A Complex Interplay Of Factors
While a few interviewees explained their infection in termsof a single factor, most participants thought that a combination of factors contributedto risk behaviours and HIV infection.
The sex and the drugs and the apps all intertwinedsimultaneously and I cant really say which one led to the other.
The researchers note that there was often an interplaybetween individual, community and structural factors. For example, one man inhis twenties felt that his self-harming sexual behaviours stemmed fromchildhood and a violent relationship with his mother, but also highlighted therole of the abusive environment, including gay saunas.
I think with the sex, I think itsenvironment,especially in South London. The increase of risk sex, chemsex, is becoming anepidemic, in my opinion. You hear of so many young gay men now who arepositiveand through this lifestyle. Its very hedonistic, really nastyIthink, subsequently, living in South London has made me get HIV.
Psychological issuesand drug use were often mentioned in combination. For example, a man in hisforties identified the important factors in his HIV infection as:
The drugsbut also depression because I didnt careabout taking risksI gave up.
Some participantswho had experienced stressful events suggested that changing perceptions of HIVhad consciously, or subconsciously, influenced their behaviour. Risk-benefitdecisions were altered.
The Stigma Around Hiv Could Make People Less Likely To Get Tested
Surveys show that people living with HIV still experience high levels of stigma and discrimination due to the disease, and those reporting the highest levels of stigma also report poor access to care. The stigma, in other words, correlates with less medical care for HIV.
“There’s issues around stigma and homophobia,” Lansky says. “That might deter some young men from seeking HIV prevention services and testing.”
This stigma can also apply in the other direction. In a 2011 survey from Janssen Therapeutics, black doctors, who are more active among black communities in which HIV is more prevalent, said three of five barriers to offering routine testing for HIV are related to social stigma. In particular, physicians said they’re concerned patients may perceive the recommendation to test as accusatory or judgmental.
Not getting tested or treated for HIV appears to be a major cause of the disease’s recent spread. A new study from CDC researchers found more than 90 percent of new HIV infections come from people not receiving medical care for the disease, and 30 percent of new infections were transmitted from people who don’t know they have HIV.
Younger Men Weren’t Around For The Height Of The Hiv/aids Epidemic
Among men who have sex with men, the youngest population saw the largest increase in annual HIV diagnoses by far. But the change in HIV diagnoses varied among older age groups.
“I don’t think it’s really clear why we’re seeing different patterns across different age groups,” Lansky says. “But we do know some of the things that I think in particular are affecting the younger men.”
One explanation commonly voiced by other HIV/AIDS experts and advocates is that younger populations are less likely to know the dangers of the disease, because they weren’t around during the height of the HIV epidemic in the 1980s and early 1990s. During this era, the disease quickly spread throughout the world, and few treatment and prevention options were known. The disease ravaged the gay community in particular, infecting and killing millions.
Older gay and bisexual populations who lived through the height of the HIV epidemic do appear more likely to practice safe sex, based on CDC data for HIV-negative or HIV-unknown men in 20 US cities with a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS. About 60 percent of under-40 gay and bisexual men said they had anal sex without a condom in the past year. Only half of gay and bisexual men 40 and older reported having anal sex without a condom in the same time span.
“I don’t think it’s really clear why we’re seeing different patterns across different age groups”
You May Like: Is Hiv Transmitted Through Saliva
Blaming Others For Aids
The radical homosexual lobby still accuses the government of so-called AIDS genocide, and asserts that the Feds have blood on their hands. This attitude is in keeping with the special rights activists compelling need to shift the blame for their entirely avoidable predicament onto others.
To show how out of touch the mainstream media is with reality, Newsweek Magazine, which has featured AIDS on its cover no fewer than twenty times, laid the blame for the AIDS epidemic at the feet of homophobia and religious leaders steeped in moralistic doctrine who have suppressed honest conversation about how to stop it.5
We really must ask Was it priests and preachers who encouraged men to go out and have sex with hundreds of anonymous partners? Did they command homosexuals to grossly abuse drugs and alcohol so that their judgment was impaired or destroyed? Did the preachers direct them to fanatically battle any and all AIDS prevention measures?
Or is it the media that is complicit in so many deaths, because it refuses to back time-tested public health measures, and instead coddles, promotes and excuses everything the special rights movement does?
Young Gay And Bisexual Men Are More Likely To Engage In Risky Sexual Practices
The two most basic steps to preventing an HIV infection, beyond abstinence, are to limit the number of sexual partners and use a condom. But research shows young gay men are much less likely to practice safe sex.
The CDC survey of high school students found that sexually active male students who have sex with men are both less likely to use a condom and more likely to have had sex with four or more partners during their lifetime than male students who had sex with only women.
As the chart above shows, these trends are dramatic: young men who had sex with men were roughly 50 percent more likely to report having four or more partners than young men who only had sex with women, and nearly twice as likely to report not using a condom during their last sexual encounter.
You May Like: How Easily Is Hiv Transmitted From Female To Male
Its Much Easier To Get Hiv From Anal Sex
Its been scientifically proven that anal sex is riskier than vaginal sex when it comes to HIV. Eighteen times riskier to be exact. There are two reasons for this. First, the cells in the ass are much more susceptible to HIV than cells in the vagina. Second, both semen and rectal mucosa carry more HIV than vaginal fluid. Combine this with the fact that gay and bi guys have much more anal sex than straight guys, and youve got yourself a lot more risk right there.
Does Hiv Affect Gay And Bisexual Men
In the United States, gay and bisexual men are the population most affected by HIV. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , in 2019, adult and adolescent gay and bisexual men accounted for 69% of the new HIV diagnoses in the United States and dependent areas.
In the United States, gay and bisexual men are the populationmost affected by HIV.
Don’t Miss: Do You Bruise Easily With Hiv
Why Are Gay Men More At Risk For Hiv
Dr. David explains whats behind the higher rates of HIV among gay men.
One reason some groups and areas have been more affected by HIV/AIDS than others is because the HIV prevalence the percent of the population that has HIV is already high. In other words, the chances of coming in contact with the virus and thus also the risk of infection is greater.
A common misconception is that groups with higher rates of HIV are acting less responsibly. In fact, research shows that this is not the case. Groups more at-risk for HIV are generally found to get tested more frequently, use condoms more often, and take other precautions to protect against HIV as compared with other groups. The chance of being exposed to the virus is just greater in these social networks and so the response must also be greater.
#AskTheHIVDoc is a video series from Greater Than AIDS featuring top HIV doctors providing answers to commonly-asked questions about HIV prevention, testing and treatment.
This information is shared for educational purposes only and should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice. The views expressed are those of the featured medical professional and reflect information available to that professional at time of filming. Always consult a health care provider for any personal health decision.
Get Testing And Treatment
If youre an MSM, consider getting tested at least once a year for HIV. People who have sex with multiple partners or partners of unknown HIV status should consider getting tested more frequently, such as every 3 to 6 months.
People who test positive for HIV should follow their doctors recommended treatment plan. Taking antiretroviral medication will lower the risk of complications and help prevent HIV transmission.
It also helps to ask your sexual partners about their testing history and status.
You May Like: What Is The Meaning Of Hiv
Is Monkeypox A Sexually Transmitted Infection
Much of the discussion about monkeypox in recent weeks has focused on the fact that its being detected among gay and bisexual men.
That has led many to think that monkeypox is a sexually transmitted infection, but thats not the full picture. Dr Claire Dewsnap is president of the British Association for Sexual Health and HIV she says its likely spread through close contact with infected skin.
One thing that we dont know for certain yet is whether the reason were seeing it in gay men is because theyre going to clinics, Dr Dewsnap tells PinkNews. Its very common for a gay man whos been sexually active with a new partner to think, Ive got a funny rash, it could be syphilis, it could be herpes, Ill go to my clinic.
We need to be very careful to remember that its a virus thats spread through close contact and the vast majority of monkeypox cases have been in the heterosexual community in Africa.
According to the WHO, it is not yet known if monkeypox can be passed on directly through sex the organisation says more studies are needed to understand the risk but its likely that its simply passed on through close contact. Naturally, that means a person could still contract the virus while having sex with somebody whos carrying it, but that doesnt make it a sexually transmitted infection.
Californias Lgbtq Community Feeling Ignored Angry Confused As Monkeypox Cases Rise
Some are asking: Would monkeypox have received a stronger response if it were not primarily affecting queer folks?
In Hollywood, marketing consultant Andrew Beaver said hes not trying to meet new partners online, instead focusing on people he has already met. That makes it easier to have a conversation about whats going on, said Beaver, a 59-year-old gay man. Hooking up with somebody I just met and meeting in an environment that is darker or there isnt a lot of pre-conversation … that is something that, because of where we are right now, I have decided not to do.
After repeated attempts, he recently got his first shot of the vaccine.
One challenge is that condoms go only so far to thwart a disease that can be spread by lesions all over the body, said Duffy of the Los Angeles LGBT Center. So Duffy said the center has urged people to have honest conversations with sexual partners about any possible exposures. If people are meeting through an app, those conversations can happen before they even meet.
There is a level of responsibility that we have to ourselves and to our partners, said Jeffrey C. King, founder and executive director of In the Meantime Mens Group, which aims to enrich and empower Black gay men of all ages. King, who is gay, said someone he phoned recently told himthat they had monkeypox.
My co-worker said, You cant get it if youre not gay, Cortez said. Thats a huge mistake, that people can think that.
Recommended Reading: How Do You Catch Hiv
Does Monkeypox Spread Faster Among Gay And Bisexual Men
The short answer is no. Anyone can be infected by monkeypox.
The virus is not a sexually transmitted infection. It’s mostly caught through close physical skin-to-skin contact, which is why it can be spread to sexual partners.
But with most confirmed cases among men who have sex with men, doctors are encouraging this group to be particularly alert to symptoms.
Mateo Prochazka, an epidemiologist from the UK Health Security Agency , said: “The infections are not about sexuality. We are concerned about monkeypox in general, as a public threat. We are worried about everyone’s health.”
Do Some People Really Want To Get Hiv
Why would anybody want to get infected with HIV? That is what most people ask when they first hear about bug chasing. In fact, a number of gay men, at least online, appear to clamour for HIV. They are known as bug chasers because they are literally chasing a bug HIV.
But do they really want it? To answer this question, I interviewed men in the UK, US, France and Australia. While they all considered themselves to be bug chasers, their experiences were very different: one 69-year-old man spent his life working for an HIV charity another, younger, participant works as a porn performer. For some, bug chasing plays a secondary role within their sexuality for others, it is all they can think about. Some access bug chasing websites to find hook-ups or masturbate others just spend many hours online engaging with others.
Bug chasers largely fetishise the HIV virus. They come from a variety of backgrounds, generations, and countries. While one of the participants I spoke with has clear memories of the AIDS crisis in the 1980s, another, in his early 30s, grew up at a time when HIV was no longer a death sentence.
Given that bug chasers communicate through the internet, researchers have focused on analysing bug chasing websites, establishing that bug chasers are a minority turning to the internet to find sexual partners.
Also Check: Is Hiv Testing Included In Std Testing
Young Gay And Bisexual Men Are More Likely To Use Drugs
A review of several studies found young gay and bisexual men are more likely to report drug use. This can increase exposure to HIV in two major ways: First, needles are the riskiest way to transmit HIV outside of sex. Second, people who use drugs before sex are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors, like not using a condom.
To that end, the CDC survey of high school students also found that young gay and bisexual men are much more likely to report injecting illegal drugs and using drugs or alcohol before their last sexual intercourse encounter.
These trends are stark. Compared to young men who have sex with women, those who have sex with men are nearly 10 times as likely to have ever injected illegal drugs, and they’re over 50 percent more likely to use drugs or alcohol prior to sex.
Factors That Affect Men Who Have Sex With Men
In the United States, gay men are affected by human immunodeficiency virus more than any other group. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , 70% of all new HIV infections in 2019 were gay or bisexual men. Over one-third of these were Black men who are gay or bisexual.
Men who have sex with men is a term that refers to gay men as well as those who may identify in other ways, such as bisexual or heterosexual. Several risk factors unique to MSM can increase the odds of becoming infected.
This article takes a closer look at four key factorsphysiological, sexual, social, and culturalthat place gay men and other MSM at the highest risk of HIV compared to all other groups.
Read Also: Why Do Gay Men Get Hiv
Hiv Risk And Health Factors Shared By All Lgbtq People
LGBTQ people experience intimate partner violence, just as people in straight relationships do. And, as in any relationship, violence is tied to a heightened risk of contracting HIV and other sexually transmitted infections , specifically because partners who are living in a violent relationship are often unable to negotiate terms of sexual encounters, including if and how protection is used.
In a 2006 survey of LGBTQ people in abusive relationships, 41% of respondents said they had been forced by their partners to have sex, while 28% said they were scared to ask their abusive partners to use protection during intercourse. Several participants reported sexual , physical , and vocal abuse after asking a partner to use protection.
Our cultural understanding of domestic violence is often exclusively in male-female relationships, with men abusing women. However, LGBTQ people can experience unhealthy power dynamics in their relationships as well. Researchers have found that gay and bisexual men who are survivors of domestic violence often exhibit similar outcomes to women who experience domestic violence, including having lower incomes, being unemployed, experiencing depression, and using substances.
Responses To The Gay Voice
I believe that gay men use a female persona to be campy. Itâs a form of acting a part in a movie or a play, except that the audience is anyone within earshot!
This article seems to be addressing a stereotype rather than looking at why this is a topic at all.
I have always thought that gay men tend to speak far more quickly than straight men do. Of the gay friends I have/have had/I have met, they always tend to speak very quickly, compared with straight men.
I wonder if it was a genetic attribute. For example, some male singers who have higher ranges and more âfeminineâ sounding voices cannot be differentiated from a female the majority have been gay. This could further back studies that argue sexuality is a genetic attribute.
I have a family member who is gay. We are close in age and Iâve always known he was gay. Heâs always had âthe voiceââ even as a small child. It wasnât a learned thing with him, he literally sprang from the womb knowing who and what he was, just not how to articulate it. But the voice he eventually articulated it in? That had always been there.
I believe some men are born with the so-called gay-sounding voice. I knew two boys as a child who had the stereotypical lisp and came out later in life.
You May Like: How Do Home Hiv Tests Work