Std Testing And Treatment After Assault
After being sexually assaulted, it is important that you get a sexual assault examination as soon as possible. If you seek medical care within 120 hours of the assault, the health care provider who sees you may give you medications for certain STDs in case you were exposed to the diseases during the assault. Because these medications are not 100% effective in preventing disease, it is still important that you are aware of what to look for and return to your health care provider in two or three weeks to assure that you have been effectively treated.
For HIV risk, post-exposure prophylaxis of antiretroviral drugs may be offered if the assault took place within 72 hours of your medical evaluation. PEP lowers the chances of HIV infection taking hold in the body after an exposure to HIV.
If you do not have a health care provider, there are many places that can provide low-cost or free, confidential testing for HIV and other STDs/STIs for victims of sexual assault, or anyone else who may have an infection. See Getting Tested for STDs and HIV below for more information.
Safe, effective treatment is available to cure gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Antibiotic treatment usually is based on the results of STD/STI tests. However, your physician may decide to treat you while waiting for the test results.
Uganda Epidemic And Influence Of Behaviour Change
Figure 1 shows the simulated prevalence of STDs and HIV over time for Uganda and in the hypothetical Uganda-like population without behavioural change. The simulated prevalences of gonorrhoea and chlamydia between 1994 and 1996 in the Uganda simulation are in line with data from Rakai . The simulated prevalence of syphilis matches that measured in Rakai between 1994 and 1996, and the simulated stage distributionwith the majority of prevalent cases being in late syphilis stageswas in line with the observed low RPR titres in infected cases in Rakai. In addition, simulated age specific seroprevalence of HSV-2 is consistent with empirical data for the male and female population aged 15 to 29 years from Rakai and for males and females of all ages from neighbouring rural Masaka .
Simulated prevalences of sexually transmitted diseases and HIV in adults , for rural Uganda and a hypothetical Uganda-like population without a behaviour change. Syphilis: RPR+/TPHA+ any titre HSV-2: seroprevalence. Mean of 100 simulated populations. Empirical data, for comparison, for 199296 from rural Rakai .
Stis And Hiv: The Tie And Why It Matters
It’s no secret that connections exist between HIV and other sexually transmitted infections , but researchers are pushing for more coordination to reduce the incidence of all such conditions.
Two sessions at AIDS 2012 looked at the correlations between HIV and other STIs. One, called “Dangerous Liaisons: HIV and Sexually Transmitted Infections,” highlighted research showing that many people diagnosed with other STIs are often later diagnosed or concurrently diagnosed with HIV. In fact, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , people infected with an STI are two to five times more likely to become infected with HIV after exposure to the virus than people who are not infected by another STI. The other session, “Enhancing STI Services for HIV Prevention,” looked at the value of screening people diagnosed with any STIs for HIV and targeting prevention messages toward that group.
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Does Hiv Viral Load Affect Getting Or Transmitting Hiv
Yes. Viral load is the amount of HIV in the blood of someone who has HIV. Taking HIV medicine daily as prescribed can make the viral load very lowso low that a test cant detect it .
People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to an HIV-negative partner through sex.
HIV medicine is a powerful tool for preventing sexual transmission of HIV. But it works only as long as the HIV-positive partner gets and keeps an undetectable viral load. Not everyone taking HIV medicine has an undetectable viral load. To stay undetectable, people with HIV must take HIV medicine every day as prescribed and visit their healthcare provider regularly to get a viral load test. Learn more.
What Activities Can Put You At Risk For Stis
Behaviors that put people at risk for HIV also increase their risk for other STIs. These behaviors include:
- Having anal, vaginal, or oral sex without a condom.
- Having sex with multiple partners, especially anonymous partners.
- Having sex while using drugs or alcohol. Using drugs and alcohol can affect your judgment, which can lead to risky behaviors.
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Can Hiv Be Prevented
To reduce the risk of getting HIV, people who are sexually active should:
- use a condom every time they have sex
- get tested for HIV and make sure all partners do too
- reduce their number of sexual partners
- get tested and treated for STDs having an STD increases the risk of HIV infection
- consider taking a medicine every day if they are at very high risk of getting infected
- Do not inject drugs or share any kind of needle.
- Do not share razors or other personal objects that may touch blood.
- Do not touch anyone else’s blood from a cut or sore.
Lessons To Be Learned
So why is it important to understand the association between HIV and other STIs? STIs are a major health concern in the Black community. More than half of reported primary- and secondary-syphilis cases occur among Black Americans. This means that Black Americans are particularly vulnerable to STIs simply because a higher percentage of people in the Black community are already living with STIs. However, it’s important to note that data could be skewed because different states have different reporting requirements for certain STIs. That means private physicians may not have to report specific STIs in some states, whereas public health centers–where many Black Americans get their care–must report data as part of program requirements.
HIV-prevention messages should be targeted toward communities that have high levels of STI rates, conference researchers said. HIV testing can also be increased in such communities because people with other STIs are at an increased risk of acquiring HIV. This makes using condoms even more important for those who don’t know their partner’s HIV status. Treatment for STIs can a person’s likelihood of transmitting HIV.
People living with HIV/AIDS should also be careful not to become infected with other STIs. Some HIV-positive individuals forsake condoms when they have sex with other people with HIV. However, this leaves you vulnerable to other STIs, conference participants said, unless you and your partner have both tested negative for them.
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What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Hiv And Aids
When first infected with HIV, a person may have:
- increased number of infections
- infections that are more severe than is typical
Without treatment, HIV can lead to a very weakened immune system and progress to AIDS. Illnesses that happen in AIDS are called “AIDS-defining conditions.”
AIDS-defining conditions include:
- very fast and severe weight loss
- a lung infection called pneumocystis pneumonia
- Kaposi sarcoma
What You Need To Know About Stds
When it comes to sexually transmitted diseases , you may not have any warning signs. If you are sexually active, find out the facts about STDs, and learn how to protect yourself.
Myth: If you or your partner had an STD, you would see signs.
Fact: Many STDs have no symptoms or only mild symptoms, especially in women. Some STDs may have symptoms that go away for a while but then come back. STDs can damage your body, and you can spread them to your partner even if you have no symptoms.
Myth: STD symptoms may be bothersome, but most STDs do not have serious consequences.
Fact: Left untreated, most STDs can lead to serious conditions. They can cause infertility, urinary tract problems, and cancers of the vulva, cervix, vagina, penis, and anus. Some STDs, including syphilis and AIDS, can cause death. No STD is harmless.
Myth: You can catch an STD from a toilet seat, telephone or other object used by an infected person.
Fact: STDs are transmitted by vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Some STDs may spread to a baby during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. Herpes can be transmitted by kissing, if herpes blisters are in the mouth or around the lips. Hepatitis B, syphilis, and HIV, the AIDS virus, can be spread by sharing needles or other objects contaminated by blood, as well as through sexual contact. STDs are not spread by handshakes, hugs, toilet seats, towels, dishes, telephone receivers, or insect bites.
Myth: You can’t get an STD more than once.
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Why Genital Herpes Boosts The Risk Of Hiv Infection
Scientists have discovered why people who develop genital herpes sores are at higher risk of contracting HIV despite successful treatment of the lesions. The new insight may lead to better strategies for HIV prevention.
Genital herpes, caused by the herpes simplex virus type 2 , is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. It is also associated with a 2- to 3-fold increased risk for HIV infection. Some people infected with HSV-2 suffer from recurring sores and breaks in genital skin. Researchers hypothesized that these lesions account for the higher risk for HIV. However, recent clinical trials that successfully treated genital herpes lesions with the anti-viral drug acyclovir didn’t reduce the risk of HIV infection.
A team led by Dr. Lawrence Corey and Dr. Jia Zhu of the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center and Dr. Anna Wald of the University of Washington sought to understand why genital herpes boosts the risk of HIV infection even after treatment with oral acyclovir and the healing of genital lesions. Their work was funded by NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development .
In further experiments, the scientists found that HIV replicates 3 to 5 times as quickly in cultured tissue from the sites of healed HSV-2 lesions as in cultured tissue from control sites.
Confidential And Private Std & Hiv Testing
At CityMD, we offer fast walk-in STD testing for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases in a safe, non-judgmental environment. Because were open late and on weekends, you can visit at the time that works best for you. We wont make you wait, and youll have your results as quickly as possible. Well treat your illness and refer you to a specialist if necessary.
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Std Signs And Symptoms
Some STDs cause symptoms such as itching, pain, discharge, bleeding, genital sores, or lower abdominal pain. These symptoms may develop days, weeks, or even longer after a person becomes infected. But you canât depend on these symptoms to know if you are infected. Many people with an STD will not have any symptoms. Therefore, it is very important that you see a physician for an examination and STD tests to find out if you have been infected after a sexual assault, even if you donât have any symptoms.
If I Already Have Hiv And Then I Get An Std Does That Put My Sex Partner At An Increased Risk For Getting Hiv
It can. If you already have HIV, and then get another STD, it can put your HIV-negative partners at greater risk of getting HIV from you.
Your sex partners are less likely to get HIV from you if you
- Get on and stay on treatment called antiretroviral therapy . Taking HIV medicine as prescribed can make your viral load very low by reducing the amount of virus in your blood and body fluids. HIV medicine can make your viral load so low that a test cant detect it . If your viral load stays undetectable, you have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to HIV-negative partners, even if you have other STDs.
- Choose less risky sex activities.
- Use a new condom, consistently and correctly, for every act of vaginal, anal, and oral sex throughout the entire sex act .
The risk of getting HIV also may be reduced if your partner takes PrEP medications, as prescribed, after discussing this option with his or her healthcare provider and determining whether it is appropriate. When taken as prescribed, PrEP medications are highly effective for preventing HIV from sex. PrEP is much less effective if it is not taken consistently. Since PrEP does not protect against other STDs, use condoms the right way every time you have sex.
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I Have Hiv How Can I Prevent Passing Hiv To Others
Take HIV medicines daily. Treatment with HIV medicines helps people with HIV live longer, healthier lives. One of the goals of ART is to reduce a person’s viral load to an undetectable level. An undetectable viral load means that the level of HIV in the blood is too low to be detected by a viral load test. People with HIV who maintain an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partner through sex.
If your viral load is not undetectableâor does not stay undetectableâyou can still protect your partner from HIV by using condoms and choosing less risky sexual behaviors. Your partner can take medicine to prevent getting HIV, which is called pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP. PrEP is an HIV prevention option for people who don’t have HIV but who are at risk of getting HIV. PrEP involves taking a specific HIV medicine every day to reduce the risk of getting HIV through sex or injection drug use. To learn more, read the Clinicalinfo Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis fact sheet.
If Someone Already Has Hiv And Subsequently Gets An Std Does That Put Their Sex Partner At An Increased Risk For Getting Hiv
If the person living with HIV gets and maintains an undetectable viral load by taking antiretroviral treatment, then an STD does not increase the risk of transmitting HIV.6 However, HIV-infected persons who are not taking antiretroviral treatment may be more likely to transmit HIV when they have another STD.
HIV-negative sex partners of people with HIV can prevent HIV if:
- HIV-positive people use antiretroviral therapy as prescribed. ART reduces the amount of virus in blood and body fluids. People with HIV who take ART, as prescribed, to achieve and maintain an undetectable viral load can stay healthy for many years, and have effectively no risk of transmitting HIV to sexual partners.
- Sex partners take PrEP medications, as prescribed, after discussing this option with their healthcare provider and determining whether it is appropriate.
- Partners choose less risky sex activities.
- Partners use a new condom for every act of vaginal, anal, and oral sex throughout the entire sex act .
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How Is Chlamydia Treated
Chlamydia can be easily treated with a short course of antibiotics. You may be able to take all the antibiotics in one day, or over a week, depending on the type of treatment you are prescribed.
Its important to not have sex until you and your current sexual partner/s have finished treatment. If youve had the one-day course of treatment, you should avoid having sex for seven days afterwards. Ask your healthcare professional when its safe to have sex again.
Remember that if youve been treated for chlamydia you are not immune and you can get infected again.
Hiv And Stds Are Spread In The Same Ways
You can get HIV or an STD by having sex without a condom with a person who is already infected. HIV and some STDs can be passed from a mother to her baby while she is pregnant, during birth or through breast feeding. HIV and some STDs can also be spread by sharing drug “works” with someone who has HIV or an STD.
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Whats The Difference Between Hiv And Aids
HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. HIV and AIDS are not the same thing. And people with HIV do not always have AIDS.
HIV is the virus thats passed from person to person. Over time, HIV destroys an important kind of the cell in your immune system that helps protect you from infections. When you dont have enough of these CD4 cells, your body cant fight off infections the way it normally can.
AIDS is the disease caused by the damage that HIV does to your immune system. You have AIDS when you get dangerous infections or have a super low number of CD4 cells. AIDS is the most serious stage of HIV, and it leads to death over time.
Without treatment, it usually takes about 10 years for someone with HIV to develop AIDS. Treatment slows down the damage the virus causes and can help people stay healthy for several decades.
How Are Hiv And Aids Treated
Medicines can help people with HIV stay healthy. They can also prevent HIV from progressing to AIDS.
Health care providers prescribe a combination of different medicines for people with HIV and AIDS. They must be taken exactly as prescribed or they won’t work. These medicines:
- help keep the number of CD4 cells high
- reduce the viral load of HIV
Regular blood tests will check the number of CD4 cells in the body and the viral load.
If an HIV-positive person’s CD4 count gets low, doctors prescribe daily antibiotics. This prevents pneumocystis pneumonia, which happens in people with weakened immune systems.
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