Thursday, May 19, 2022

How Hiv Affects The Immune System

What Are The Factors That Affect Disease Progression

Immunology wars: The battle with HIV

The most important factor affecting HIV progression is the ability to achieve viral suppression. Taking antiretroviral therapy regularly helps many people slow the progression of HIV and reach viral suppression.

However, a variety of factors affect HIV progression, and some people progress through the phases of HIV more quickly than others.

Factors that affect HIV progression can include:

  • Ability to achieve viral suppression. Whether someone can take their antiretroviral medications and achieve viral suppression is the most important factor by far.
  • Age when symptoms start. Being older can result in faster progression of HIV.
  • Health before treatment. If a person had other diseases, such as tuberculosis, hepatitis C, or other sexually transmitted diseases , it can affect their overall health.
  • Timing of diagnosis. Another important factor is how soon a person was diagnosed after they contracted HIV. The longer between their diagnosis and treatment, the more time the disease has to progress unchecked.
  • Lifestyle. Practicing an unhealthy lifestyle, such as having a poor diet and experiencing severe stress, can cause HIV to progress more quickly.
  • Genetic history. Some people seem to progress more quickly through their disease given their genetic makeup.

Some factors can delay or slow the progression of HIV. These include:

Living a healthy lifestyle and seeing a healthcare provider regularly can make a big difference in a persons overall health.

The Science Of Hiv And Aids

Key Points

  • HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, a pathogen that works by attacking the human immune system.
  • HIV specifically targets CD4 cells, the bodys principal defenders against infection, using them to make copies of themselves.
  • Antiretroviral drugs target specific stages of the HIV lifecycle to stop HIV from replicating.

Explore this page to find out more about , , and .;

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus, a pathogen that works by attacking the human immune system. It belongs to a class of viruses called retroviruses and more specifically, a subgroup called lentiviruses, or viruses that cause disease slowly. 1

HIV cannot replicate on its own, so in order to make new copies of itself, it must infect cells of the human immune system, called CD4 cells. CD4 cells are white blood cells that play a central role in responding to infections in the body. 2

Over time, CD4 cells are killed by HIV and the bodys ability to recognise and fight some types of infection begins to decline. If HIV is not controlled by treatment, the loss of CD4 cells leads to the development of serious illnesses, or opportunistic infections. In people with normal CD4 cell levels, these infections would be recognised and cleared by the immune system. 3

Hiv Effects On The Immune System

Your immune system has many types of white blood cells that fight infection. HIV gets inside a kind called CD4 cells and makes copies of itself. The virus kills the cell, and the new viruses go off to find more.

Your body responds by making more CD4 cells, but after a while, it canât keep up with the virus. This makes your immune system weak. Youâre more likely to get sick, even from common germs. Infections last longer, are more severe, and might come back more often.

If you follow your doctorâs directions with ART, it knocks out HIV, stopping it from infecting more CD4 cells and from weakening your immune system.

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Hiv Invasion Of Immune Cells

HIV infects T cells via high-affinity interaction between the virion envelope glycoprotein and the CD4 molecule. The infection of T cells is assisted by the T-cell co-receptor called CXCR4 while HIV infects monocytes by interacting with CCR5 co-receptor . As illustrated in Figure 2, after gp120 binds to CD4 on the T cell . Nucleocapsids containing viral genome and enzymes enters the target cell . Following the release of viral genome and enzymes from the core protein, viral reverse transcriptase catalyses reverse transcription of ssRNA to form RNA-DNA hybrids . To yield HIV dsDNA the viral RNA template is partially degraded by ribonuclease H and the second DNA strand is synthesized . The viral dsDNA is translocated into the nucleus and integrated into the host genome by the viral integrase enzyme . Transcription factors transcribe the proviral DNA into genomic ssRNA , which is exported to cytoplasm . In the cytoplasm, host-cell ribosomes catalyse synthesis of viral precursor proteins . The viral precursor proteins are cleaved into viral proteins by viral proteases . HIV ssRNA and proteins assemble beneath the host-cell plasma membrane forming virion buds from it . Maturation occurs either in the forming buds or after budding from the host cell . During maturation, HIV proteases cleave the poly-proteins into individual functional HIV proteins. The mature virions are able to infect another host cell.

Figure 1. Figure 2.

Hiv Viral Load And The Immune System

Facing a Health Crisis with a Limited Immune System ...

The way that ART works is by preventing HIV from replicating in the body, which helps keep the viral load low. Viral load refers to the amount of virus in the bloodstream. ART targets HIV to keep the viral load low. Without treatment, the viral load will continue to increase and may begin to affect the immune system.

The reason HIV specifically affects the immune system is because the virus attacks immune cells. To be exact, it attacks CD4 T cells. These cells normally help your body fight off infection. When you dont have enough of these cells, you could have a hard time fighting off simple infections. You will also be more at risk of contracting infections like tuberculosis or gonorrhea.

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Treatment Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Essay

Human immunodeficiency virus is a blood-borne virus typically transmitted via sexual intercourse, shared intravenous drug paraphernalia, and mother-to-child transmission , which can occur during the birth processor during breastfeeding. There is no cure for HIV or AIDS but over time different types of medications have been developed that slows down the advancement of the disease. AIDS is a lethal disease that is caused by HIV. HIV destroys the immune system and causes the body to not be

Causes Of Hiv Infection

HIV is found in the body fluids of an infected person. This includes semen, vaginal and anal fluids, blood and breast milk.

It’s a fragile virus and does not survive outside the body for long.

HIV cannot be transmitted through sweat, urine or saliva.

The most common way of getting HIV in the UK is;through having;anal or vaginal sex without a condom.

Other ways of getting HIV include:

  • sharing needles, syringes or other injecting equipment
  • transmission from mother to baby during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding

The chance of getting HIV through oral sex is very low and will be dependent on many things, such as whether you receive or give oral sex and the oral hygiene of the person giving the oral sex.

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How Are These Disorders Treated

No single treatment can cure the neurological complications of HIV/AIDS. Some disorders require aggressive therapy while others are treated as symptoms arise.

Neuropathic painchronic pain caused by damage to the nervous systemis often difficult to control. Medicines range from over-the-counter pain killers to anticonvulsant drugs, opiates, and some classes of antidepressants. Inflamed tissue caused by autoimmune or other conditions can press on nerves, causing pain. Such illnesses may be treated with corticosteroids or procedures such as plasma exchange, formally known as plasmapheresis, that clear the blood of harmful substances that cause inflammation.

Treatment options for AIDS- and HIV-related neuropsychiatric or psychotic disorders include antidepressants and anticonvulsants. Psychostimulants may also improve depression and reduce fatigue. Drugs such as cholinesterase inhibitors, which can temporarily improve or stabilize memory and thinking skills in people with dementia, may relieve confusion and slow mental decline. Benzodiazepines may be prescribed to treat anxiety. Psychotherapy may also help some individuals.

Other treatments may include physical therapy and rehabilitation, radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to shrink cancerous brain tumors that may be related to HIV, antifungal or antimalarial drugs to combat certain bacterial infections associated with the disorder, and penicillin to treat neurosyphilis.

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus Essay

HIV: Basic Function of Immune System

Virus affects the human wellbeing by attacking the bodys immune system which is the natural defense system in the human body to resist infections. When the immune system is compromised, the body becomes less capable of fighting diseases, allowing the body to become more susceptible to infections. Different from other viruses that the body can get rid of, HIV will remain in the body for life . HIV works by attacking the CD4 cells, which assist the immune system to resist

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Hiv And Aids Are Something That Have Been A Major Problem In A Large Part Of The World For Many

HIV and Aids are something that have been a major problem in a large part of the world for many years. These viruses have destroyed many families and have taken many peoples lives. There are many different ways for a person to receive the virus. As of today, there is still no cure for these horrible diseases. Until scientists and doctors are able to find a medicine that can cure them, many people will continue to be affected by these diseases. This research paper will break down each virus

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Dysregulation Of Innate Immunity

Activation of natural killer cells and production of type I interferon by plasmacytoid dendritic cells are the main effector arms of innate antiviral responses . Both mechanisms are severely affected during HIV-1 infection, with potential consequences for pathogenesis and generation of an efficient vaccine-induced response.

Dysregulation of NK cells

Dysregulation of pDC

The second major component of innate immune responses triggered by viral infections is the production of type I IFN by pDC . pDC are activated upon recognition of common structural patterns of viruses, particularly single-stranded viral RNA and unmethylated CpG-rich DNA which trigger Toll-like receptors 7 and 9, respectively . Type I IFN create a cellular environment that is hostile to the virus by limiting the uptake of nutrients from the extracellular environment, increasing the degradation of RNA, arresting progression through the cell cycle and eventually favouring the apoptotic death of the target cell . Furthermore, type I IFN directly induces the expression of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules on antigen-presenting cells, thus promoting efficient antigen presentation and the priming of adaptive immune responses .

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Can Hiv/aids Be Prevented

You can reduce the risk of spreading HIV by

  • Getting tested for HIV
  • Choosing less risky sexual behaviors. This includes limiting the number of sexual partners you have and using latex condoms every time you have sex. If your or your partner is allergic to latex, you can use polyurethane condoms.
  • Getting tested and treated for sexually transmitted diseases
  • Not injecting drugs
  • Talking to your health care provider about medicines to prevent HIV:
  • PrEP is for people who donât already have HIV but are at very high risk of getting it. PrEP is daily medicine that can reduce this risk.
  • PEP is for people who have possibly been exposed to HIV. It is only for emergency situations. PEP must be started within 72 hours after a possible exposure to HIV.

NIH: National Institutes of Health

Neurological Complications Of Hiv

8 Autoimmune Diseases Everyone Needs to Look Out For

HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV weakens and slowly destroys the bodys immune system, leaving you vulnerable to life-threatening complications from an infection or certain cancers.

As HIV and AIDS battle your immune system, your central nervous system is also affected. HIV and AIDS both cause a number of neurological complications, particularly if HIV progresses to AIDS.

Today, antiretroviral medicineswhen taken correctly and promptlyhelp to slow down the progression of HIV. They also help to delay the onset of or to decrease the risk of progression to AIDS. Controlling HIV can also reduce your risk for neurological complications of HIV.

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How Is Hiv Treated

Treatments for HIV typically involve antiretroviral therapy. This isnt a specific regimen, but instead a combination of three or four drugs. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has currently approved nearly 50 different medications to treat HIV.

Antiretroviral therapy works to prevent the virus from copying itself. This maintains immunity levels while slowing the progression of HIV.

Before prescribing medication, a healthcare provider will take the following factors into consideration:

  • a persons health history
  • the levels of the virus in the blood

HIV doesnt cause a lot of outward or noticeable symptoms until the disease has progressed. For this reason, its important to understand how HIV is transmitted and the ways to prevent transmission.

HIV can be transmitted by:

  • having sex, including oral, vaginal, and anal sex
  • sharing needles, including tattoo needles, needles used for body piercing, and needles used for injecting drugs
  • coming into contact with body fluids, such as semen, vaginal fluid, blood, and breast milk

HIV is not transmitted by:

  • breathing the same air as a person living with HIV
  • getting bitten by a mosquito or other biting insect
  • hugging, holding hands with, kissing, or touching a person living with HIV
  • touching a door handle or toilet seat thats been used by an HIV-positive person

Keeping this in mind, some of the ways a person can prevent HIV include:

Symptoms can take years to appear, which is why its so important to get tested regularly.

Targets The Bodys Immune System

The human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that attacks the bodys immune system. Over time, and with significant damage to the immune system, it can become harder to fight off infections. When opportunistic infections or cancers begin to develop as a result of a weakened immune system, an individual is considered to have developed acquired immune deficiency syndrome , the most advanced stage of HIV. Before the introduction of antiretroviral therapy in the 1990s, an individual infected with HIV could progress to AIDS very quickly. But with early treatment with antiretroviral therapy, a person diagnosed with HIV can live nearly as long as someone without the disease.

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Haart And The Gastrointestinal Tract

Currently available prophylactic antiretroviral regimens generally reduce plasma viral loads to undetectable levels, resulting in subsequent increases in peripheral blood CD4 T cells. It might be expected that viral replication would be diminished throughout the body and that the CD4 T-cell reconstitution observed in blood would be mirrored at all anatomic sites. Early studies of HIV-associated enteropathy after the initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy suggested that GI symptomsâsuch as abdominal cramping, bloating, and loose stoolsâwere significantly improved as soon as a week after initiation of treatment. Moreover, a 1- week period of highly active antiretroviral therapy resulted in an approximately 10-fold decrease in viral load in rectal tissue, with a modest increase of 1 CD4 T cell per microscopic high power field, concomitant with an equally modest decrease in the number of apoptoic cells in rectal tissue.

What Are The Symptoms Of Hiv

Managing Life with HIV: A Virus that Attacks the Immune System

Symptoms of HIV vary depending on the individual and the stage of HIV infection.

Early stage

  • 2-4 weeks after infection, people with HIV tend to display flu-like symptoms, such as fever, swollen glands and sore throat.
  • This is the bodys natural response to the HIV infection as it tries to fight it off.
  • Generally this stage lasts from a few days to several weeks.

Latent stage

  • The disease moves into a latency period where the virus continues to grow in the individual but without causing any symptoms.
  • If left untreated, the latent period lasts an average of 10 years in people with HIV.
  • For individuals given antiretroviral therapy , the latent stage may last for several decades because this treatment helps to keep the virus under control, preventing it from progressing to the next stage, AIDS.

Progression to AIDS

  • If a person with HIV develops one or more of these opportunistic infections it may indicate that their HIV infection has progressed to AIDS.
  • How is HIV treated?

    • There is currently no cure for HIV but infections can be managed through regular clinical monitoring and antiretroviral treatments.
    • These treatments control the HIV infection and prevent it progressing to AIDS.
    • HIV-infected people who manage their infections with;antiretroviral treatments;are;able to live long and healthy lives.

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    Respiratory And Cardiovascular Systems

    HIV makes it hard to fight off respiratory problems such as the common cold and flu. In turn, an HIV-positive person may develop related infections, such as pneumonia.

    Without treatment for HIV, advanced disease puts an HIV-positive person at an even greater risk for infectious complications, such as tuberculosis and a fungal infection called pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia .

    PJP causes trouble breathing, cough, and fever.

    The risk of lung cancer also increases with HIV. This is due to weakened lungs from numerous respiratory issues related to a weakened immune system.

    According to available research , lung cancer is more prevalent among people with HIV compared to people without it.

    People with HIV are more likely to develop high blood pressure. HIV also raises the risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension . PAH is a type of high blood pressure in the arteries that supply blood to the lungs. Over time, PAH will strain the heart and can lead to heart failure.

    If a person has HIV with a low CD4 count, theyre also more susceptible to tuberculosis .

    TB is an airborne bacterium that affects the lungs. Its a leading cause of death in people who have AIDS. Symptoms include chest pain and a bad cough that may contain blood or phlegm. The cough can linger for months.

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