Thursday, June 16, 2022

Can You Get Hiv Using Protection

No 1 Sharing A Needle: 1 In 159

Can weekly contact with one partner without protection lead to HIV? – Dr. Ramakrishna Prasad

About 6 percent of the HIV diagnoses in 2015 can be attributed to the use of injection drugs, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . The reason is that needles, syringes, and other equipment can contain blood, and therefore HIV, which can then be directly transmitted into the bloodstream. Under the right environmental circumstances, the virus can survive in a used needle for up to 42 days, according to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In addition, using drugs can lower peoples inhibitions, making them less likely to use a condom during sex or to take preventive HIV medications, further increasing their risk.

    • Reduce the risk. Although the number of HIV diagnoses among people who inject drugs has declined by 48 percent from 2008 to 2014, according to the CDC, experts worry that the rising opioid epidemic is putting new people at risk for getting the virus. To find substance abuse help, call the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administrations national helpline at 1-800-662-HELP or visit its website, findtreatment.samhsa.gov, for a list of treatment facilities near you.
    • Reduce the risk. People who inject drugs can help lower their risk of exposure to HIV by using a sterile needle and syringe for each injection sterile needles can be obtained without a prescription at pharmacies and through syringe services programs at state or local health departments.

Hiv Is An Infection That Can Lead To Aids

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Its a virus that breaks down certain cells in your immune system . When HIV damages your immune system, its easier to get really sick and even die from infections that your body could normally fight off.

About 1.1 million people in the U.S. are living with HIV, and more than 38,000 new infections happen every year. Most people with HIV dont have any symptoms for many years and feel totally fine, so they might not even know they have it.

Once you have HIV, the virus stays in your body for life. Theres no cure for HIV, but medicines can help you stay healthy. HIV medicine lowers or even stops your chances of spreading the virus to other people. Studies show that using HIV treatment as directed can lower the amount of HIV in your blood so much that it might not even show up on a test when this happens, you cant transmit HIV through sex.Treatment is really important . Without treatment, HIV can lead to AIDS. But with medicine, people with HIV can live long, healthy lives and stop the spread of HIV to others.

Contaminated Blood Transfusions And Organ/tissue Transplants

If adequate safety practices are not in place, healthcare workers can also be at risk of HIV from cuts made by a needle or sharp object with infected blood on it. However, the risk of occupational exposure, is very low in most countries.

If you think you have been exposed to HIV, the only way to find out if you have HIV is to have an HIV test.

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If I Drink Alcohol And/or Use Recreational Drugs Is It Safe To Take Prep

Alcohol and recreational drugs are not known to interact with PrEP medications. It is safe to take PrEP before, after and on days when you are “partying.” In fact, it is important to take extra steps to make sure you take PrEP according to the healthcare providers directions when you are “partying.”

Who Should Consider Prep

Living With HIV

The following circumstances mean that PrEP may be a good choice and worth a conversation with your doctor:

  • if you have had anal or vaginal sex with more than one partner and prefer to use condoms only sometimes or not at all
  • if you are a sexually active adult male who prefers male partners, whose HIV status may not be known
  • if you are in a relationship with an HIV-positive partner
  • if you have recently had a sexually transmitted infection in your anus or vagina
  • if you have had sex with people who inject drugs, or if you inject drugs yourself
  • if you are trying to conceive with a known HIV-positive partner
  • if you have used stimulants, poppers, cocaine, meth, ecstasy, or speed in the last six months.

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How Well Does Prep Work

The PrEP medication works very well at preventing a person from getting HIV. Everyone taking PrEP should be sure to take the medication as agreed upon with the healthcare provider, but it is especially important for cis-gender women and transgender men who engage in vaginal intercourse to take it consistently each day to be fully protected during receptive vaginal intercourse. The more days a person misses a dose, the less protective the medication will be for any exposures that occur during that time period. If you are interested in more specific data regarding how well PrEP works, below is a list of links to the major clinical trials.

What If I Test Positive

Despite lots of research, thereâs still no cure for HIV. But treatments can help manage it. People with HIV are now living longer and healthier lives than ever before.

Your doctor will help you decide which antiretroviral medicines to take. Youâll need to take these medicines every day.

Itâs also important that you tell anyone youâve had sex or shared needles with besides your HIV-positive partner about your HIV status. Theyâll need testing, too.

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What Are My Chances Of Contracting Hiv

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What is HIV?

Human immunodeficiency virus attacks and weakens the immune system, making an individual more vulnerable to serious illness. Untreated HIV can lead to AIDS, which occurs when the immune system is so weak it becomes susceptible to serious infections and some cancers.

Theres an epidemic of HIV in the United States and around the world. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , more than 1.1 million people in the United States are living with HIV, and 1 in 7 of them arent aware of it. An estimated 39,782 people in the country were diagnosed with HIV in 2016 alone.

HIV transmission occurs in many different ways, including through condomless sex and by sharing needles. Risk of transmission varies depending on several factors including:

  • sexual practices and the HIV status of sexual partners
  • sharing needles for drug use or tattoos
  • use of PrEP, PEP, condoms, or having an undetectable viral load

Its important to understand the risk level based on actual factors in preventing the transmission of HIV.

Where To Access Testing Services

PrEP – an HIV prevention option

Standard HIV testing can generally be accessed through any health provider across the country. Each province is responsible for licensing the laboratories that provide HIV screening and confirmatory testing in its jurisdiction. In general, all provincial Public Health Laboratories provide both screening and confirmatory testing. Reference and specialized services, when required, are provided by the National HIV Reference Serology Laboratory after consultation with the provincial laboratory. It is advisable to contact your testing laboratory to confirm the specimen collection details.

Anonymous or POC testing locations can be found by calling a local HIV/AIDS hotline .

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What Are The Side Effects Of The Prep Medications

Truvada and Descovy are both recognized as well-tolerated medications with few side effects.

In clinical trials, only a small number of people found the side effects serious enough to stop taking the medication. People taking PrEP should discuss any side effects they experience with their healthcare provider. In many cases, side effects are only short term and can be managed. Two important health issues related to taking PrEP include kidney function and bone density. Your healthcare provider will ask if you have a history of kidney disease and will periodically order lab work to monitor your kidney function. Bone density will be monitored as needed. The NYSDOH is aware that there are lawsuits that claim harm to individuals taking Truvada. However, scientific evidence shows that when taken as directed, Truvada is safe and effective. Since there are risks to taking any medication, individuals should speak with their healthcare provider about the benefits, risks , and possible alternatives for every medication they choose to take in order to understand the best choices for their specific situation.

How Can I Get Tested For Hiv

You can get an HIV test at a doctor’s office or clinic or you can test yourself at home. There are different types of HIV tests. Some use a sample of your blood and some use saliva .

How long does it take to get the test results?

It depends on the type of HIV test you get.

  • Lab tests take from a few days to 2 weeks to give results.
  • Rapid tests give results in 30 minutes or less.
  • Home test results can be ready in 20 minutes or by the next business day.

If you test positive, you’ll need a second HIV test to be sure. Find out more about the different types of HIV tests.

Whats the difference between confidential and anonymous testing?

When you get tested at a doctors office or clinic, your test results are confidential. This means they can only be shared with people allowed to see your medical records.

If you’re worried about giving your name, you can get an anonymous HIV test at some clinics. This means that you dont have to give your name. Learn more about confidential and anonymous HIV testing.

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How Hiv Is Transmitted

HIV is a virus that can be transmitted by exposure to certain types of bodily fluids. If fluids containing HIV get into the body through openings in the skin or through contact with mucosal surfaces , they can lead to infection.

Bodily fluids that can contain enough HIV to transmit the virus include:

  • Blood

How Can I Prevent Hiv Transmission And Stds During Anal Sex

Four curable sexually transmitted infections

Unprotected anal sex with a person who has HIV or another STD, or whose HIV or STD status you do not know, is the highest-risk sexual activity for both men and women. The walls of the anus and rectum are thin and have many blood vessels than can be injured during anal sex. Injured tissue in the anus and rectum can expose you to HIV and other STDs. Male latex condoms used with a water-based lubricant reduces the chance of tissue and skin tearing and lowers the risk of transmitting disease during anal sex. However, even with lubrication, male condoms fail more often during anal sex than during vaginal or oral sex. Female condoms should not be used for anal sex, as they do not provide adequate protection. Because use of the female condom during anal sex requires removal of the inner ring, the female condom is unlikely to stay in place during anal intercourse.

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What Is Art And How Does It Help Prevent Hiv

Antiretroviral therapy is a combination of medicines that slows down the effects of HIV in your body and can help you stay healthy for many years. It can also lower or even stop your chances of giving HIV to anyone else.

ART lowers the amount of HIV in your body sometimes to the point where HIV wont show up on standard blood tests. If your HIV viral load is so low that certain tests cant see it, its called undetectable. When someone has an undetectable viral load, they cant spread HIV to others during sex.

Its important to remember that even with an undetectable viral load, HIV is still present in your body. If you stop treatment your viral load can go up, making it possible to pass HIV to others you have sex with. Your doctor or nurse can help you find the treatment thats best for you to help keep your viral load low, so you can stay healthy.

How Can I Make Sure I Dont Give Hiv To Anyone During Sex

If you find out that you have HIV, try to stay calm. People living with HIV can have normal, healthy relationships and sex lives. But its important to take precautions to help your partner stay HIV-free.

There are a few ways that you can avoid giving HIV to other people:

  • Always use condoms when you have vaginal and anal sex.

  • Start treatment for HIV as soon as possible, and keep taking your HIV medicine. When you take it correctly, HIV treatment can lower or even stop your chances of spreading the virus to your sexual partners .

  • Theres a daily pill your partner can take to lower the risk of getting HIV, called PrEP.

  • Dont share needles for shooting drugs, piercings, or tattoos.

  • Get tested and treated for other STDs besides HIV regularly. Having other STDs makes it easier for you to spread HIV to others.

If you test positive for HIV, its important to tell your sexual partners about it so they can be tested, too. Even if youre really careful to not spread HIV, be honest with your future partners about your status so you can both be informed and help each other stay healthy. Read more about talking with your partners about HIV.

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Clinical Indications For Hiv Testing

Individuals requesting an HIV test.

Individuals with symptoms and signs of HIV infection.

Individuals with illnesses associated with a weakened immune system or a diagnosis of tuberculosis.

Unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse or use of shared drug equipment with a partner whose HIV status is known to be positive.

Pregnant or planning a pregnancy and their partners as appropriate.

Victims of sexual assault.

Other Prevention Benefits Of Hiv Treatment

HIV PrEP: Protect Yourself Against HIV

In addition to preventing sexual transmission of HIV there are other benefits of taking HIV medication to achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load:

  • It reduces the risk of mother-to-child transmission from pregnancy, labor, and delivery. If a woman living with HIV can take HIV medication as prescribed throughout pregnancy, labor, and delivery and if HIV medication is given to her baby for 4-6 weeks after delivery, the risk of transmission from pregnancy, labor, and delivery can be reduced to 1% or less. Scientists dont know if a woman living with HIV who has her HIV under control can transmit HIV to her baby through breastfeeding. While it isnt known if or how much being undetectable or virally suppressed prevents some ways that HIV is transmitted, it is reasonable to assume that it provides some risk reduction.
  • It may reduce HIV transmission risk for people who inject drugs. Scientists do not yet know whether having a suppressed or undetectable viral load prevents HIV transmission through sharing needles or other injection drug equipment, but it is reasonable to assume that it provides some risk reduction. Even if you are taking HIV medication and are undetectable, use new equipment each time you inject and do not share needles and syringes with other people.
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Treatments That Help Reduce The Risk Of Hiv Transmission

If your partner is HIV positive, talk to your doctor about whether you should start taking a medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP. These pills, which help prevent HIV from establishing itself in the body, can reduce a persons risk of permanent infection by up to 92 percent if taken consistently, according to the CDC.

If youre HIV negative and believe you might have been exposed to the virus, you can take an emergency medication called post-exposure prophylaxis, or PEP, which can lower your odds of being permanently infected with HIV. In order to work as effectively as possible, the medication has to be started within 72 hours of exposure and must be taken consistently once or twice a day for 28 days.

Finally, if your partner is HIV positive, he or she can drastically reduce the odds of passing along the virus by taking antiretroviral therapy, or ART. These medications can lower the amount of HIV that resides in the body to a level thats undetectable by modern testing. An international study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association in July 2016 found that none of the more than 1,000 HIV-positive people whose levels were undetectable passed the virus to their HIV-negative partners during unprotected anal or vaginal sex during an average of two years.

Would I Have To Take Prep For The Rest Of My Life What If I Want To Stop

PrEP is not intended to be a life-long program. Rather, it is a program where the healthcare provider works with you to develop an individualized plan with as many renewals of the prescription as you and the healthcare provider agree to. For many people, life circumstances change over time and the risk for HIV may be reduced or eliminated. You should discuss the issue of how long you want to take the PrEP medication with your provider. If for any reason you want to stop taking the PrEP medication, consult with the healthcare provider who prescribed it, or another provider who is familiar with PrEP. Generally speaking, cis-gender men taking on-demand PrEP should continue taking the PrEP medication for at least 2 days after any possible exposure. Anyone taking daily PrEP should continue taking the medication for 28 days after the last possible exposure.

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