continent.
  • Stability, a single currency, mobility and growth.
  • Transparent and democratic institutions.

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What Are The Symptoms Of Hiv

After the first month or so, HIV enters the clinical latency stage. This stage can last from a few years to a few decades.

Some people dont have any symptoms during this time, while others may have minimal or nonspecific symptoms. A nonspecific symptom is a symptom that doesnt pertain to one specific disease or condition.

These nonspecific symptoms may include:

  • headaches and other aches and pains
  • swollen lymph nodes
  • recurrent oral or vaginal yeast infections
  • pneumonia
  • shingles

As with the early stage, HIV is still transferable during this time even without symptoms and can be transmitted to another person.

However, a person wont know they have HIV unless they get tested. If someone has these symptoms and thinks they may have been exposed to HIV, its important that they get tested.

HIV symptoms at this stage may come and go, or they may progress rapidly. This progression can be slowed substantially with treatment.

With the consistent use of this antiretroviral therapy, chronic HIV can last for decades and will likely not develop into AIDS, if treatment was started early enough.

The cause of the rash determines:

  • how it looks
  • how it can be treated depends on the cause

Goal : Develop A Global Partnership For Development

On Track But Continued Progress Needed on HIV Viral ...
  • Target 8A: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system
  • Includes a commitment to good governance, development, and poverty reduction both nationally and internationally
  • Target 8B: Address the Special Needs of the Least Developed Countries
  • Includes: tariff and quota-free access for LDC exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for HIPC and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction
  • Target 8C: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States
  • Through the Programme of Action for the sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly
  • Target 8D: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term
  • Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least developed countries , Africa, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.
  • Official development assistance :
  • Net ODA, total and to LDCs, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ GNI
  • Proportion of total sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services
  • Proportion of bilateral ODA of OECD/DAC donors that is untied
  • ODA received in landlocked countries as proportion of their GNIs
  • Debt sustainability:
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    What Else Should I Know

    The two most important things you can do for your friend are to be there for support in whatever way feels natural and to keep your friend’s HIV diagnosis private. Just being there to hang out or eat lunch together can help keep things in perspective for everyone.

    Life is for living. If friends know that you care about them for them â for the creative, smart, funny people they are â that can be the best thing you can do for a person living with any type of medical condition.

    Hiv Symptoms In Men: Is There A Difference

    Symptoms of HIV vary from person to person, but theyre similar in men and women. These symptoms can come and go or get progressively worse.

    If a person has been exposed to HIV, they may also have been exposed to other sexually transmitted infections . These include:

    While not related to HIV symptoms, another risk for women with HIV is that the virus can be transmitted to a baby during pregnancy. However, antiretroviral therapy is considered safe during pregnancy.

    Women who are treated with antiretroviral therapy are at very low risk for transmitting HIV to their baby during pregnancy and delivery. Breastfeeding is also affected in women with HIV. The virus can be transferred to a baby through breast milk.

    In the United States and other settings where formula is accessible and safe, its recommended that women with HIV not breastfeed their babies. For these women, use of formula is encouraged.

    Options besides formula include pasteurized banked human milk.

    For women who may have been exposed to HIV, its important to know what symptoms to look for.

    AIDS refers to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With this condition, the immune system is weakened due to HIV thats typically gone untreated for many years.

    If HIV is found and treated early with antiretroviral therapy, a person will usually not develop AIDS.

    Symptoms of AIDS can include:

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    Us Relations With The Philippines

    Bilateral Relations Fact Sheet

    More information about Philippines is available on the;Philippines Page;and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.


    The United States established diplomatic relations with the Philippines in 1946.

    U.S.-Philippine relations are based on strong historical and cultural linkages and a shared commitment to democracy and human rights. The 1951 U.S.-Philippines Mutual Defense Treaty provides a strong foundation for our robust security partnership, which began during World War II. Strong people-to-people ties and economic cooperation provide additional avenues to engage on a range of bilateral, regional, and global issues. The U.S.-Philippine Bilateral Strategic Dialogue is the annual forum for forward planning across the spectrum of our relationship. There more than four million U.S. citizens of Philippine ancestry in the United States, and more than 350,000 U.S. citizens in the Philippines, including a large number of United States veterans. An estimated 650,000 U.S. citizens visit the Philippines each year. Many people-to-people programs exist between the United States and the Philippines, including the longest continuously running Fulbright program in the world, International Visitor Leadership Program, and Kenney-Lugar Youth Exchange and Study program.

    U.S. Assistance to Philippines

    Bilateral Economic Relations

    Bilateral Representation

    Rash Related To Medication

    New FDA Approval for HIV Treatment (FCL Sept. 18)

    While rash can be caused by HIV co-infections, it can also be caused by medication. Some drugs used to treat HIV or other conditions can cause a rash.

    This type of rash usually appears within a week or 2 weeks of starting a new medication. Sometimes the rash will clear up on its own. If it doesnt, a change in medications may be needed.

    Rash due to an allergic reaction to medication can be serious.

    Other symptoms of an allergic reaction include:

    • trouble breathing or swallowing
    • dizziness
    • fever

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a rare allergic reaction to HIV medication. Symptoms include fever and swelling of the face and tongue. A blistering rash, which can involve the skin and mucous membranes, appears and spreads quickly.

    When 30 percent of the skin is affected, its called toxic epidermal necrolysis, which is a life threatening condition. If this develops, emergency medical care is needed.

    While rash can be linked with HIV or HIV medications, its important to keep in mind that rashes are common and can have many other causes.

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    Us Response To The Global Epidemic

    The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief is the U.S. Governments response to the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and represents the largest commitment by any nation to address a single disease in history. Through PEPFAR, the U.S. has supported a world safer and more secure from infectious disease threats. It has demonstrably strengthened the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to new and existing riskswhich ultimately enhances global health security and protects Americas borders. Among other global results, PEPFAR provided HIV testing services for nearly 50 million people in Fiscal Year 2020 and, as of September 30, 2020, supported lifesaving ART for nearly 18.2 million men, women, and children.

    In addition, the National Institutes of Health represents the largest public investment in HIV/AIDS research in the world. NIH is engaged in research around the globe to understand, diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV infection and its many associated conditions, and to find a cure.

    Laboratory Monitoring Of Immune Function To Guide Therapy

    Laboratory monitoring determines when antiretroviral therapy should be initiatedand when it should be changed because of toxicity, lack of efficacy, orresistance. The optimal frequency and precision of monitoring depends onnumerous factors, principally the following:

    • the expected rate of change of variables of interest
    • the expected frequency of events, such as development of resistance,adherence failure, and side effects
    • the relative cost of monitoring versus the cost of providingineffective treatment
    • the magnitude of the secondary effects of monitoring .

    WHO has suggested a pragmatic approach to monitoring, with inexpensive,easy-to-measure parameters for monitoring in low-incomecountries. More specialized markersânamely, CD4 count, viral load, andresistance genotypingâwould be restricted to sentinel sites andtertiary care services , at least initially.

    Monitoring to Guide Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy

    If laboratory monitoring is performed, its optimal frequency must bedetermined. The closer patients get to an antiretroviral therapy threshold,the more often they must be tested to detect a CD4 decline that falls withina specific CD4 range. As use of antiretroviral therapy expands in LMICs andas the costs of drugs fall relative to the costs of laboratory monitoring,collecting empirical data and constructing models to compare differentmonitoring strategies is becoming increasingly urgent.

    Testing for Primary Resistance

    Monitoring Response to Therapy

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    The Global Hiv/aids Epidemic

    HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, is one of the worlds most serious public health challenges. But there is a global commitment to stopping new HIV infections and ensuring that everyone with HIV has access to HIV treatment.

    According to UNAIDS:

    Number of People with HIVThere were approximately 37.6 million people across the globe with HIV in 2020. Of these, 35.9 million were adults and 1.7 million were children .

    New HIV InfectionsAn estimated 1.5 million individuals worldwide acquired HIV in 2020, marking a 30% decline in new HIV infections since 2010. Of these new HIV infections:

    • 1.3 million were among adults
    • 160,000 were among children

    HIV TestingApproximately 84% of people with HIV globally knew their HIV status in 2020. The remaining 16% still need access to HIV testing services. HIV testing is an essential gateway to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support services.

    HIV Treatment AccessAs of the end of 2020, 27.4 million people with HIV were accessing antiretroviral therapy globally. That means 10.2 million people are still waiting. HIV treatment access is key to the global effort to end AIDS as a public health threat. People with HIV who are aware of their status, take ART daily as prescribed, and get and keep an undetectable viral load can live long, healthy lives and have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners.

    • 84% knew their HIV status
    • 73% were accessing ART
    • 66% were virally suppressed

    Using Concrete Specific Words For Clarity

    Antiretroviral Drugs Cheat Sheet

    In general, as you move from one level to another while speaking, you will tailor the level of abstraction to the specific speech content and the audience level of understanding. You can increase the clarity, and therefore the usability, of your speaking by using concrete, specific words rather than abstract, general ones. Concrete words help your audience understand precisely what you mean. If you say that you want to produce television shows for a younger demographic segment, they wont know whether you mean teenagers or toddlers. If you say that you study natural phenomena, your audience wont know whether you mean volcanic eruptions or the migrations of monarch butterflies. Such vagueness can hinder audience from getting the information they need in order to make decisions and take action. When you want the audience to make a concrete connection to their direct experience, remember to come down to earth on the the abstraction ladder. You can move up the ladder again to talk about boarder concepts.

    For example, you will draw heavily on level one to create images of specific people, places, or things in the minds of your audience. You may move up and down the level of abstraction as needed. For example, if you are talking about a top-level abstraction such as transportation, you may need to make it real for the audience by describing actual means of transportation such as your green mountain bike for city use or your blue and silver BMW for longer trips.

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    How Are These Disorders Treated

    No single treatment can cure the neurological complications of HIV/AIDS. Some disorders require aggressive therapy while others are treated as symptoms arise.

    Neuropathic painchronic pain caused by damage to the nervous systemis often difficult to control. Medicines range from over-the-counter pain killers to anticonvulsant drugs, opiates, and some classes of antidepressants. Inflamed tissue caused by autoimmune or other conditions can press on nerves, causing pain. Such illnesses may be treated with corticosteroids or procedures such as plasma exchange, formally known as plasmapheresis, that clear the blood of harmful substances that cause inflammation.

    Treatment options for AIDS- and HIV-related neuropsychiatric or psychotic disorders include antidepressants and anticonvulsants. Psychostimulants may also improve depression and reduce fatigue. Drugs such as cholinesterase inhibitors, which can temporarily improve or stabilize memory and thinking skills in people with dementia, may relieve confusion and slow mental decline. Benzodiazepines may be prescribed to treat anxiety. Psychotherapy may also help some individuals.

    Other treatments may include physical therapy and rehabilitation, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to shrink cancerous brain tumors that may be related to HIV, antifungal or antimalarial drugs to combat certain bacterial infections associated with the disorder, and penicillin to treat neurosyphilis.

    General Prevention Guidelines By Type Of Epidemic

    Generally, it is more important to change the behavior of people who have highlevels of risk behavior than it is to change that of people with lower levels ofrisk behavior. However, the difference in the effectiveness between the twofalls as epidemics become more generalized, and as the average and maximum sizeof the connected components . Thus, in heavilyaffected countries, or those where the virus has the potential to spreadrapidly, prevention interventions are likely to become extremely cost-effectiveeven when targeted at individuals with relatively low levels of risk behavior.Consequently, countries with low-level and concentrated epidemics shouldemphasize interventions that target individuals at especially high risk ofbecoming infected or of transmitting the virus, whereas countries withgeneralized epidemics should also invest heavily in interventions that targetentire populations or population subgroups. Thus, any determination of thelikely effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of specific interventions inparticular circumstances requires an accurate understanding of the stage andnature of the national epidemic.

    Generalized Low-Level Epidemic

    In a generalized low-level epidemic, such as in some countries in Sub-SaharanAfrica , the emphasis on targeted interventions mustbe maintained or even strengthened. Interventions for broader populationsmust also be aggressively implemented. These prevention priorities shouldinclude the following:

    Generalized High-Level Epidemic

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    What Are Some Of The Neurological Complications That Are Associated With Hiv Infection

    AIDS-related disorders of the nervous system may be caused directly by the HIV virus, by certain cancers and opportunistic infections , or by toxic effects of the drugs used to treat symptoms.; Other neuro-AIDS disorders of unknown origin may be influenced by but are not caused directly by the virus.

    AIDS dementia complex , or HIV-associated dementia , occurs primarily in persons with more advanced HIV infection.; Symptoms include encephalitis , behavioral changes, and a gradual decline in cognitive function, including trouble with concentration, memory, and attention.; Persons with ADC also show progressive slowing of motor function and loss of dexterity and coordination.; When left untreated, ADC can be fatal. ;It is rare when anti-retroviral therapy is used. ;Milder cognitive complaints are common and are termed HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder . ;Neuropsychologic testing can reveal subtle deficits even in the absence of symptoms.

    Central nervous system lymphomas;are cancerous tumors that either begin in the brain or result from a cancer that has spread from another site in the body.; CNS lymphomas are almost always associated with the Epstein-Barr virus .; Symptoms include headache, seizures, vision problems, dizziness, speech disturbance, paralysis, and mental deterioration.; Individuals may develop one or more CNS lymphomas.; Prognosis is poor due to advanced and increasing immunodeficiency, but is better with successful HIV therapy.

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