Hiv And Maternal Transmission
HIV can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or through breastfeeding. If left untreated throughout these stages, there is a 15-45% chance of an HIV positive mother transmitting the virus to their child . However there are treatment options to prevent this from happening.
If pregnancy occurs and there has been potential HIV exposure, ask a healthcare provider about getting tested for HIV as early as possible. Taking medications called antiretroviral therapy as prescribed can reduce the viral load so that the baby has a very low chance of contracting HIV .
A person with HIV should not breastfeed their child, as breast milk can transmit HIV. Even if a person is taking ART and their viral loads are undetectable, they should still not breastfeed.
How Hiv Cannot Be Spread
From both a biological and epidemiological evidence, HIV cannot and has never been shown to be passed from one person to the next by the following means:
- Touching, hugging, kissing or shaking hands
- Touching an object an HIV-positive person has touched
- Sharing utensils or cups
- Eating food prepared by an HIV-positive person
- Sharing grooming items, even toothbrushes or razors
- Getting spit on by an HIV-positive person
- Getting bitten by an HIV-positive person
- Touching semen or vaginal fluid
- Getting blood from an HIV-positive person on you
- Using public fountains, toilet seats, or showers
To date, there has not been a single documented case of transmission by any of these means.
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Semen Vaginal Fluids And Anal Mucus
If an HIV positive person has sex without a condom, and they do not have an undetectable viral load, HIV can get into the other persons blood because it lives in the semen, vaginal fluid and anal mucus. There does need to be a tear or graze in the other person for the HIV to enter into their body. A condom stops any fluid being passed to the other person, and it also stops unwanted pregnancy and getting other sexually transmitted infections.
Hiv Transmission Through Other Sexual Activities
HIV is also sometimes transmitted during oral sex . It may occasionally be passed from an HIV-positive person to someone sucking their penis.
Oral sex is much less risky than vaginal or anal sex, but it is not risk free. The risk depends on the viral load of the person with HIV, the dental health of the person performing oral sex and untreated sexually transmitted infections.
“Not every act of unprotected sex with an HIV-positive person results in HIV transmission.”
HIV can be transmitted by sharing sex toys such as dildos or butt plugs. They should be covered with condoms or disinfected between use by different people.
How Do You Get Hiv From Semen Or Vaginal Fluid
Body fluids including semen and vaginal secretions can contain HIV. If a person has HIV and a detectable viral load, HIV can passed on to someone if their semen or vaginal secretions get into the body of a sexual partner during vaginal or anal sex.
If a man has HIV and a detectable viral load, one of his body fluids where the virus is found is his semen.
If he has a detectable viral load and his semen gets into the body of his sexual partner during sex, then HIV can get into the other persons bloodstream.
Pre-cum also contains HIV this is why there is a risk of infection even if a man pulls out of his partner before he ejaculates.
If a woman has HIV and she has a detectable viral load, one of her body fluids where the virus is found is in her vaginal secretions.
If these come into contact with a penis during sex, then HIV could be transmitted. The virus in her secretions can enter through the delicate skin of the penis or foreskin.
Can You Get Aids From Swallowing Semen
If the semen is from someone who has HIV or AIDS the answer is: yes, you can get HIV or AIDS. See your doctor for help because there are medicines that could stop you from getting HIV if you start them soon enough.
The Center for Disease Control has more information on their website:
- Oral Sex and HIV Risk see CDC related link.
- Antiretroviral Postexposure Prophylaxis After Sexual, Injection-Drug Use, or Other Nonoccupational Exposure to HIV in the United States see the CDC/MMWR related link.
If the semen is from someone who is healthy, the answer is: no, you can not get HIV from someone who doesn’t have it. But be careful, people who are sick can look and feel healthy. Even medical tests may not detect the disease for quite some time, so you can’t be sure if the person is healthy for many months.
On the more positive side, the risk of getting HIV by swallowing semen is generally thought to be less risky than having vaginal or anal sex. The exact level of risk is difficult to know and can be affected by other things such as oral ulcers , bleeding gums, genital sores, and the presence of other STDs .
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How Is Hiv Spread From Person To Person
HIV can only be spread through specific activities. In the United States, the most common ways are:
- Having vaginal or anal sex with someone who has HIV without using a condom or taking medicines to prevent or treat HIV. Anal sex is riskier than vaginal sex.
- Sharing injection drug equipment , such as needles, with someone who has HIV.
Less common ways are:
- From mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. However, the use of HIV medicines and other strategies have helped lower the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV to 1% or less in the United States.
- Getting stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle or other sharp object. This is a risk mainly for health care workers. The risk is very low.
HIV is spread only in extremely rare cases by:
- Having oral sex. But in general, the chance that an HIV-negative person will get HIV from oral sex with an HIV-positive partner is extremely low.
Whats The Risk For Types Of Oral Sex
Oral sex ranks very low on the list of ways HIV can be transmitted. Its more likely to transmit HIV through anal or vaginal sex. Its also possible to transmit the virus by sharing needles or syringes used for injecting drugs or tattooing.
However, the risk of contracting HIV through oral sex is not zero. The truth is, you can in theory still contract HIV this way. Theres just been from years of research to show that it has happened.
Why is it hard to get data?
Its difficult to know the absolute risk of transmitting HIV during oral sex acts. Thats because many sex partners who engage in oral sex of any type also engage in vaginal or anal sex. It may be difficult to know where the transmission occurred.
Fellatio carries some risk, but its low.
- If youre giving a blowjob. Receptive oral sex with a male partner who has HIV is considered exceptionally low-risk. In fact, a 2002 study found that the risk for HIV transmission through receptive oral sex was statistically zero.
- If youre receiving a blowjob. Insertive oral sex is an unlikely method of transmission, too. Enzymes in the saliva neutralize many viral particles. This may be true even if the saliva contains blood.
There are no documented cases of HIV being transmitted between partners through cunnilingus .
Anilingus , or rimming, has some risk, but it is negligible. Its especially low for receptive partners. In fact, the lifetime risk of transmitting HIV during rimming is
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Sperm Washing To Prevent Hiv Transmission From Hiv
Reports on the use of sperm washing to prevent HIV transmission, from HIV-infected men but allowing conception in sero-discordant couples, are currently limited to observational studies. No randomised controlled trial has assessed the benefit or risk of sperm washing to prevent HIV transmission from HIV-infected men but allow conception in sero-discordant couples. Thus, this systematic review identifies the need for a multicentre randomised controlled trial assessing the benefits and possible risks of sperm washing in preventing HIV transmission from HIV-infected men but allow conception in sero-discordant couples.
Sperm washing is a term used to describe the process in which individual spermatozoa are separated from the seminal fluid. Sperm washing is used to prevent HIV transmission but allow conception in sero-discordant couples, where the male is HIV positive, but the female is HIV negative. This procedure is based on the observation that HIV cannot attach itself to spermatozoa, but it can be found in the fluid and cells surrounding spermatozoa.
To determine the benefits and harms of sperm washing of HIV-infected males when used to prevent the transmission of HIV but allowing conception in the HIV-negative female.
Does Hiv Viral Load Affect Getting Or Transmitting Hiv
Yes. Viral load is the amount of HIV in the blood of someone who has HIV. Taking HIV medicine daily as prescribed can make the viral load very lowso low that a test cant detect it .
People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.
HIV medicine is a powerful tool for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. But it works only as long as the HIV-positive partner gets and keeps an undetectable viral load. Not everyone taking HIV medicine has an undetectable viral load. To stay undetectable, people with HIV must take HIV medicine every day as prescribed and visit their healthcare provider regularly to get a viral load test. Learn more.
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Isnt Hiv Only A Risk For Certain Groups Of People
Like most illnesses, HIV doesnt discriminate between types of people and the infection can be passed on to anyone via one of the ways mentioned above.
Some people are more vulnerable to HIV infection if they engage regularly in certain activities that are more likely to transmit the virus. However, its a common misunderstanding that HIV only affects certain groups.
While not everyone has the same level of HIV risk, everyone can reduce their risk of infection.
Hiv In Vaginal Fluids
While HIV can spread via vaginal fluids, the virus tends to exist in smaller concentrations than it does in blood and semen.
It is not clear why this is the case, but it appears that hormones and the types of cells in the genital tract may play a role.
Breast milk contains HIV in lower concentrations than blood or semen.
A baby can contract HIV through breast milk, so the CDC recommend that people with HIV do not breastfeed, regardless of antiretroviral therapy or viral load.
HIV can also transmit to a baby through pregnancy or birth. However, this is becoming less common with recent developments in care.
If a person with HIV is receiving effective antiretroviral therapy, and they give HIV medicine to the baby for 46 weeks after delivery, the risk of the baby contracting HIV can be
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What Is Hiv And What Is Aids
HIV/AIDS are widely known as incurable sexually transmitted diseases, but you might not know the difference between these acronyms and what they stand for.
For simplicityâs sake, HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV stands for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus.
If a person takes a blood test and receives a diagnosis of HIV, then they are HIV positiveâif a person does not have HIV, then they are HIV negative. HIV causes havoc in a personâs body by weakening their immune system . HIV progressively destroys the cellular part of the immune systemâparticularly types of white blood cells called CD4 cellsâwhich, over time, makes the person become immunodeficient .
As the HIV infection develops in the body, the person will become more and more immunodeficient until they reach a point where they are classified as having Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome . This is often the end stage of an HIV infection, where a personâs body is so immunodeficient that they develop infections, diseases, or cancers and are no longer able to mount a immune defense and fight them off .
There is no cure for HIV . But, if a person does become infected with HIV there are treatments available which can help keep a person healthy.
Be Aware Of Potential Symptoms
See a healthcare professional if you notice any of these:
- unusual discharge from the anus, penis, or vagina
- sores, bumps, or blisters on or around your genitals or anus
- rash on or around your genitals or anus
- genital itching
- unusual vaginal bleeding, like bleeding after sex or between periods
- changes in urination, like frequency, urgency, burning, or pain
Are certain activities higher risk?
Penis-in-anus sex has the highest risk for HIV transmission and contraction. The risk is higher for the receptive partner because the rectums lining is thin and can tear. This gives infected bodily fluids direct entry into the bloodstream. Though not as risky, penis-in-vagina sex is also considered a higher risk activity.
Its possible, but unlikely.
There are two main types of HIV:
- HIV-1. This is the type. It accounts for around 99 percent of all infections in the United States.
- HIV-2. This type is uncommon, less transmissible, and mostly concentrated in West Africa.
This involves the person with HIV taking ART through pregnancy and delivery, as well as giving the baby HIV medication for 4 to 6 weeks after birth.
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Is There Anything You Can Do To Prevent Other Forms Of Transmission
Avoid sharing drug injection equipment, like needles and syringes, which can expose someone to blood infected with HIV.
Keep any alcohol intake or drug use in check. If needed, consider seeking help for substance use, which is linked to a higher risk of HIV and other STIs.
If you or your partner have concerns or are in need of support, reach out to a doctor or other healthcare professional for help with:
- HIV and other STI testing
- treatment and prevention medications
Hiv/aids: A Significant Distinction
A person is HIV-positive if HI viruses are found in the body. It is not before the immune system is severly limited and certain other diseases occur that the term suffering from AIDS applies. If HIV-infection is detected early enough, treatment with medication is possible and allows the affected person a long life with a chronic infection. Left untreated, AIDS can break out and leads to death. An early diagnosis of HIV and treatment as soon as possible are important.
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How Hiv Can Spread
The most common ways people contract HIV in the United States are through sharing equipment when injecting drugs and having anal or vaginal sex without barrier contraceptives. Anal sex poses a higher risk than vaginal sex, as there is a greater chance of tissue damage.
Although it is less common, HIV may pass to an infant during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding.
In extremely rare cases, HIV may spread if blood comes into contact with an open wound. There is a chance of this occurring if partners engage in open-mouth kissing, and both have bleeding gums or open sores within the mouth.
However, saliva that does not contain blood cannot transmit HIV. People cannot get HIV from closed-mouth or cheek kissing.
People can reduce or eliminate the chance of contracting HIV by using barrier contraceptives or taking preventive HIV therapy, known as pre-exposure prophylaxis .
PrEP is a pill that a person can take once a day to minimize the chance of contracting HIV. It may be helpful for those who:
- have a partner with HIV
- have a partner with an unknown HIV status
- have multiple partners
What Does Hiv Mean
HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. It is a so-called retrovirus, which occurs exclusively in humans and can only be transmitted between humans.
HIV-postive means that there is an infection with the HI-Virus.
HIV-negative means that there is no infection with HIV.
Only a test can prove whether a person is HIV-positive or HIV-negative.
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