Thursday, August 11, 2022

Small Cut On Finger Hiv Risk

What Do Hiv Nails Look Like

What it means to have HIV

Research indicates that nail changes are common in people with HIV.

One older study published in 1998 found that over two-thirds of the 155 people with HIV included in the study had some sort of nail change or symptom compared to those without HIV.

If you have HIV, your nails can change in a few different ways.

Can You Get Hiv From A Blood Transfusion

Receiving a blood transfusion or other products made from blood is safe in the UK as all blood products have been screened for infections such as HIV since 1985.

In countries that dont have strict checks on the safety of their blood supply, receiving contaminated blood can pass the virus on. This can also happen in countries that dont screen other blood products, organs or sperm.

Giving blood has never been a risk.

Questioning The Three Out Of A Thousand Estimate

In a popularly referenced 1989 study, researchers suggested that the risk of acquiring HIV from a single needlestick injury involving HIV-contaminated blood was around 0.32 percent, or roughly three cases out of every 1,000 injuries.

That figure has remained largely stuck in the consciousness of public health authorities, despite growing evidence that the “three out of a thousand” estimate pertained more to untreated source patients with late-stage, symptomatic diseasethe more likely scenario in 1989than to estimates based purely on needlestick injury alone.

A meta-analysis conducted in 2006 largely confirmed those doubts. In reviewing 21 different studies, the researchers found that the pooled estimates suggested that the risk of acquiring HIV was more along the lines of 0.13 percent if the needlestick injury were the only risk factor. Only when the source patient has an AIDS diagnosisnamely, a CD4 count below 200 cells/mL and/or an AIDS-defining illnessdid the estimate rise to 0.37 percent.

What was, perhaps, more important to note was that, of the 21 studies reviewed, 13 concluded an actual risk of 0%. Such disparities in research only served to add to the contentiousness already surrounding the issue of HIV risk in occupational healthcare settings.

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How Do You Get Hiv From Semen Or Vaginal Fluid

Body fluids including semen and vaginal secretions can contain HIV. If a person has HIV and a detectable viral load, HIV can passed on to someone if their semen or vaginal secretions get into the body of a sexual partner during vaginal or anal sex.

If a man has HIV and a detectable viral load, one of his body fluids where the virus is found is his semen.

If he has a detectable viral load and his semen gets into the body of his sexual partner during sex, then HIV can get into the other persons bloodstream.

Pre-cum also contains HIV this is why there is a risk of infection even if a man pulls out of his partner before he ejaculates.

If a woman has HIV and she has a detectable viral load, one of her body fluids where the virus is found is in her vaginal secretions.

If these come into contact with a penis during sex, then HIV could be transmitted. The virus in her secretions can enter through the delicate skin of the penis or foreskin.

Hiv Transmission And Risk: Separating Fact From Fiction

Am I Too Worried About Getting HIV?

Its much harder to transmit HIV than most people think.Thanks to years of dedicated work by scientists and researchers, we now have a solid understanding of the way HIV passes from person to person.

Unfortunately, much of our society is still clinging to harmful, outdated myths about HIV transmission.

In a recent survey, 28% of millennials and Gen Zers said they would be reluctant to hug, talk to, or even associate with someone living with HIVdespite the fact that none of those behaviors pose any risk.

Thankfully, we have good science to combat misinformation about the way HIV passes from one person to another. In this resource guide, well break down the science of HIV transmission and dispel harmful misconceptions. Well also explain why certain groups of people are more likely to be living with HIV than others, and well offer practical steps you can take to keep yourself HIV negativeor, if youre living with HIV, to prevent onward transmission of the virus.

If youre reading this guide because you were recently diagnosed with HIV, remember that you will be OK. Powerful medicines can help you live a long and healthy life. When it comes to HIV transmission, you shouldnt be afraid to hug, kiss, and touch your loved ones. You will not hurt them.

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    How Could You Get Hiv From Contact With Blood

    The risk of HIV transmission through blood comes when the person has a detectable viral load and their blood enters another persons body or comes into contact with a mucous membrane. These are parts of the body with wet, absorbent skin such as the:

    • eyes
    • inside of the anus
    • mouth.

    Theres also a risk if blood from a person who has a detectable viral load comes into contact with a cut or broken skin, giving HIV a way through the skin and into someones bloodstream. If blood gets onto skin that isnt broken, there is no risk.

    In a medical setting, its possible for HIV to be transmitted by someone accidentally cutting themselves with a blade or needle they have used to treat a person living with HIV.

    This is called a needlestick injury. The risk of being infected in this way is very low. However, if someone thinks they have been exposed to HIV through a needlestick injury, post-exposure prophylaxis may be an option.

    Bleach Your Needles As A Last Resort

    There is no way to completely disinfect a needle by yourself. There will always be a chance that a used needle transmits HIV. Use this only if you are going to inject anyway, and do not expect it to protect yourself completely:

    • Fill the syringe with clean tap or bottled water. Shake or tap the syringe to stir it. Wait 30 seconds, then eject and throw away all water.

    • Repeat several times, then additional times until no blood is visible.

    • Fill the syringe with full-strength household bleach. Shake or tap it, and wait 30 seconds. Squirt it out and throw it away.

    • Rinse the syringe with water.

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    How Does Hiv Get Inside The Body In The First Place

    It turns out that its relatively difficult for HIV to get inside the body and lock on to those white blood cells. This can only happen during intimate contact between two peopleby which we mean anal sex, vaginal sex, or sharing injection-drug equipment.

    HIV cannot pass through a persons skin. This means that you will not become positive by touching bodily fluid that contains HIV, unless you have an open wound where youre touching the fluid. Even if you ingest the viruslets say, by eating food with traces of HIV inside itthe acid inside your stomach will protect you.

    HIV almost always enters the body in one of three ways:

    • Direct contact with the bloodstream, either through an open wound or with a needle.
    • Direct contact with certain mucous membranesspecifically, the soft, permeable tissues inside the rectum, vagina, penis, and mouth.For newborns, exposure is possible during pregnancy, delivery, or shortly after birth by consuming breast milk from an HIV-positive person.

    For adults, its important to remember that HIV can only enter the body when its exposed to an open wound, injected directly into the bloodstream, or passed through a mucous membrane, typically through anal or vaginal sex.

    In addition, anyone who is pregnant should get an HIV test. If the results come back positive, your doctor can help you stay healthy and prevent your baby from getting HIV.

    Why Are The Nail Changes Important

    Why HIV Isn’t a Death Sentence Anymore

    Nail changes in people with HIV can provide valuable information for treatment. Some nail changes can help inform doctors of the stage of your HIV infection.

    Some nail changes, like melanonychia, are a common side effect of certain types of HIV medications. If you notice these nail changes, dont stop taking your medication without speaking to a doctor first.

    If you think you have a fungal infection of your nails, see your doctor for treatment.

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    Hiv Risk From Finger In Vagina

    Dear Alice,

    While I found a lot of info on oral sex and AIDS on this blissfully honest site, there didn’t seem to be any info on “fingering” a woman. I’m in a high risk AIDS country and recently “used my fingers” for a couple of minutes to delight a local woman who has turned out to be having her period. After noticing a considerable amount of bloody discharge, we stopped. But do I have a considerable AIDS risk? There were no cuts on the fingers I used but a small, possibly healed, cut on the thumb of the same hand. Break it down for me. I’m a bit on edge.

    Been to John Jay

    Dear Been to John Jay,

    Fingering is not a likely route for HIV transmission. People are primarily infected by vaginal and anal intercourse, through sharing of needles, from an HIV positive mother to her unborn child, and via breast milk.

    The viral load of an HIV positive woman is highest during active menstruation, and there is a higher risk for all sexually transmitted infections when an infected woman is menstruating. If you don’t know the status of your partner, you can reduce your risk by using a barrier method of protection consistently, whether or not a woman has her period. Sometimes, as we know, the supplies are not always around when you need them. Maybe it makes sense to stock up before your fingers do the walking.

    Originally published

    Other Types Of Hiv Risks

    Another less-common way HIV is transmitted in the United States is needlestick injury. This typically happens when a health care worker is accidentally jabbed by a used needle or syringe that contains HIV-positive blood. Again, this is very rare.

    Thirty years ago, blood transfusions and organ donations were an especially dangerous way that some people acquired HIV. Nowadays, donated blood and organs are routinely tested.

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    Hiv Transmission Risks From Anal Fingering

    Dear Alice,

    Can you contract HIV from anal fingering your partner if you had cuts/scratches on your fingers?

    Dear Reader,

    There’s a possibility of HIV transmission any time there’s sexual contact without a barrier, such as a condom or dental dam. Since HIV is transmitted through semen , vaginal fluid, blood, and anal mucus, some sexual activities are considered riskier than others. Unlike the genitals, fingers don’t have mucous membranes. Thus, there’s no direct risk of contracting HIV from anal fingering unless you have open cuts or sores on your fingering hand. HIV risk from fingering is increased when anal or rectal bleeding occurs. The lining of the rectum is very thin and delicate. Since it doesn’t self-lubricate like the vagina, it can bleed much more easily. Additionally, bleeding will further increase risk of HIV transmission through any anal, vaginal, or oral sex that follows. Without bleeding, however, the absence of self-lubricating fluid in the anus makes it less likely to contain HIV than the vaginal secretions and semen of those who do live with HIV.

    Avoiding anal bleeding is good practice, not only because it can hurt, but also because it can reduce your HIV risk, especially if you have a cut on your finger or if you donât know your partnerâs status or sexual history. Here are some tips to consider in order to avoid bleeding from anal or rectal fingering:

    Bottoms up,

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    What Causes Nail Changes

    Most often, nail changes are caused by a fungal infection, such as Candida, or dermatophytes. HIV weakens the immune system in people with HIV. Therefore, you may be more likely to develop a fungal infection.

    Anolunula is thought to be caused by changes in the vascular or lymphatic system of people with HIV, according to the authors of one study, but this hasnt been proven.

    Nail changes may also be caused by your medications. Sometimes, the exact cause of nail changes isnt known.

    Higher Risk Of Infection

    The risk of an infection being passed on is highest if your skin is broken or punctured as you come into contact with the infected blood.

    For example, if:

    • you puncture your skin with a used needle or other sharp object that has infected blood on it
    • someone with blood in their saliva bites you and breaks your skin

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    Where Did Myths About Hiv Come From

    The early 1980s were a scary time for people living with HIV. By the spring of 1983, scientists had identified the virus responsible for a mysterious illness called acquired immune deficiency syndrome , but they didnt understand how it passed from person to person.

    Initially, some researchers speculated this new infection could be passed through casual contact or even through the air, like tuberculosis. Others theorized it might be hitching a ride with mosquitoes or other insects, like malaria.

    But the damage had already been done. Myths about HIV transmission had already taken root, and these myths continue to make life difficult for the 1.1 million people living with HIV today in the United States.

    Today we have a solid scientific understanding of HIV transmission. We know that HIV can only be transmitted in very limited circumstances, such as sexual contact or needle sharing. And we have a much better understanding of the way that viral loadthat is, the amount of HIV in a persons bloodstreaminfluences their chances of passing on the virus.

    You can use this information to educate yourself, your friends, and your community about the real risk of HIV transmission.

    Use Caution When Handling Contaminated Objects

    HIV and AIDS – Medical-Surgical (Med-Surg)- Immune System @Level Up RN

    Whether you are a drug user or health worker, be very careful around used syringes. In a hospital, assume that all fluids are infectious. Assume that any sharp or broken equipment may be contaminated with infected fluids. Wear gloves, a face mask, and long sleeves. Pick up contaminated objects using tweezer or other tools, and dispose of them in a clear container or biohazard bag. Disinfect all skin, hands, and surfaces the object or infected blood came into contact with.

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    Understand Undetectable Viral Loads

    Someone infected with HIV should receive regular testing to determine the “viral load,” or concentration of HIV in the bodily fluids. With constant treatment, HIV positive people can have “undetectable viral loads.” It’s important to understand that someone with an undetectable viral load still has HIV, and may still be able to transmit HIV to a sexual partner. While some studies show very promising results about low transmission rates, more studies are needed for accurate risk assessment. Some people with undetectable viral loads in their blood may have much greater viral loads in their semen or other bodily fluids.

    Will I Need Any Treatment

    If your healthcare professional thinks you’re at low risk of infection, you may not need any treatment.

    If there’s a higher risk of infection, you may need:

    • antibiotic treatment for example, if you have cellulitis
    • vaccination against hepatitis B
    • treatment to prevent HIV

    If there’s a high risk of infection with HIV, your healthcare professional may consider treatment called post-exposure prophylaxis .

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    Test Yourself And Sexual Partners For Hiv

    Many people are infected with HIV without realizing that they have the virus. Having a saliva or blood test done at a clinic or doctor’s office is the most accurate way to get tested, but there are also at-home tests you can take as well. Get tested every time you have sexual contact with a new partner. A “negative” result means you do not have the virus, while a “positive” result means you are infected with HIV.

    • Many areas have HIV/AIDS clinics that provide free tests.

    • You can usually get a result within the hour, but this is not 100% reliable. For accurate results, ask for the test to be sent to a lab, or get tested a second time by a different staff member.

    • Even if you test HIV-negative, you may still have a recent infection. Practice precautions as though you had HIV for 3-6 months, then return for a second test. Different tests have different “window periods”.

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