Sharing Food Drink Or Utensils
Speaking of mouths: Everything I just mentioned when explaining why kissing is not an HIV-transmission risk also applies to eating and drinking. That includes every type of normal food- or drink-sharing scenario you can think of, including splitting a plate of nachos, drinking from the same water bottle, and using the same fork when sharing a piece of cake.
The only documented cases of HIV transmission through food are extremely specific: They involve food that a person with HIV pre-chewed and then fed to an infant.
Needless to say, this is an extraordinarily rare eventonly a few cases have ever been recordedand they most likely involved blood entering the food due to the adult having poor oral hygiene.
So unless youre making like a mama bird and its chick, you can enjoy a meal or a drink with a person whos living with HIV and have zero concern that youre putting yourself at risk.
Is There Any Hiv Risk From A Nude Body
If all you had was a massage, with no penetrative intercourse or other high-risk activity, there is absolutely no reason to be concerned about HIV.
Generally, massages involve little or no contact with infectious body fluids. You might come into contact with another person’s semen or vaginal fluids, but you’re unlikely have any contact with blood. It’s worth remembering that saliva, tears, and urine don’t have infectious quantities of HIV.
And it is not enough to simply come into contact with an infected fluid to become infected. Healthy, unbroken skin does not allow HIV to get into the body it is an excellent barrier to HIV infection. HIV can enter only through an open cut or sore, or through contact with the mucous membranes in the anus and rectum, the vagina, the genitals, the mouth, and the eyes.
So if the massage involved penetrative sex without a condom, an infectious body fluid might have contact with mucus membranes in the genital area. But if it was just massage, there’s no way for an infectious body fluid to enter the bloodstream.
Risk Of Bloodborne Infection
The need to protect healthcare workers from bloodborne exposures resulted in the publication of the Bloodborne Pathogens Standard by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in 1991. The Standard requires employers whose employees have exposure to blood to provide safe work practices, education, and barriers to exposure. The Standard was later amended to add requirements for the safe use of sharps devices.
Part of the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard is the requirement that every healthcare worker who may have contact with body fluids on the job must receive specific annual education. This education includes:
- Instruction in the basics of infection control and prevention
- Bloodborne pathogens training
- Instruction in modes of transmission, needlestick precautions, and contact precautions
An occupational exposure to a bloodborne pathogen is defined as a percutaneous injury or contact of mucous membrane or non-intact skin with blood, tissue, or OPIM.
According to the CDC, the risk of infection varies case by case. Factors influencing the risk of infection include: whether the exposure was from a hollow-bore needle or other sharp instrument to non-intact skin or mucus membrane the amount of blood that was involved, and the amount of virus present in the sources blood.
Risk of HIV Transmission
Risk of Hepatitis B and C Transmission
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How Does Hiv Affect The Body
The human immune system involves many types of cells which guard against germs responsible for most diseases. The immune system’s most important guard cells are B-cells and T-cells, which are special white blood cells. B-cells and T-cells cooperate to fight any germ that attacks the human body.
B-cells produce particular proteins, called antibodies, that try to neutralize the invading germ. After a person recovers from an infection, these antibodies continue to circulate in the bloodstream, acting as part of the immune system’s “memory.” Immune system memory explains why a person rarely suffers a second attack from an infectious disease such as measles. If the same germ is encountered again, the antibodies will recognize and neutralize it. T-cells attack the germ directly and try to kill it.
Can Analingus Result In Hiv Transmission
For this answer, we turn back to Bob Frascino, M.D.:
“Although there have been no documented cases of acquiring HIV from rimming or being rimmed, there are a number of other significant STIs that can easily be transmitted through rimming, including hepatitis A, herpes, and intestinal parasites. You can decrease the risk by using a dental dam barrier .
“As for whether to rim or not, only you can decide what level of risk you are willing to take. At least now you have the facts.”
Can A Man Give Himself Hiv/aids Or Another Sexually Transmitted Infection By Masturbating
The best answer to this question came years ago from one of our longtime experts, the highly respected HIV physician Robert Frascino, M.D.:
“No, there is absolutely no chance you can contract a sexually transmitted illness from yourself!
“STIs involve germs that spread from an infected person to another person via sexual activity. Masturbation, choking the chicken, spanking the monkey, or whatever you want to call it, involves only you and your hand. Some folks may refer to their hand as Mrs. Palm and her five daughters, but really we are only talking about one person here. And that’s you, right?!
“A person cannot give himself a disease he doesn’t already have. Just as you can’t give yourself a million dollars , you can’t give yourself HIV, because you don’t have that either.
“The bottom line is that your jizz is perfectly safe, so no worries unless you spunk up your parents’ furniture. And even those kinds of stains, although they can lead to problems, they can not lead to STIs, OK?”
Estimated Hiv Transmission Risk Per Exposure
The estimates below should not be considered definitive but rather serve as a means to understand the relative risk of HIV by exposure type. The numbers are based on a meta-analysis of several large-scale studies which looked specifically at per-exposure risk.
|Mother-to-child, on ART with undetectable viral load||0.1%|
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What Happens If You Get Someone Elses Blood On You
The risk of an infection being passed on is highest if your skin is broken or punctured as you come into contact with the infected blood. For example, if: you puncture your skin with a used needle or other sharp object that has infected blood on it. someone with blood in their saliva bites you and breaks your skin.
Where Did Myths About Hiv Come From
The early 1980s were a scary time for people living with HIV. By the spring of 1983, scientists had identified the virus responsible for a mysterious illness called acquired immune deficiency syndrome , but they didnt understand how it passed from person to person.
Initially, some researchers speculated this new infection could be passed through casual contact or even through the air, like tuberculosis. Others theorized it might be hitching a ride with mosquitoes or other insects, like malaria.
But the damage had already been done. Myths about HIV transmission had already taken root, and these myths continue to make life difficult for the 1.1 million people living with HIV today in the United States.
Today we have a solid scientific understanding of HIV transmission. We know that HIV can only be transmitted in very limited circumstances, such as sexual contact or needle sharing. And we have a much better understanding of the way that viral loadthat is, the amount of HIV in a persons bloodstreaminfluences their chances of passing on the virus.
You can use this information to educate yourself, your friends, and your community about the real risk of HIV transmission.
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Transmission: Where Does The Hiv Virus Live
The HIV virus is present in body fluids. Body fluids which can contain significant amounts of HIV are not usually of concern to everyday people amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid and synovial fluid around bone joints, for example, are of concern only to healthcare workers that are involved in invasive surgical procedures.However, the HIV virus is present in the following body fluids in infectious quantities:
- Blood and blood products
- Vaginal and cervical secretions
- Breast milk.
An HIV-positive person may have HIV in very small amounts in other body fluids such as tears, saliva and blister fluid, but usually not in enough amount to be infectious. Contact with saliva, tears, or sweat has never been shown to result in transmission of HIV.
It is via the exchange of bodily fluids containing HIV virus that person-to-person transmission can occur. The main routes of HIV transmission are through:
- Unprotected sexual contact with an infected person
- Sharing needles with an infected person
- From an infected mother to child during pregnancy, during birth or after birth while breastfeeding.
You are at risk if:
- You have sex without condoms
- You have many sex partners and do not use condoms
- Your sex partner has/have sex with other persons without using condoms
- You share unsterilized needles for intravenous drug use
Nobody is immune to the HIV virus. Anyone engaging in above activities is at risk of infection.
Mother To Infant Transmission
It is possible for a mother who has HIV to pass the virus to her baby by exposure to blood and vaginal fluids during birth or through breast milk during feeding. The risk of transmission from mother to child during pregnancy or birth can be greatly reduced by taking certain HIV medications as prescribed.
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Reducing Your Personal Hiv Risk
The purpose of understanding relative risk is to establish the means by which to reduce your personal risk of infection or the risk of transmitting HIV to others. Oftentimes, it takes little to mitigate risk. For example, the consistent use of condoms correlates to a 20-fold decrease in HIV risk, while choosing insertive fellatio over insertive anal sex results in a 13-fold decrease. Conversely, the presence of an STI or genital ulcer increases the risk of HIV by anywhere from 200% to 400%.
Arguably the most important factor in assessing the likelihood of HIV transmission is the infected person’s viral load. Data suggests that the risk of an HIV-infected person with an undetectable viral load transmitting the virus is essentially zero.
The strategy called treatment as prevention strongly supports the use of antiretroviral therapy to reduce the infectivity of a person with HIV. It also reinforces the need for early testing to mitigate risk in mixed-status couples.
Knowing your serostatus and that of your partner allows you to make an informed choice on how to better protect yourselveswhether it be to abstain from high-risk activities, use condoms, or explore pre-exposure prophylaxis as a means to reduce the HIV-negative partner’s susceptibility to infection.
Hiv Must Get Into The Bloodstream
It is not enough to be in contact with an infected fluid for HIV to be transmitted. Healthy, intact skin does not allow HIV to get into the body.
HIV can enter through an open cut or sore, or through contact with mucous membranes. Transmission risk is very high when HIV comes in contact with the more porous mucous membranes in the genitals, anus, and rectum, which are inefficient barriers to HIV. Although very rare, transmission is also possible through oral sex because body fluids can enter the bloodstream through cuts in the mouth.
HIV can be transmitted from an infected person to another through the following infectious fluids:
- Vaginal secretions
- Rectal fluids
- HIV can also be transmitted through breast milk expressed through feeding, in limited circumstances, where there is exposure to large quantities.
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Oral Sex With A Vagina
The risk of transmission through oral sex with a vagina is very low because the mouth is an unfriendly environment for HIV. Saliva breaks down the virus, and the mucous membranes in the mouth are more protective than anal or vaginal tissue. The minimal risk of transmission from oral sex with a vagina is only for the person performing the oral sex, as their mouth is in contact with vaginal fluid. However, there is little data documenting HIV transmission via oral sex from an infected vagina to an uninfected person.
Performing oral sex on a vagina during menstruation increases the risk, because blood has more HIV than vaginal fluid.
A person receiving oral sex is generally not at risk as that person is coming into contact only with saliva, which does not transmit HIV. The presence of other sexually transmitted infections can increase the risk of HIV transmission during oral sex.
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Other Types Of Hiv Risks
Another less-common way HIV is transmitted in the United States is needlestick injury. This typically happens when a health care worker is accidentally jabbed by a used needle or syringe that contains HIV-positive blood. Again, this is very rare.
Thirty years ago, blood transfusions and organ donations were an especially dangerous way that some people acquired HIV. Nowadays, donated blood and organs are routinely tested.
Aids Phobia And Conspiracy Theorists
That being said, some people are still concerned that the infection could come from unlikely sources, including touching, mosquitoes, sharing beauty products and kissing. Aids phobia, the paralyzing and irrational fear of HIV, plays a major role in these beliefs. At other times, a person may have opposing views about HIV, or simply misunderstand HIV in general.
For these individuals, counseling to a qualified professional and psychotherapy for those experiencing extreme anxiety or depression may be required. Also, if the person is at risk for HIV or is in a mixed relationship, a doctor may want to consider prescribing HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis , a once-daily pill that reduces HIV risk by more than 90% .
AIDS Physician Discussion Guide
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Oral Sex With A Penis
The risk of HIV transmission through oral sex with a penis is very low because the mouth is an unfriendly environment for HIV. A person receiving oral sex is generally not at risk because that person is coming into contact only with saliva, which does not transmit HIV. However, the presence of other sexually transmitted infections can increase the risk of HIV transmission during oral sex.
The minimal risk of transmission from oral sex with a penis is only for the person performing the oral sex. Open cuts and abrasions in the mouth or bleeding gums can create an entry point for HIV and increase the risk of transmission.
There are a few documented cases where it appears that HIV was transmitted orally, but there is an increased risk of HIV transmission if someone with a penis ejaculates in the mouth of the person performing oral sex.
Transmission: Heightened Risk With The Presence Of Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Having a sexually transmittable disease will make you more susceptible to become infected with HIV, especially when such a disease has caused wounds, blisters, and ulcerations of the genitals.
In addition, when a person has both HIV infection and another sexually transmittable disease, the amount of HIV in the body fluids is greatly increased. This makes it more likely that HIV is transmitted during sex. For more information on STDs, click here .
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Lower Risk Of Infection
The risk of an infection being passed on from someone else’s blood is lower if the blood only comes into contact with your eyes, mouth, nose, or skin that’s already broken.
For example, if someone spits in your face, they may have blood in their saliva and it may get in your eyes, mouth or nose. The infected saliva may also get into an existing cut, graze or scratch.
There is also a lower risk of infection if infected blood comes into contact with skin that is already broken due to a health condition like eczema.
Perceived Vs Documented Risk
A perceived risk is one that is based on belief rather than fact and persists despite the unlikeliness of the event ever occurring. By contrast, a documented risk is based on statistical evidence of something actually occurring. Where a perceived risk is about theory, a documented risk is about the fact.
With regards to HIV, the potential to infect does not translate into an actual risk unless the exposure satisfies four specific conditions:
- There must be body fluids in which HIV can thrive. This includes semen, blood, vaginal fluid, and breast milk. HIV cannot thrive in parts of the body that have high acidity .
- There must be a route by which HIV can enter the body. This includes sexual intercourse, shared needles, occupational exposure, or vertical transmission.
- The virus must be able to reach vulnerable cells inside the body. This requires the rupture or deep penetration of the skin and/or the absorption of the virus through the mucosal tissues of the vagina or anus. Scrapes, abrasions, and skin prick do not offer the deep penetration needed for an infection to occur. HIV cannot pass through intact skin.
- There must be sufficient quantities of virus in the body fluids. Saliva, sweat, and tears all either contain enzymes the inhibit HIV or have a pH hostile to HIV.
Unless all of these conditions are satisfied, an HIV infection simply cannot occur.
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