Wednesday, September 28, 2022

How Can Aids Be Transmitted From One Person To Another

How Is Hiv Treated

What it means to have HIV

HIV is treated with a combination of medicines taken by mouth every day. This combination of pills is called antiretroviral therapy .

Taking a combination of types of pills, rather than just one, is the most effective way to keep HIV from multiplying and destroying your cells. There are also combination pills that have several medications in a single pill. Your healthcare provider will carefully select a combination specifically for you.

The goal of ART is to reduce HIV in the blood to an amount thats not detectable by an HIV test and to slow HIVs weakening of your immune system.

Medications used to treat HIV

Each type of pill used in ART has a different way of keeping HIV from making more copies of itself or from infecting your cells. There can be many different brand names of the same type of ART drug.

Types of ART medications include:

  • Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors .
  • Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors .
  • Protease inhibitors .
  • Combination of HIV medicines.

How Could You Get Hiv From Contact With Blood

The risk of HIV transmission through blood comes when the person has a detectable viral load and their blood enters another persons body or comes into contact with a mucous membrane. These are parts of the body with wet, absorbent skin such as the:

Theres also a risk if blood from a person who has a detectable viral load comes into contact with a cut or broken skin, giving HIV a way through the skin and into someones bloodstream. If blood gets onto skin that isnt broken, there is no risk.

In a medical setting, its possible for HIV to be transmitted by someone accidentally cutting themselves with a blade or needle they have used to treat a person living with HIV.

This is called a needlestick injury. The risk of being infected in this way is very low. However, if someone thinks they have been exposed to HIV through a needlestick injury, post-exposure prophylaxis may be an option.

How Can I Protect Myself

The best way to protect yourself from HIV is to not have sex and not share needles.

If you decide to have sex, reduce your risk of getting HIV by:

  • using a condom every time you have sex
  • getting tested for HIV and making sure all partners do too
  • reducing the number of sexual partners you have
  • getting tested and treated for STDs having an STD increases the risk of HIV infection

Understanding how HIV spreads can help you make safer choices about sex. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions about HIV and if you want to get tested.

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Ok But What About My Specific Hiv Risk Question

Over the years, we’ve receivedand our experts have answeredliterally thousands of questions from people concerned about a potential exposure to HIV. Some of them have been extremely detailedbut those details don’t change any of the basic facts about how HIV is and isn’t transmitted.

You can figure out the answer to just about every question that could possibly exist about HIV transmission by reading the rest of our article above. But let’s dive into a handful of the most common kinds of questions we’ve seen over the years:

Bites That Break The Skin

HIV Stigma and Myths  MBRC

A bite that opens the skin and causes bleeding can lead to the transmission of HIV. However, according to the

goes up with increasing viral load.

Viral load is highest both during the early phase of HIV and without treatment with antiretroviral medications. Taking antiretroviral medications every day can reduce a persons viral load to very low levels that cannot be detected through testing.

In this way, antiretroviral medications are not only a treatment, but an important tool for prevention. When HIV cannot be detected in the blood, a person living with HIV cannot sexually transmit the virus to a partner without HIV.

This principle is called Undetectable = Untransmittable .

It can take up to 6 months of taking antiretroviral medications each day to achieve an undetectable viral load.

A persons viral load is said to be durably undetectable when all test results are undetectable for at least 6 months after the first undetectable result.

There are a couple reasons that STIs can raise HIV risk. First, the symptoms of many STIs include genital inflammation, sores, or ulcers. These can all increase the chance of transmitting the virus from one person to another.

Second, like HIV, transmission of STIs is associated with some of the same types of behaviors, such as engaging in sex without a condom or other barrier method.

Some research has also indicated that certain STIs may be more with HIV transmission than others. These STIs include:

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Can You Get Hiv From A Blood Transfusion

Receiving a blood transfusion or other products made from blood is safe in the UK as all blood products have been screened for infections such as HIV since 1985.

In countries that dont have strict checks on the safety of their blood supply, receiving contaminated blood can pass the virus on. This can also happen in countries that dont screen other blood products, organs or sperm.

Giving blood has never been a risk.

Can Analingus Result In Hiv Transmission

For this answer, we turn back to Bob Frascino, M.D.:

“Although there have been no documented cases of acquiring HIV from rimming or being rimmed, there are a number of other significant STIs that can easily be transmitted through rimming, including hepatitis A, herpes, and intestinal parasites. You can decrease the risk by using a dental dam barrier .

“As for whether to rim or not, only you can decide what level of risk you are willing to take. At least now you have the facts.”

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Can Medications Prevent Hiv

There are medications that can help prevent HIV in people who have been exposed or are at high risk for exposure. These include pre-exposure prophylaxis and post-exposure prophylaxis .

Pre-exposure prophylaxis

PrEP is a pill you take every day if you dont have HIV but are at high risk of getting infected.

  • You have a sexual partner with HIV.
  • You havent consistently used a condom.
  • In the past six months, youve been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease .

PrEP is also recommended if you dont have HIV, you inject drugs and at least one of the following is true:

  • You inject drugs with a partner who has HIV.
  • You share needles or other equipment to inject drugs.

PrEP is not a replacement for other preventative measures. You should still use condoms and avoid sharing needles to inject drugs while taking PrEP.

Post-exposure prophylaxis

PEP uses HIV medicines to try to prevent an HIV infection soon after you are exposed. PEP is for those who dont have HIV or dont know if they have HIV and think theyve been exposed through consensual sex, sexual assault, shared needles , or work.

You must start PEP within 72 hours of exposure and take it every day for 28 days. PEP is only for emergency use and does not replace other precautions, like condom use.

What Are The Treatments For Hiv/aids

Why its so hard to cure HIV/AIDS – Janet Iwasa

There is no cure for HIV infection, but it can be treated with medicines. This is called antiretroviral therapy . ART can make HIV infection a manageable chronic condition. It also reduces the risk of spreading the virus to others.

Most people with HIV live long and healthy lives if they get and stay on ART. It’s also important to take care of yourself. Making sure that you have the support you need, living a healthy lifestyle, and getting regular medical care can help you enjoy a better quality of life.

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Whats The Difference Between Hiv And Aids

HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV and AIDS are not the same thing. And people with HIV do not always have AIDS.

HIV is the virus thats passed from person to person. Over time, HIV destroys an important kind of the cell in your immune system that helps protect you from infections. When you dont have enough of these CD4 cells, your body cant fight off infections the way it normally can.

AIDS is the disease caused by the damage that HIV does to your immune system. You have AIDS when you get dangerous infections or have a super low number of CD4 cells. AIDS is the most serious stage of HIV, and it leads to death over time.

Without treatment, it usually takes about 10 years for someone with HIV to develop AIDS. Treatment slows down the damage the virus causes and can help people stay healthy for several decades.

Which Bodily Fluids Can Pass Hiv

HIV does not spread throughout the body evenly. Some bodily fluids have it, but most dont. In fact, HIV can only be transmitted to another person through these three types of bodily fluids:

Thats it.

HIV cannot be passed from person to person via other fluids like tears, saliva, vomit, or feces. This is an incredibly important point about HIV transmission that is often misunderstood.

For decadesand still todaypeople have worried they might catch HIV from a toilet seat, perhaps by touching the urine or fecal matter of an HIV-positive person. This absolutely does not happen.

People have also worried they might catch the virus from the saliva of an HIV-positive person who kisses them or spits on them. In fact, this fear is so pervasive that some states have made it a felony for people with HIV to spit at or bite someone else. Those laws are based on outdated science.

The only way it would be possible to transmit HIV through saliva is if the HIV-positive person had bleeding gums or sores, and somehow that bloody saliva got into the bloodstream of the HIV-negative person. However, experts agree that the risk of this happening is so statistically tiny that its not worth worrying about.

So, to recap:

  • Among adults, the viruss most likely entry route inside the body is through blood-to-blood contact, or by an exchange of sexual fluids.
  • Among newborns, HIV can be transmitted by HIV-positive people during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding.

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It Would Take Too Many Bites

HIV actually isnt very easily transmittable. It takes a large amount of the virus being transmitted for someone to contract it.

Even if some HIV were still in a mosquitos body when it bit you if it had yet to be fully digested there wouldnt be enough of it to transmit to you.

HIV is transmitted through direct contact with certain bodily fluids that contain HIV. These fluids include:

These fluids must enter the persons body for them to contract HIV.

HIV is mainly transmitted through sex without a condom or other barrier method, and through the sharing of needles.

In some cases, HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. However, antiretroviral therapy can greatly lower the risk of this occurring, and its safe to take during pregnancy.

HIV is highly unlikely to be transmitted through saliva.

HIV can only be transmitted when a person with the virus has a detectable viral load . Taking daily medication for HIV can lead to an undetectable viral load, which means HIV cant be transmitted to others.

How A Vaccine Can Treat Aids

Who Should Get Tested?

This vaccine against AIDS utilizes B cells, a type of white blood cells that secrete anti-HIV antibodies to neutralize the virus present in the body. These cells are genetically engineered inside the body to neutralize the AIDS-causing virus.

  • Type B white blood cells are formed in the bone marrow. They later move to other body parts through lymph and blood to mature. These B cells generate antibodies when bacteria, viruses and pathogens attack.
  • This vaccine is generated by genetically engineering these B cells with antibodies against HIV. These do not interrupt with the body system other than generating required antibodies.

Scientists used CRISPR technology to do the genome editing to develop the vaccine. This mechanism helps in inserting desired genes in the body as well disabling unwanted genes to bring about the change. The CRISPR technology introduces the genes and viral carriers to the B white cells to initiate gene editing. Carriers belonging to the Adeno-Associated Virus family were used in making this injection for AIDS. This viral vector is also effective against many chronic diseases.

Summing up, the vaccine made using this viral vector through genome editing can potentially treat HIV-AIDS in one shot. This can improve the health condition of the patient. This has brought a hope that in the coming years, AIDS wont remain a life-threatening condition. Also, this research has opened up opportunities for developing medication to defeat AIDS virus.

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Factors Affecting Hiv Transmission

The Presence of Other STDs

The presence of other sexually transmitted diseases increases the risk for HIV transmission, because the infected person may have a much larger number of HIV-infected white blood cells present at the site of infection. The infected persons immune system may be less able to suppress or combat HIV infection. Lesions from STDs break down the protective surface of the skin or mucous membrane, which makes the infected person more vulnerable to other infections.

The presence of a co-infection with other STDs increases the risk of HIV transmission because:

  • STDs like syphilis and symptomatic herpes can cause breaks in the skin, which provide direct entry for HIV.
  • Inflammation from STDs, such as chlamydia, makes it easier for HIV to enter and infect the body.
  • HIV is often detected in the pus or other discharge from genital ulcers of HIV-infected men and women.
  • Sores can bleed easily and come into contact with vaginal, cervical, oral, urethral, and rectal tissues during sex.
  • Inflammation appears to increase HIV viral shedding and the viral load in genital secretions.

Multiple Partners

Use of Non-Injecting Drugs

Gender and Equality Issues

In some cultures, females are not encouraged to learn about their bodies, sex, birth control, or sexuality topics, while some other cultures promote the value of the male having multiple sexual partners but discourage the same behavior in females. Gender inequality places women at risk for contacting HIV.

Casual Contact

Can Anyone Get Hiv

Yes. Like most illnesses, HIV doesnât discriminate between types of people and the infection can be passed on to anyone viaâ¯one of the waysâ¯mentioned above. Itâs a common misunderstanding that HIV only affects certain groups.

While not everyone has the same level of HIV risk, everyone can reduce their risk of infection.

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Is There Any Hiv Risk From A Nude Body

If all you had was a massage, with no penetrative intercourse or other high-risk activity, there is absolutely no reason to be concerned about HIV.

So if the massage involved penetrative sex without a condom, an infectious body fluid might have contact with mucus membranes in the genital area. But if it was just massage, there’s no way for an infectious body fluid to enter the bloodstream.

Doubts Persist Even When Risk Is Statistically Zero

Sexually Transmitted and Intravenous Infections

Despite increased public awareness, there remains a lot of confusion about how you can get HIV and how you cannot. While most people understand that you can’t get HIV from utensils, for example, there are many who will experience a twinge of doubt if they learn that the chef of their favorite restaurant has HIV.

It is these doubts, often unspoken, that fuel misconceptions about the disease. These misconceptions, in turn, can alter prevention practicesleading some to overcompensate and others to undercompensate .

This article explains how HIV is transmitted and the four conditions that must be met in order for an infection to occur. It also describes the ways that HIV cannot be transmitted and what to do if you think you’ve been infected.

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How Is Hiv Not Spread

HIV is not spread by:

  • Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects
  • Saliva, tears, sweat, feces, or urine that is not mixed with the blood of a person with HIV
  • Shaking hands hugging sharing toilets sharing dishes, silverware, or drinking glasses or engaging in closed-mouth or social kissing with a person with HIV
  • Drinking fountains
  • Other sexual activities that dont involve the exchange of body fluids .

Can Hiv/aids Be Prevented

You can reduce the risk of spreading HIV by:

  • Getting tested for HIV.
  • Choosing less risky sexual behaviors. This includes limiting the number of sexual partners you have and using latex condoms every time you have sex. If your or your partner is allergic to latex, you can use polyurethane condoms.
  • Getting tested and treated for sexually transmitted diseases .
  • Not injecting drugs.
  • Talking to your health care provider about medicines to prevent HIV:
  • PrEP is for people who don’t already have HIV but are at very high risk of getting it. PrEP is daily medicine that can reduce this risk.
  • PEP is for people who have possibly been exposed to HIV. It is only for emergency situations. PEP must be started within 72 hours after a possible exposure to HIV.

NIH: National Institutes of Health

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How Hiv Infects The Body

HIV infects the immune system, causing progressive damage and eventually making it unable to fight off infections.

The virus attaches itself to immune system cells called CD4 lymphocyte cells, which protect the body against various bacteria, viruses and other germs.

Once attached, it enters the CD4 cells and uses it to make thousands of copies of itself. These copies then leave the CD4 cells, killing them in the process.

This process continues until eventually the number of CD4 cells, also called your CD4 count, drops so low that your immune system stops working.

This process may take up to 10 years, during which time you’ll feel and appear well.

Page last reviewed: 22 April 2021 Next review due: 22 April 2024

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