Friday, January 27, 2023

How Can Hiv Be Spread

How Do You Get Hiv

How is HIV Transmitted? Episode 2

You can only get HIV if specific bodily fluids of someone who has HIV get into your body. A person with HIV can pass the virus to others whether they have symptoms or not.

There are a lot of myths around how HIV is passed from one person to another but there are only a few ways you can get it. Plus, the good news is that there are things you can do to protect yourself and others.

  • Test your knowledge of HIV prevention
  • Hiv Is An Infection That Can Lead To Aids

    HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Its a virus that breaks down certain cells in your immune system . When HIV damages your immune system, its easier to get really sick and even die from infections that your body could normally fight off.

    About 1.1 million people in the U.S. are living with HIV, and more than 38,000 new infections happen every year. Most people with HIV dont have any symptoms for many years and feel totally fine, so they might not even know they have it.

    Once you have HIV, the virus stays in your body for life. Theres no cure for HIV, but medicines can help you stay healthy. HIV medicine lowers or even stops your chances of spreading the virus to other people. Studies show that using HIV treatment as directed can lower the amount of HIV in your blood so much that it might not even show up on a test when this happens, you cant transmit HIV through sex.Treatment is really important . Without treatment, HIV can lead to AIDS. But with medicine, people with HIV can live long, healthy lives and stop the spread of HIV to others.

    How Does Hiv Affect The Body

    The human immune system involves many types of cells which guard against germs responsible for most diseases. The immune system’s most important guard cells are B-cells and T-cells, which are special white blood cells. B-cells and T-cells cooperate to fight any germ that attacks the human body.

    B-cells produce particular proteins, called antibodies, that try to neutralize the invading germ. After a person recovers from an infection, these antibodies continue to circulate in the bloodstream, acting as part of the immune system’s “memory.” Immune system memory explains why a person rarely suffers a second attack from an infectious disease such as measles. If the same germ is encountered again, the antibodies will recognize and neutralize it. T-cells attack the germ directly and try to kill it.

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    Is Hepatitis Testing Recommended For People With Hiv

    Yes. Everyone living with HIV should be tested for HBV and HCV when they are first diagnosed with HIV and begin treatment. People living with HIV who have ongoing risk factors for getting hepatitis B or hepatitis C should be tested annually.

    In addition, new HCV screening recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention call for:

    • One-time screening for all adults 18 years and older
    • Screening of all pregnant women during every pregnancy
    • Testing for all persons with risk factors, with testing continued periodic testing those with ongoing risk.

    How Can I Prevent Passing Hiv To My Partner

    Spread the Word About the Link Between HIV &  DV!

    If you take HIV medicine and your viral load is not detectable in your blood, your chances of passing HIV to your sexual partner is lower. You should always use a latex condom or dental dam with sex. Your HIV-negative partner also can take medicine to keep from getting HIV.

    Learn more about how to prevent passing HIV to your partner.

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    Viral Load & Medications

    If someone has HIV, this does not mean that they are restricted to celibacy. Many people with HIV still continue to have safe, enjoyable sex lives without spreading the virus. Always using a condom or barrier method is an important first step to prevent the sharing of HIV containing fluids.

    Antiretroviral therapy : Another way to help decrease the risk of spreading HIV is to lower a personâs viral loadâthe amount of HIV in a personâs blood. Viral loads can be lowered using medications called antiretroviral therapy . These medications can lower the HIV viral load so much that HIV may not even be detectable on a blood testâthis is called an undetectable viral load . When a person’s viral load in undetectable, they have effectively no risk of transmitting the HIV virus to a non-infected partner . Taking these medication will help keep a person with HIV healthy while also helping prevent the spread of HIV to another person. This is not a cure, however. If medication is taken incorrectly or stopped, HIV viral loads will increase again and transmission can occur. Condoms and other barrier methods should still always be used during sex .

    If you have HIV and have an undetectable viral load, you should still tell your partner before having sex.

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis : Medication called pre-exposure prophylaxis can be taken daily to decrease the risk of contracting HIV if exposed .

    What Else Can I Do To Prevent The Spread Of Hiv

    • Talk to your healthcare provider about PrEP to lower your risk for HIV infection. Preexposure prophylaxis may be given if tests show you are HIV-negative but your risk for infection is high. PrEP is medicine that can be given to adults and adolescents. It must be taken every day. PrEP is not 100% effective. You will still need to take precautions to prevent an infection. Use a latex condom or female condom during sex. Do not share needles if you inject drugs.
    • Take every dose of HAART medicines exactly as directed if you are HIV-positive. This will prevent the virus from mutating and becoming much harder to treat. Consistent use of HAART medicines may help prevent the spread of HIV to a sex partner or an unborn baby.
    • Join a risk reduction program if you are HIV-positive. Ask your healthcare provider or local health department to help you find a risk reduction program. This program will teach you how to tell others that you have HIV and ask sexual partners to use condoms.
    • Treat sexually transmitted infections right away. If you are sexually active, get tested for STIs at least 1 time each year. If you become infected with an STI, treat it right away. This may help reduce the risk that you will give HIV to a sex partner.

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    How Are Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Spread From Person To Person

    Like HIV, the hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses spread:

    • From mother to child: Pregnant women can pass these infections to their infants. HIV-HCV coinfection increases the risk of passing on hepatitis C to the baby.
    • Sexually: Both viruses can also be transmitted sexually, but HBV is much more likely than HCV to be transmitted sexually. Sexual transmission of HCV is most likely to happen among gay and bisexual men who are living with HIV.

    Ways Hiv Is Not Spread

    What it means to have HIV

    Get the true facts about HIV transmission.

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    The human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, has existed in the United States since at least the 1970s, but myths and misconceptions about how it’s transmitted still persist.

    Most people know that the virus is commonly spread through sexual contact and intravenous drug use. But what other behaviors are and are not risk factors?

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    How Can You Prevent Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C

    Hepatitis B: Vaccination is the best way to prevent all of the ways that hepatitis B is transmitted. People with HIV who do not have active HBV infection should be vaccinated against it. In addition to the 3-dose series of hepatitis B vaccine given over 6 months, as of 2017, there is a 2-dose series given over 1 month.

    Hepatitis C: No vaccine exists for HCV and no effective pre- or postexposure prophylaxis is available. The best way to prevent hepatitis C infection is to never inject drugs or to stop injecting drugs by getting into and staying in drug treatment. If you continue injecting drugs, always use new, sterile needles or syringes, and never reuse or share needles or syringes, water, or other drug preparation equipment.

    Hiv And Maternal Transmission

    HIV can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery, or through breastfeeding. If left untreated throughout these stages, there is a 15-45% chance of an HIV positive mother transmitting the virus to their child . However there are treatment options to prevent this from happening.

    If pregnancy occurs and there has been potential HIV exposure, ask a healthcare provider about getting tested for HIV as early as possible. Taking medications called antiretroviral therapy as prescribed can reduce the viral load so that the baby has a very low chance of contracting HIV .

    A person with HIV should not breastfeed their child, as breast milk can transmit HIV. Even if a person is taking ART and their viral loads are undetectable, they should still not breastfeed.

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    What Do I Need To Know About Hiv Transmission

    It is important to take safety precautions to prevent the transmission of HIV. HIV is an infection that slowly weakens your immune system. Over time, a weak immune system makes it difficult for you to fight infections. Common signs and symptoms of HIV infection include chronic diarrhea, weight loss without trying, and skin rashes or lesions.

    How Is Hiv Spread

    No let up in AIDS spread, UN reports

    Many people who are infected with HIV do not know they are infected. This is because the virus can live in your body for years before you develop symptoms. The following are common ways HIV may be spread:

    • Contact with blood or certain body fluids of an infected person
    • Sex with an infected person, especially in men who have sex with men
    • Injecting drugs with needles or other equipment used by an infected person
    • From an infected mother to her baby before or during birth or through breast milk

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    How Is Hiv Recognized

    Doctors use laboratory tests to confirm HIV infection. The Elisa and Western Blot analyses identify people who have been exposed to HIV. These tests determine if the blood contains particular antibodies that result from contact with the virus. They do not identify who among a group of infected individuals will develop the disease. The presence of antibodies or HIV markers means the person has been infected with HIV but no one can predict when and if they will get AIDS related symptoms.

    Doctors diagnose AIDS by blood tests and the presence of specific illnesses such as pneumocystis carinii pneumonia or Kaposi’s sarcoma. These diseases overcome the weakened immune system and are responsible for the high death rate among AIDS patients.

    Protecting Yourself From Hiv

    Anyone who has sex without a condom or shares needles is at risk of HIV. The best way to prevent HIV is to use a condom for sex and to never share needles, syringes or other injecting equipment. Knowing your HIV status and that of your partner is also important.

    Cuts, sores and bleeding gums increase the risk of spreading HIV so you should cover any cuts or sores before sex, or avoid sex until they are healed.

    It is important to continue to practise safer sex even if you, and your sexual partner, both have HIV. This is because it is possible to expose yourself to a new strain of the virus that your medicine will not be able to control.

    Further advice and information is available on the link below

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    Can I Get Hiv From Sharing Needles

    Yes. Sharing needles or syringes and other injection drug equipment is very risky. Sharing needles is the second most common way that HIV is spread to women in the United States . Any woman who shares needles with someone is at risk for HIV infection, because the needles may have someone else’s blood in them.

    Learn more about HIV risk and sharing needles.

    How Hiv Infects The Body

    HIV: How to Protect Yourself and Others

    HIV infects the immune system, causing progressive damage and eventually making it unable to fight off infections.

    The virus attaches itself to immune system cells called CD4 lymphocyte cells, which protect the body against various bacteria, viruses and other germs.

    Once attached, it enters the CD4 cells and uses it to make thousands of copies of itself. These copies then leave the CD4 cells, killing them in the process.

    This process continues until eventually the number of CD4 cells, also called your CD4 count, drops so low that your immune system stops working.

    This process may take up to 10 years, during which time you’ll feel and appear well.

    Page last reviewed: 22 April 2021 Next review due: 22 April 2024

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    What If There Is An Actual Or Suspected Exposure To Hiv

    The decision to begin a post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection is based on the judgment of a health care professional and should be a joint decision with the exposed worker. PEP often involves taking a combination of 2 or 3 antiretroviral drugs for about 4 weeks. PEP can help reduce, but not eliminate, a personâs risk of infection. The PEP should begin as soon as possible, as it may be less effective if started more than 72 hours after exposure.

    Occupational Groups Risking Exposure to the AIDS Virus

    The occupational groups listed below risk exposure to HIV in the workplace. The table that follows suggests preventive measures for these groups. For many situations, using all protective barriers listed in the table is not necessary, but workplaces should always make them available in case of emergency response scenarios.

    Surgeons, Nurses and Nurses Aides

    Surgeons, nurses and nurses’ aides should take precautions to avoid needlestick injuries, cuts with sharp instruments and exposure through skin lesions to potentially infectious blood and body fluids.

    Physicians and Laboratory Workers

    These people continuously handle infectious samples. Doctors, in diagnosing HIV patients, carry out physical examinations and collect blood samples. Laboratory technicians analyze potentially infected samples.

    Ambulance Workers

    Dental Workers

    Embalmers

    Embalming the bodies of persons with a HIV infection presents a risk because HIV can live for hours in a deceased body.

    Cleaners

    Myth : If A Couple Has Hiv They Do Not Need To Protect Themselves

    Fact: Different strains of HIV exist, and strains can change over time. If a person and their partner have two different strains of HIV, it is possible for them to transmit these to each other. This can lead to reinfection, which can complicate treatment.

    Current medications can reduce the levels of this virus in the body so that it is untransmittable. If this happens for both partners, HIV protection may be unnecessary.

    A healthcare provider can advise each couple on their situation.

    Even if there is no risk of transmitting HIV, other sexually transmitted infections can spread as a result of having sex without a condom or other barrier method.

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    There Needs To Be Enough Virus

    The concentration of HIV determines whether infection will occur. In blood, for example, the virus is very concentrated. A small amount of blood is enough to infect someone. The concentration of virus in blood or other fluids can change, in the same person, over time. People who take HIV medications as prescribed can have very low quantities of HIV present in bodily fluids, greatly reducing the risk of transmitting HIV to their partners.

    It is important to note that HIV is a very fragile virus that will die quickly when exposed to light and air. Exposure to small amounts of dried blood or other infectious fluids is not a realistic risk for HIV transmission.

    How Could You Get Hiv From Contact With Blood

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    The risk of HIV transmission through blood comes when the person has a detectable viral load and their blood enters another persons body or comes into contact with a mucous membrane. These are parts of the body with wet, absorbent skin such as the:

    Theres also a risk if blood from a person who has a detectable viral load comes into contact with a cut or broken skin, giving HIV a way through the skin and into someones bloodstream. If blood gets onto skin that isnt broken, there is no risk.

    In a medical setting, its possible for HIV to be transmitted by someone accidentally cutting themselves with a blade or needle they have used to treat a person living with HIV.

    This is called a needlestick injury. The risk of being infected in this way is very low. However, if someone thinks they have been exposed to HIV through a needlestick injury, post-exposure prophylaxis may be an option.

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    Blood Transfusions And Organ Donation

    The risk of contracting HIV from a blood transfusion, other blood products, or organ donation is now extremely rare in the United States. All donated blood or blood products in the United States are for several types of bloodborne pathogens, including HIV.

    Organ donations are also screened for HIV. Although very rare, its possible for HIV transmission to occur following an organ transplant.

    However, testing of organ recipients after surgery can quickly detect transmission so that antiretroviral medications can be started promptly.

    Hiv And Hepatitis B And Hepatitis C Coinfection

    Hepatitis B and hepatitis C are liver infections caused by a virus. Because these infections can be spread in the same ways as HIV, people with HIV in the United States are often also affected by chronic viral hepatitis.

    Viral hepatitis progresses faster and causes more liver-related health problems among people with HIV than among those who do not have HIV. Liver disease, much of which is related to HBV or HCV, is a major cause of non-AIDS-related deaths among people with HIV.

    Given the risks of hepatitis B or hepatitis C coinfection to the health of people living with HIV, it is important to understand these risks, take steps to prevent infection, know your status, and, if necessary, get medical care from someone who is experienced in treating people who are coinfected with HIV and HBV, or HIV and HCV.

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