Hiv During Pregnancy And Childbirth
Women living with HIV who are on treatment and have a stable undetectable viral load are extremely unlikely to transmit HIV to their baby during pregnancy and childbirth. There is a 1 in 1000 chance of transmitting HIV to the baby during pregnancy and delivery, when a woman is on antiretroviral treatment and has a viral load below 50 copies/ml .
HIV-positive women who are on treatment and have stable undetectable viral load, have a 1-2% chance of transmitting HIV to their baby if they breastfeed for 12 months.
So, although it is unlikely that a woman will transmit HIV to her baby when breastfeeding it is currently advised not to breastfeed.
If My Partner Is Undetectable Should I Take Prep
It is important to understand that just because a persons viral load is undetectable does not mean that you should throw caution to the wind. While you are at low risk for HIV if your partner is undetectable, you should take it if PrEP makes you feel safer or if theres a chance you might have other sexual partners.
When taken as directed by a physician, PrEP can be up to 99% effective at preventing HIV transmission. Therefore, it can offer you peace of mind, even if your partner is currently undetectable.
Health Resources And Services Administrations Health Center Program
- COVID-19 Information for Health Centers and PartnersThis page provides the latest information on COVID-19 for health centers and Health Center Program partners. HRSA-funded health centers are a vital part of the nations response to HIV.
- Interpersonal Violence Toolkit and COVID-19 Resource PageFutures Without Violence, a HRSA-funded National Training and Technical Assistance Partner, developed this toolkit to assist health centers in designing a comprehensive response to IPV and human trafficking. During COVID-19, increases in IPV have been reported across the US there is a strong association between IPV and risks for HIV infection.
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Are There Any Side Effects To Being On Hiv Medicines
HIV medicines can cause side effects for some people. Most are manageable. Fortunately, there are numerous HIV medicines available today that people can take without serious side effects. If you do experience any side effects it is important to discuss these with your healthcare provider.
Tasp Works For Heterosexual Couples
A study published in 2011 in the New England Journal of Medicine was the first large-scale study to offer definitive proof that treatment as prevention worksat least for heterosexual couples.
The study, , was designed to answer two questions: First, is it better for people living with HIV to start antiretroviral therapy right away for health reasons? And second, can antiretroviral therapy that suppresses HIV replication prevent the sexual transmission of HIV? The answer to both of those questions, the study found, is resoundingly YES.
The study included 1,763 serodifferent couples in Africa, Asia and the United States, with an average follow-up time of over 5 years. Said another way, this was a long study, with a lot of people.
About half of the people living with HIV in the study were asked to begin antiretroviral therapy immediately, while the other half were asked to delay HIV treatment until two CD4 counts in a row were below 250 cells/mm3.
The researchers then looked at the difference in the number of new HIV infections that happened in couples who were on HIV therapy, versus those who were not. Before the study was completed, in May 2011, the researchers found that people in the study on ART had a 96% reduction in risk of transmitting HIV to their partner than people who were not yet on ART. Because of this, the data safety and monitoring board for the study changed the study protocolso that everyone living with HIV in the study was offered ART.
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Why Do Some People Have Detectable Viral Loads
Access to adequate healthcare, treatment, and viral load testing are serious barriers in many parts of the world. Some people who have access to treatment may choose not to be treated or may not be ready to start. Others start treatment but have challenges with taking their medication regularly for a variety of reasons such as stigma, mental health challenges, substance abuse, unstable housing, difficulty paying for medications, hostile environments, drug resistance, and/or intolerable side effects. Additionally, second and third line ART options may not be available to all.
Some people with low but detectable viral loads also cannot transmit HIV. For instance, someone who is virally suppressed and still detectable cannot transmit HIV. For people living with HIV who are not virally suppressed or undetectable, there are highly effective options including condoms, and in some parts of the world, PrEP, to prevent HIV. Condoms and PrEP can be used individually or in combination to prevent HIV. Everyone living with HIV regardless of their viral load status has the right to full and healthy social, sexual, and reproductive lives. U=U is a call to action to ensure access to treatment, care, and services for all people living with HIV.
Getting Pregnant When You Are Hiv
If you want to conceive, are an HIV-positive woman with an HIV-negative male partner, you can choose artificial insemination. You can do this at home using your partners semen, rather than having unprotected sex.
To improve your chances of becoming pregnant through artificial insemination it is best to do it at the most fertile time in your menstrual cycle.
Learning about fertility awareness will help you to know when you are most likely to conceive.
Speak to your GP, HIV doctor, sexual health nurse, or fertility specialist.
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How Long Do I Have To Be On Treatment Before My Viral Load Becomes Undetectable
It will be possible for most people diagnosed with HIV to reach an undetectable viral load within 3 to 6 months of starting treatment. However, if someone starts treatment very late and therefore has a low CD4 count, or they dont take their pills as prescribed, then it will make reaching undetectable more difficult. It is important not to assume that everyone who is living with HIV will be able to reach or sustain an undetectable viral load.
What Are The Different Stages Of Viral Load
During the first few weeks after being infected with the human immunodeficiency virus , the viral load is often quite highseveral million viral copies per milliliter of blood . At this stage, there is a significant danger of HIV transmission. In reality, many people get HIV from someone who is unaware that they recently contracted the infection.
The viral load normally decreases after a period following early infection. In the absence of treatment, a typical viral load may be 50,000 copies/mL. There is still a significant danger of HIV transmission.
The viral load normally drops quickly after starting HIV therapy. Usually, viral loads become undetectable after three to six months following treatment.
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A person living with HIV can get to, and stay “undetectable” by taking their ARV medications as prescribed. Know your HIV status so you can take action to protect yourself and your sexual partner. What to say about to clients enrolled in antiretroviral therapy means “undetectable equals untransmittable.” A person living with HIV who has an. And viral loads that is, the amount of HIV detectable in a person‘s system, a marker of whether patients are receiving HIV treatment dropped to.
HIV & AIDS. HIV is a disease that affects the immune system. The immune system is what helps us stay healthy and fight off infections. HIV = human immunodeficiency virus. It harms cells of the immune system, which over time impairs its ability to fight off infections. If untreated it can cause AIDS which. How long can you stay undetectable with HIV? A person‘s viral load is considered durably undetectable when all viral load test results are undetectable for at least six months after their first undetectable test result. This means that most people will need to be on treatment for 7 to 12 months to have a durably undetectable viral load.
Over 60 percent of their CD8 T cells are activated. This is profoundly unusual usually we see about 10 percent activation in an individual who is not infected with HIV.””The height or extent of.
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When Your Viral Load Is Undetectable
Eventually, you want to have an undetectable viral load — one so low that a lab test canât find it. When you have an undetectable viral load, you canât spread the virus to your sexual partner.
Even when you reach that point, you must remember that the virus is still in your body. To keep it at bay, take your medicine every day, just as your doctor prescribes. If you skip doses or stop treatment, your viral load can go up quickly. The chance that you can transmit the virus to your partners also goes way up.
Tell your doctor if you have trouble sticking to your treatment.
Talk to your partners, too about prevention of HIV as well as non-HIV STD issues. Discuss other kinds of protection, like condoms, safer sex, or pre-exposure prophylaxis . This daily pill can lower the chance of infection in people who donât have HIV by up to 99%.
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More Sensitive Viral Load Testing
In NSW we now have more sensitive viral load testing, which means laboratories across the state can detect small amounts of the virus as low as 20 copies/mL. For HIV positive guys this means that they may see some change from their previous viral load readings from below 20 copies/mL a new, potentially higher number. This should not be a cause for concern as any viral load of 200 copies/mL or less is still considered undetectable. A person with this level of viral suppression cannot transmit HIV to their partners, however if you still feel concerned, we recommend speaking with your doctor.
Hiv Undetectable=untransmittable Or Treatment As Prevention
In recent years, an overwhelming body of clinical evidence has firmly established the HIV Undetectable=Untransmittable, or U=U, concept as scientifically sound. U=U means that people with HIV who achieve and maintain an undetectable viral loadthe amount of HIV in the bloodby taking antiretroviral therapy daily as prescribed cannot sexually transmit the virus to others. Thus, treatment for HIV is a powerful arrow in the quiver of HIV prevention tools. Read more about how a durably undetectable viral load prevents HIV transmission with NIAIDs fact sheet 10 Things to Know About HIV Suppression.
For nearly two decades, scientists have recognized that viral load is a key determinant of HIV transmission. Studies conducted before the availability of ART revealed that higher viral loads correlate with higher rates of both sexual and perinatal transmission of HIV. Following the advent of triple-drug ART in 1996, observational studies suggested that viral loads lowered by ART were associated with reduced risk of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission. In addition, epidemiological studies showed that as the number of people in a community who are virally suppressed rises, the number of new HIV transmissions falls.
To read more about the underlying science and the value of U=U, see NIAIDs blog post Science Validates Undetectable=Untransmittable HIV Prevention Message.
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No Risk Of Hiv Transmission Really
So is it true that if a HIV positive partner is on treatment and has a UVL sustained , then there is no risk of HIV transmission?
In 2016, the PARTNER study from Europe found that the chance of HIV transmission where one partner had a UVL is negligible. In fact, there were zero partner-transmissions recorded in the study despite approximately 22,000 acts of condomless sex by gay couples. Additionally, PARTNER2 the extension study of PARTNER that aimed to gather data pertaining to mixed-HIV-status gay male couples found that after an additional 54,000 acts of condomless sex there were zero transmissions.
This is also supported by a large international study, led by the Kirby Institute here in Australia, the Opposites Attract study, which focused solely on gay and other men who have sex men from Australia, Brazil and Thailand, confirmed that HIV positive men who are on treatment and have an undetectable viral load do not transmit the virus to their partners.
So, between these two studies there has was a combined total of over 89,000 acts of condomless sex occurred between gay couples with zero transmissions!
Things To Know About Hiv Suppression
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Development of antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV has turned what was once an almost always fatal infection into a manageable chronic condition. Daily antiretroviral therapy can reduce the amount of HIV in the blood to levels that are undetectable with standard tests. Staying on treatment is crucial to keep the virus suppressed. NIAID-supported research has demonstrated that achieving and maintaining a durably undetectable viral load not only preserves the health of the person living with HIV, but also prevents sexual transmission of the virus to an HIV-negative partner.
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What If I Miss One Dose Will My Viral Load Become Detectable Again
If you are undetectable, and have been taking your medications every day recently, your viral load will very likely stay undetectable even if you miss one dose. The HIV medications are so good these days that it can take a week or even sometimes up to several weeks or more for peoples viral loads to become detectable after medications are stopped.
What Does Undetectable Equals Untransmittable Mean
U=U is the name of a public health campaign that has really taken off in the last year and is accepted and endorsed by organizations worldwide. It shares the message that people who are undetectable do not transmit HIV to other people.
This campaign promotes key medical information that is important for people living with HIV to know, but it is also an important concept that reduces HIV stigma in the community. The phrase really encompasses an idea that people who are living with HIV can be free from HIV stigma, and can live their lives more fully, with less fear, worry, and inhibition.
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Does Having A Sexually Transmitted Infection Affect The Chance Of Hiv Transmission
Having an STI is not significant to HIV transmission when the partner with HIV has an undetectable viral load. An STI in the presence of a detectable viral load may increase the risk of HIV transmission. According to the CDC, consistent and correct latex condom use is highly effective in preventing STIs and associated conditions, and sexual transmission of HIV.
STIs were present during the PARTNER studies, and U=U still applied. For more information on the PARTNER study, see question 3 above.
Getting Pregnant When A Male Partner Is Hiv
If a male partner is HIV-positive, a procedure called sperm washing can be used to conceive. During this procedure a machine separates sperm cells from the seminal fluid, which can carry the virus. The washed sperm is then used to fertilise the womans egg using a special catheter inserted into the uterus.
If the male partner is on effective treatment and has a stable undetectable viral load, there is no risk of HIV transmission.
In-vitro-fertilisation may also be an option.
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What Does This Mean For Reproductive Health Such As Conception Pregnancy And Breastfeeding/chestfeeding
Knowing that an undetectable viral load prevents HIV transmission through sex may be especially useful for people wishing to conceive a baby without using assisted reproduction methods. An undetectable viral load also dramatically reduces the risk of transmission during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. For more information on HIV and reproductive health, such as pregnancy and breastfeeding/chestfeeding, please refer to the sources below.
What About Sexually Transmitted Infections
It is important to remember that while HIV treatment will protect your partners from your HIV, it does not protect them or you from other sexually transmitted infections . For this reason, regular sexual health check-ups are recommended. Using condoms will help prevent STIs.
Another concern is whether having a STI could lead to an increase in viral load. This does happen to people with HIV who are not taking treatment: for instance, syphilis can double your viral load. HIV-negative partners are also more likely to get HIV if they have an STI.
But it is not the case for people taking HIV treatment who have an undetectable viral load. In the PARTNER and Opposites Attract studies, there was not a single HIV transmission even though many people had STIs.
If you maintain good adherence to HIV treatment, catching an STI will not raise your viral load from undetectable to detectable. Effective treatment prevents sexual transmission of HIV even if there are other STIs present.
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