New Urine Test Can Detect Tuberculosis In Hiv
by Katie Willis, University of Alberta
Point-of-care tests could save lives by allowing faster diagnosis and treatment of the leading cause of death for people with HIV.
An innovative urine test developed in part by University of Alberta researchers can detect tuberculosis in people living with HIV earlier and more quickly than before.
Tuberculosis kills millions around the world every year and is the leading cause of death for people living with HIV. The new urine test will improve the speed and accuracy of diagnosis, providing earlier treatment and improving health outcomes.
“The test works by using an antibody to detect the presence of a carbohydrate produced by the organism that causes tuberculosis,” explained U of A chemist Todd Lowary, who is a collaborator on the project. “Point-of-care tests are important as they can be done in areas where the access to health care is low and comparatively unsophisticated.”
Lowary, an expert in carbohydrate synthesis and the Raymond Lemieux Professor of Carbohydrate Chemistry, was part of an international team, including the Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics and Fujifilm, that developed the test, called Fujifilm SILVAMP TB LAM.
“Our contribution was to screen the specificity of a selection of possible antibodies against a panel of different carbohydrates to identify the best one antibody,” explained Lowary. “That led to the increased sensitivity of the diagnostic.”
Cost And Health Insurance
Most insurance plans, including Medicare and Medicaid, will cover the cost in full as part of the Affordable Care Acts essential health benefits.
It is important to note that, while point-of-care tests are typically covered by insurance, at-home test kits may not be. Check with your insurance provider to better understand your benefits in this regard.
If you are uninsured, you can find low- to no-cost testing sites through the GetTested locator offered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
When Is It Ordered
Several organizations recommend routine screening for HIV:
- The Centers for Disease Control , American College of Physicians , and the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommend that anyone between the ages of 13 and 64 and pregnant women be screened for HIV at least once.
- The CDC and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommend that all pregnant women be screened. Repeat testing in the third trimester may be done for women at high risk. A woman who wants to make sure she is not infected with HIV before getting pregnant may opt to get tested
- The American Academy of Pediatrics advises that all sexually active youth be screened, and that youths between 16 and 18 years old who live in high risk areas be offered HIV testing at least once, regardless of sexual history.
For additional details on screening recommendations, see the articles for Teens, Young Adults, Adults, and Adults 50 and Up.
Annual screening is advised for those at high risk for HIV and is recommended when an individual:
- Has had unprotected sex with more than one partner since the last HIV test
- Is a man who has had sex with another man
- Has used street drugs by injection, especially when sharing needles and/or other equipment
- Has exchanged sex for drugs or money
- Has an HIV-positive sex partner
- Has had sex with anyone who falls into one of the categories listed above or is uncertain about their sexual partner’s risk behaviors
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Terms Used In This Fact Sheet
HIV antibody test: An HIV test that checks for HIV antibodies in a person’s blood, urine, or fluids from the mouth. HIV antibodies are a type of protein the body produces in response to HIV infection.
Mother-to-child transmission of HIV: The passing of HIV from a woman infected with HIV to her baby during pregnancy, during labor and delivery, or by breastfeeding.
Plasma HIV RNA test : A test that measures the amount of HIV in the blood. This test is used to detect recent HIV infection or to measure viral load at any stage of HIV infection.
Rapid HIV antibody test: An HIV antibody test that can detect HIV antibodies in blood or oral fluids in less than 30 minutes.
Transmission of HIV: The spread of HIV from a person infected with HIV to another person through the infected person’s blood, semen, genital fluids, or breast milk.
Unprotected sex: Sex without using a condom.
Viral load: The amount of HIV in the blood. One of the goals of antiretroviral therapy is to reduce viral load.
Western blot: A type of antibody test used to confirm a positive HIV antibody or plasma HIV RNA test.
Window period: The time period between a person’s infection with HIV and the appearance of detectable HIV antibodies.
I may have been exposed to HIV. What should I do?
Get tested. The only way to know if you’re infected with the virus is to get an HIV test.
What is the most common HIV test?
What HIV test is used during the window period?
What does it mean to test HIV positive?
Whats Next If The Test Is Negative
If a person gets a negative test result and its been more than 3 months since they may have been exposed, they can be fairly certain that they do not have HIV.
If its been less than 3 months since exposure, they should consider taking another HIV test at the end of the 3-month period to be sure. During that time, its best that they use condoms during sex and avoid sharing needles.
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How Can You Prevent Hiv
HIV can be spread by people who don’t know they are infected. To protect yourself and others:
- Practice safe sex. Use a condom every time you have sex until you are sure you and your partner are not infected with HIV.
- Don’t have more than one sex partner at a time. The safest sex is with one partner who has sex only with you.
- Talk to your partner before you have sex the first time. Find out if he or she is at risk for HIV.
- Get tested together and retested 6 months later. Use condoms in the meantime.
- Don’t drink a lot of alcohol or use illegal drugs before sex. You might let down your guard and not practice safe sex.
- Don’t share personal items, such as toothbrushes or razors.
- Never share needles or syringes with anyone.
Sonora Quest Laboratories is committed to the fight against HIV and AIDS, supporting various programs and fund-raising events through The Apothecary Shops, Aunt Ritas Foundation, the Southern Arizona AIDS Foundation, and the Southwest Center for HIV/AIDS. Our expansive HIV test offerings allow us to assist doctors and patients in all stages of the disease.
To learn more about HIV/AIDS, talk with your doctor, go to your local health department, or visit:
Urine Test For Hiv Is Approved
- Read in app
Federal health officials yesterday approved the first urine test to detect H.I.V., the virus that causes AIDS, but said it was not as accurate as the standard blood test.
The urine test was approved as a supplemental diagnostic test, but is not meant to substitute for the standard blood test to screen donors at blood banks, officials of the Food and Drug Administration said.
The reason is that studies showed that the number of times the urine test failed to detect evidence of H.I.V. in an individual known to be infected was higher than for the standard blood test. Also, the urine test indicated that some people were H.I.V.-infected when it was known that they were not.
Those who test positive for H.I.V. with the urine test are advised to get a second urine test, and if that is also positive, they then need a blood test for confirmation. The F.D.A. has advised doctors who use the test to counsel those who use the urine test and explain that a negative test is not a guarantee of being free of infection.
Dr. Curtis Scribner, an official of the Federal Food and Drug Administration, said that with further improvement the urine test ”could develop into” a first-line test for H.I.V.
Calypte developed the test, which detects antibodies to H.I.V. present in simple plastic-cup specimens of urine. Calypte has licensed Seradun Inc. of Indianapolis to market the test under the name Sentinel.
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What Are The Treatments For Hiv/aids
Currently, there is no cure for HIV infection or AIDS. However, there are therapies that can improve immune function, reduce the risk and/or frequency of opportunistic infections, and prolong life. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents as well as the World Health Organization recommend that all individuals diagnosed with HIV infection receive treatment as soon as possible, including pregnant women. With advances in treatment, individuals with HIV infection are living longer, healthier lives. People typically take at least three drugs from two different classes in order to prevent or minimize virus replication and the emergence of drug-resistant strains. Combinations of three or more antiretroviral drugs are referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy or HAART. Read the Treatment section of the article on HIV Infection and AIDS for additional details.
What Are The Causes Of Stds
STD can be caused due to HIV virus or Herpes Complex or also due to Hepatitis B. Bacteria like Chlamydia, Gonorrhea and syphilis can also cause STD. STDs are those serious illnesses that require immediate treatment. Some infections like HIV cannot be cured completely, but the patient can take regular treatment to avoid the risk of life. By learning about its causes and the treatments you can always learn about different ways to protect yourself from the same.
A person can get infected by STD through oral, vaginal or anal sex. One can also be at a very high risk if they have more than one sex partner and if having sex with a person who has many sexual partners in return. It is also important to make use of a condom when having an intercourse as it avoids transmit of an STD.
Before we move on to learn about various kinds of treatment that also look have a look at the symptoms that are associated with STDs.
- A sudden discharge from the vagina or the penis.
- A feeling of itching near the genitalia.
- Having a stabbing pain while having an intercourse or during urinating.
- Having pain around or inside the anus.
- Blisters that turn into scabs and are located near the genital area.
- Fever, weakness in the body and the muscles and swelling in the lymph nodes.
The above mentioned are some of the common symptoms that may differ from person to person depending on the kind of the infection.
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Should I Tell Anyone Else Of My Test Results
Yes. If you test positive for HIV infection, it is important that you tell your healthcare practitioners as well as all current and future sex partners and/or anyone with whom you share needles. Counseling services are often available from the clinic that performed the test or from your healthcare provider that will help you to inform the people who need to know.
Can Urine Culture Detect Std
Urine cultures can detect some sexually transmitted diseases. However, a urine culture is not the test of choice for sexually transmitted diseases in adults. Some STDs such as chlamydia may be tested using a urine sample, but the testing method used detects chlamydia genetic material in the urine and is not a culture.
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What Is Hiv Testing
HIV testing, also called HIV screening, is the only way to know if you have the virus.
Several types of tests check your blood or other body fluids to see whether you’re infected. Most can’t spot HIV right away, because it takes time for your body to make antibodies or for enough of the virus to grow inside you.
Instructions Are Often Vague
But many patients will recall being asked to provide a urine sample without adequate explanation of how to do it. They are simply handed a sample container and given directions to the toilet.
Without instruction patients may not know how to prepare their external genitalia. For women this involves parting the labia or lips of the vagina, while for men, this involves retracting the foreskin.
Nor are patients clearly advised how to provide the sample. As a result, they can contaminate the container and its lid by not washing their hands, and their sample often contains the first rather than mid-stream urine.
In these cases, what actually gets into the sample are contaminants cells and bacteria from hands or cells and bacteria from the lower part of the urinary tract and genitalia.
Unfortunately for women, their anatomy is more likely to result in more of this latter contamination. They void urine from the urethra and through a part of the vagina, while men most often void directly into the container.
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Screening For Hiv In Pregnancy
If you’re pregnant, you’ll be offered a blood test to check if you have HIV as part of routine antenatal screening.
If untreated, HIV can be passed to your baby during pregnancy, birth or breastfeeding. Treatment in pregnancy greatly reduces the risk of passing HIV on to the baby.
Page last reviewed: 22 April 2021 Next review due: 22 April 2024
The Healthcare Worker There To Help You
Before you test, your healthcare worker will talk to you about your sexual health and why youve decided to test. This is to help them understand your situation so they can offer you the best services and advice.
Remember, the healthcare professional is not there to judge you. There will be nothing you can say that they havent heard before so be honest with them, and ask as many questions as you want. Thats what theyre there for.
You should never feel pressured to test. The results will be completely confidential but you should only go through with it if you want to.
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Testing Outside Of The United States
Rapid tests that have been approved for HIV home testing outside of the United States include:
- Atomo HIV Self Test. This test is available in Australia and has been approved by the Therapeutic Goods Administration , the countrys regulatory agency. It tests for HIV in 15 minutes.
- autotest VIH. This test is only available in certain parts of Europe. It tests for HIV in 15 to 20 minutes.
- BioSure HIV Self Test. This test is only available in certain parts of Europe. It tests for HIV in about 15 minutes.
- INSTI HIV Self Test. This test launched in the Netherlands in 2017 and can be purchased everywhere except the United States and Canada. It promises results within 60 seconds.
- Simplitude ByMe HIV Test. This test launched in July 2020 and is available in the United Kingdom and Germany. It tests for HIV in 15 minutes.
These particular tests all rely on a blood sample taken from the fingertip.
None of them have been FDA approved for use in the United States. However, the autotest VIH, BioSure, INSTI, and Simplitude ByMe kits all have CE marking.
If a product has CE marking, it complies with the safety, health, and environmental standards set forth by the European Economic Area .
Why Is A Contaminant
If the sample is contaminated there are various consequences. The laboratory will report contamination and advise the doctor to take care in interpreting results. However, a contaminated sample can result in incorrect diagnosis and incorrect or unnecessary treatment.
A new sample will probably be needed. This causes delays in diagnosis and treatment, potential anxiety to the patient and additional costs.
In our hospital, where the emergency department collects more than 1,000 mid-stream samples each month, womens samples are contaminated over 40% of the time. In a recent trial visual instructions in the form of cartoons were provided on how to collect the samples.
We paid particular attention to hand washing and collection technique. The number of contaminated samples was reduced . This potentially could save upwards of 150 repeat tests a month and those instructions are now provided to all patients in the emergency department.
If you are unsure how to take a sterile sample, ask your doctor or nurse for more information. It can save you the time, inconvenience and worry of coming back for another sample.
This article has been updated to clarify a womans anatomy.
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Where Can You Take The Std Test
If the doctor suggests you to take the STD test, head to the testing center immediately to identify the infection in the beginning stage. Such a step helps in developing a cure that reduces the advancement of the bacteria and kills it as time passes. You can take the test at a sexual health clinic. The doctor has to report a positive case to the government. With the help of the data provided by the doctor, the government keeps track of the individual, which will be helpful for public health initiatives. Notifiable STDs include:
You may come across a few online testing websites and at-home testing kits. Make it a point to avoid them because they do not provide accurate results when compared with that of the testing center. Furthermore, you can check with the Food and Drug Administration whether they approved the kits or the online testing facility.
What Are The Rapid Hiv Test Options
In the past, the only way to get tested for HIV was to go to a doctors office, hospital, or community health center. Now there are options for taking an HIV test in the privacy of ones own home.
Some HIV tests, whether taken at home or at a health facility, are even able to deliver results within 30 minutes. These are known as rapid tests.
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