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What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Hiv Aids

What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Aids

HIV & AIDS – signs, symptoms, transmission, causes & pathology

    Having an infection with the HIV virus does not automatically mean that the patient has AIDS. As the HIV virus infects more and more CD4 cells and makes more copies of itself, the patients immune system gets overwhelmed and begins to falter. When the immune system breaks down due to HIV infection, opportunistic infections like fungal infections, pneumonias, and cancers can occur. When this level of HIV infection occurs, it is called AIDS .

    Some of the signs and symptoms of progression of HIV to AIDS are:

    What Is The Treatment For Hiv

    Individuals who are HIV positive will likely need to see a specialist. As with many other conditions, early detection offers more options for treatment. Today, there are medical treatments that can slow down the rate at which HIV weakens the immune system. However, there are other treatments that can prevent or cure the conditions associated with HIV. Anti-retroviral drug therapy may be given to a pregnant woman, which has proven to greatly reduce the chance of an infant developing HIV. A cesarean section may be recommended to reduce infant transmission from the birth canal. In the U.S., where other feeding options are available, an infected mother should be discouraged from breastfeeding her infant. Consult your child’s doctor for more information regarding various drug therapies.

    What Are The Symptoms Of Hiv

    After the first month or so, HIV enters the clinical latency stage. This stage can last from a few years to a few decades.

    Some people dont have any symptoms during this time, while others may have minimal or nonspecific symptoms. A nonspecific symptom is a symptom that doesnt pertain to one specific disease or condition.

    These nonspecific symptoms may include:

    • headaches and other aches and pains
    • swollen lymph nodes
    • recurrent oral or vaginal yeast infections
    • pneumonia
    • shingles

    As with the early stage, HIV is still transferable during this time even without symptoms and can be transmitted to another person.

    However, a person wont know they have HIV unless they get tested. If someone has these symptoms and thinks they may have been exposed to HIV, its important that they get tested.

    HIV symptoms at this stage may come and go, or they may progress rapidly. This progression can be slowed substantially with treatment.

    With the consistent use of this antiretroviral therapy, chronic HIV can last for decades and will likely not develop into AIDS, if treatment was started early enough.

    The cause of the rash determines:

    • how it looks
    • how it can be treated depends on the cause

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    How Long Does It Take To Show Symptoms Of Hiv

    Some people notice flu-like symptoms 1-4 weeks after they’re first infected. They often only last a week or two. This stage is called acute or primary HIV infection.

    Then, you may go for 10 years or more without further symptoms. This is called asymptomatic HIV infection. Even though you feel fine, the virus is still active in your body. And you can still give it to someone else.

    Once HIV has seriously harmed your immune system, you’re at risk for diseases that a healthy body could fight off. In this stage, symptomatic HIV infection, you start to notice problems caused by those “opportunistic” infections.

    When Should Someone Seek Medical Care For Hiv/aids

    Pin on Infectious diseases

    All sexually active adults should know their HIV status and should be tested for HIV routinely at least once. This is the only way to know whether one is HIV infected. It is not unusual for a person to get HIV from a person they never knew could have HIV again, most people with HIV do not know it for years. Testing is important yearly or more often if a person has risk factors for HIV. If someone has a history of engaging in unprotected sex outside of a mutually monogamous relationship or sharing needles while using drugs, he or she should have an HIV test. Early testing, recognition of the signs and symptoms of HIV infection, and starting treatment for HIV as soon as possible can slow the growth of HIV, prevent AIDS, and decrease the risk of transmission to another person. If a woman is pregnant and infected with HIV, she can greatly reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission by getting treatment. HIV testing is routinely offered at the first prenatal visit.

    HIV testing is available through any health care provider, as well as anonymously and confidentially. Home tests for HIV are available for purchase in most pharmacies and online. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers a tool to help the public find their nearest HIV testing site by zip code at https://gettested.cdc.gov. You can also text your ZIP code to KNOW IT , or call 1-800-CDC-INFO . Knowing one’s status is the first step to avoiding AIDS.

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    What Behaviors Are The Most Risky For Getting Or Transmitting Hiv

    Since there is a fairly high number of people who have HIV and dont know it, you should be tested for HIV so you know your status. Being intoxicated is risky because you are more likely to engage in risky sex if you are drunk or high. In terms of sex acts, anal sex and vaginal intercourse are the most risky behaviors.

    How Is Hiv Transmitted Or Spread

    The following are the means by which the HIV virus is spread:

    • Vertical transmission. HIV can be spread to babies born to, or breastfed by, mothers infected with the virus.

    • Sexual contact. In adults and adolescents, HIV is spread most commonly by sexual contact with an infected partner. The virus enters the body through the lining of the vagina, vulva, penis, rectum, or abraded or irritated tissues in the lining of the mouth through sexual activity.

    • Blood contamination. HIV may also be spread through contact with infected blood. However, due to the screening of donated blood for evidence of HIV infection, the risk of acquiring HIV from blood transfusions is extremely low.

    • Needles. HIV is frequently spread by sharing needles, syringes, or drug use equipment with someone who is infected with the virus. Transmission from patient to health care worker, or vice-versa, through accidental sticks with contaminated needles or other medical instruments, is rare.

    No known cases of HIV/AIDS have been spread by the following:

    • Saliva

    • Malaise

    • Enlarged lymph nodes

    An HIV-infected child is usually diagnosed with AIDS when the immune system becomes severely damaged or other types of infections occur. As the immune system deteriorates, complications begin to develop. The following are some common complications, or symptoms, of the onset of AIDS. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include:

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    Hiv Aids Signs And Symptoms In Women

    As women and men usually have equivalent signs and symptoms, there are some that influence mainly women:

    Variations in your period: You might have light or even more substantial flow of blood, jump periods, or even have thoroughly poor PMS. Pressure or even further STDs, that are usual with HIV, could potentially cause these problems. However, they may additionally occur due to the viruss influence on your defense mechanisms that might have an effect on your endocrine system.

    Lower tummy aches: Its certainly one of the signs and symptoms of contamination of the uterus, ovaries, and also fallopian tubes, referred to as pelvic inflammatory disease . For certain females, its one of the initial warning flags they have got HIV. Together with lower tummy discomfort, PID may cause:

    • Abnormal release from your vagina
    • Fever
    • Pain throughout sexual activity
    • Aching in your right upper tummy

    Vaginal yeast bacterial infections: A lot of women with HIV get these frequently 4 or even more times annually. Oftentimes they are the initial symptom you may have the virus. Once you get one, you may have:

    • Dense, white colored release from your vagina
    • Discomfort at the time of intercourse
    • Ache whenever you pee
    • Vaginal burning up or even swelling

    Both women and men with HIV could possibly get a yeast infection of the mouth, known as thrush or even oral yeast infection. It brings about inflammation along with a fluffy, white colored coating in your mouth, tongue, as well as neck.

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    Do I Have AIDS? Signs and Symptoms of AIDS

    Consult your doctor if your HIV test came negative but you are still experiencing symptoms. Even if you dont have HIV, symptoms like a rash can indicate a major medical problem.

    If your HIV test results are positive, a healthcare provider can assist you in developing a treatment plan. The infection may be controlled with the right treatment, and recent advancements have significantly enhanced the life expectancy of HIV patients.

    Consider contacting one of the organizations dedicated to helping HIV-positive women and girls:

    The AIDS Positive Womens Network and the Global Coalition on Women are both based in the United States.

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    Rash Related To Medication

    While rash can be caused by HIV co-infections, it can also be caused by medication. Some drugs used to treat HIV or other conditions can cause a rash.

    This type of rash usually appears within a week or 2 weeks of starting a new medication. Sometimes the rash will clear up on its own. If it doesnt, a change in medications may be needed.

    Rash due to an allergic reaction to medication can be serious.

    Other symptoms of an allergic reaction include:

    • trouble breathing or swallowing
    • dizziness
    • fever

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a rare allergic reaction to HIV medication. Symptoms include fever and swelling of the face and tongue. A blistering rash, which can involve the skin and mucous membranes, appears and spreads quickly.

    When 30 percent of the skin is affected, its called toxic epidermal necrolysis, which is a life threatening condition. If this develops, emergency medical care is needed.

    While rash can be linked with HIV or HIV medications, its important to keep in mind that rashes are common and can have many other causes.

    How Can I Keep From Getting Hiv

    The best way to protect yourself is to avoid activities that put you at risk. There’s no way to tell by looking at someone if he or she has HIV. Always protect yourself. Use latex condoms whenever you have any type of sex .

    • Don’t use condoms made from animal products.
    • Use water-based lubricants .
    • Never share needles to take drugs.
    • Avoid getting drunk or high. Intoxicated people might be less likely to protect themselves.
    • Consider getting testedit is really important to be aware of your HIV status.

    If you are a healthcare worker, you are at a slightly higher risk of getting HIV from a needle-stick injury, skin contact with contaminated fluid or from human bites. You should follow universal precautions:

    • Always wear protective equipment when dealing with blood and body fluids.
    • Follow careful hand-washing guidelines when dealing with such fluids.
    • Follow safe handling guidelines for needles and sharp instruments.
    • Be aware of post-exposure policies at your workplace.

    If you are in a relationship with a partner who has HIV, or you are at high risk for any other reason, consider using pre-exposure prophylaxis, commonly called PrEP. This means taking one of two medicines every day, emtricitabine-tenofovir or emtricitabine-tenofovir alafen .

    If you are a person with HIV who is in a relationship with a person who is HIV-negative, you should also be on a medication regimen.

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    What Are Medications And Treatment Options For Hiv/aids

      Many drugs have become available to fight both the HIV infection and its associated infections and cancers. These drugs have been called highly active antiretroviral therapy . More commonly, they are simply referred to as ART. Although these medications do not cure HIV/AIDS, antiretrovirals have greatly reduced HIV-related complications and deaths.

      Therapy is initiated and individualized under the supervision of a physician who is an expert in the care of HIV-infected patients. A combination of at least three ART drugs is needed to suppress the virus from replicating and boost the immune system. How these drugs are combined depends on the most current treatment guidelines, individual patient preferences, other medical conditions, past treatment history, and any resistance mutations in the individual’s virus. Resistance mutations may already be present at the time of infection, thus most clinicians will test the patient’s virus for resistance mutations prior to starting or changing a regimen.

      The earliest class of highly active antiretroviral therapy, reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs, inhibit the ability of the virus to make copies of itself. The following are examples:

      Older PIs no longer commonly used due to pill burden and side effects include lopinavir and ritonavir combination , saquinavir , indinavir sulphate , fosamprenavir , tipranavir , and nelfinavir .

        Can Hiv Be Prevented

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        To reduce the risk of getting HIV, people who are sexually active should:

        • use a condom every time they have sex
        • get tested for HIV and make sure all partners do too
        • reduce their number of sexual partners
        • get tested and treated for STDs having an STD increases the risk of HIV infection
        • consider taking a medicine every day if they are at very high risk of getting infected

        For everyone:

        • Do not inject drugs or share any kind of needle.
        • Do not share razors or other personal objects that may touch blood.
        • Do not touch anyone else’s blood from a cut or sore.

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        Benefits Of Early Detection

        Recognizing the symptoms of ARS is important as it affords a person the opportunity for early detection. This not only helps ensure that HIV is not spread to others, but offers benefits in the way of early treatment.

        Studies published in 2013 indicate that the early initiation of antiretroviral therapy correlates to a reduced risk of both HIV-related and AIDS-defining illnesses. By contrast, delaying therapy until a persons CD4 count drops below 350 cells/mL is associated with not only more adverse clinical events, but a significantand even profoundreduction in life years.

        Early treatment prevents often-irreversible damage to the immune system. It also reduces the risk of passing the virus to others, a strategy known as treatment as prevention .

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        Is It Safe For Children With Hiv To Receive Routine Immunizations

        • MMR, or measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine, is safe to give to children with HIV, unless they have a severely weakened immune system.

        • DTaP/Td vaccine is safe to give to infants and children with HIV.

        • Hib and Hep B vaccines are safe to give to children with HIV.

        • Hepatitis A and B vaccines are safe to give to HIV-positive children.

        • VZIG should be considered for known HIV-positive children, depending on their immune status.

        • A yearly influenza vaccine is recommended for children with HIV, as well as any individual living in the same household as a child with HIV. There are two types of influenza vaccine children and adults with HIV should receive the “shot” form of the vaccine–not the nasal spray form, as it contains a live virus. Pneumococcal vaccine can be safely administered to age-appropriate HIV-infected children.

        Always consult with your child’s doctor regarding immunizations for an HIV-infected child.

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        Are Women More Likely To Get Hiv

        Yes. Biologically speaking, a woman is more vulnerable to heterosexual transmission of the disease because the genitalia are easily exposed to seminal fluids.

        Gender inequality has great influence on the spread of HIV/AIDS among women. In some cultures, many women and girls are often put in situations where they engage in non-consensual sex or have sex for money.

        In the U.S., minority communities have been hit the hardest by HIV. African American and Hispanic women together represent less than 25% of all U.S. women, yet they account for more than 78% of AIDS cases reported among women in the country.

        Hiv 1st Stage Symptoms And Signs

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        • Pain in the head
        • A red-colored rash that doesnt inflame, generally on your trunk
        • Fever

        Physicians can now protect HIV from establishing itself within your body as long as they take action immediately. Individuals who might have been affected for instance, had unprotected intercourse with somebody who is HIV-positive can take anti-HIV medicines to prevent themselves. This is exactly referred to as PEP. However, you need to begin the procedure within 72 hours of whenever you were uncovered, along with the medications could have uncomfortable negative effects.

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        What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of Hiv

        No two people with HIV will have the same symptoms, and some may not have any at all. But the infection can cause some common changes over time.

        In the first few weeks: These first, flu-like symptoms happen because your body is reacting to HIV. Your immune system is trying to fight it off. The symptoms at this stage can include:

        • Rash
        • Aches and pains in muscles and joints

        Keep in mind that even if you have these symptoms, that doesnât automatically mean you are HIV-positive. Many different illnesses can cause these problems. Talk to a doctor or an HIV testing facility if you think you might be infected.

        At this early stage of HIV infection, itâs important to know that you may not get accurate results from an HIV test. It can take 3-12 weeks for enough signs of the virus to show up on routine tests for the infection, which measure antibodies against HIV. A new kind of screening, called a nucleic acid test, can detect the virus itself during this early stage, but itâs expensive and not usually used for routine HIV testing.

        Let the testing site or your doctor know if you think you might be recently infected. Also, be sure to use a condom every time you have sex, and take other steps to prevent spreading the virus.

        After years with untreated HIV, youâre likely to get infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi that your body is no longer strong enough to fight off. They can be a sign that your infection has gone from HIV to AIDS. You might have:

        • Weight loss

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