Friday, January 27, 2023

The Global Hiv Aids Epidemic

Global Hiv & Aids Statistics Fact Sheet

CDCs Critical Role in the Fight against the Global HIV Epidemic

Global HIV statistics

  • 38.4 million people globally were living with HIV in 2021.
  • 1.5 million people became newly infected with HIV in 2021.
  • 650 000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2021.
  • 28.7 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy in 2021.
  • 84.2 million people have become infected with HIV since the start of the epidemic.
  • 40.1 million people have died from AIDS-related illnesses since the start of the epidemic.
  • In 2021, there were 38.4 million people living with HIV.
  • 36.7 million adults .
  • 1.7 million children .
  • 54% of all people living with HIV were women and girls.
  • 85% of all people living with HIV knew their HIV status in 2021.
  • About 5.9 million people did not know that they were living with HIV in 2021.
  • People living with HIV accessing antiretroviral therapy

    • At the end of December 2021, 28.7 million people were accessing antiretroviral therapy, up from 7.8 million in 2010.
    • In 2021, 75% of all people living with HIV were accessing treatment.
    • 76% of adults aged 15 years and older living with HIV had access to treatment, as did 52% of children aged 014 years.
    • 80% of female adults aged 15 years and older had access to treatment however, just 70% of male adults aged 15 years and older had access.
  • 81% of pregnant women living with HIV had access to antiretroviral medicines to prevent transmission of HIV to their child in 2021.
  • New HIV infections

  • Since 2010, new HIV infections have declined by 32%, from 2.2 million to 1.5 million in 2021.
  • Women

    Accelerating Epidemic Control In South Africa

    CDC is supporting Siyenza, a results-oriented initiative thats laser-focused on scaling up proven public health interventions at the clinical level. Siyenza is rapidly identifying people living with previously undiagnosed HIV, initiating them on lifesaving antiretroviral treatment, and finding innovative ways to retain them on treatment to achieve suppression of the virus. Read More

    Effective Responses Make A Difference

    Against this background it is important to remember that an ever-growing AIDS epidemic is not inevitable. Even within severely affected regions, some nations or communities within nations have managed to sustain low incidence and others with large established epidemics have managed to achieve reduced incidence in key populations.

    The lessons of the past 20 years of response to the epidemic demonstrate the preconditions of effective control: unified national planning, the application of proven strategies on a scale commensurate with the epidemic, access to essential prevention and care commodities, and a public environment conducive to the social inclusion of people with HIV and those most at risk. Although it is universally the case that HIV transmission results from very particular risk behaviours, the capacity of individuals to control their level of risk, that is, their HIV vulnerability, varies widely according to the social environment in which the risk occurs. In turn, HIV vulnerability and the impact of HIV are proportionally related, as an increasing impact depletes social stability, support and cohesion.

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    Is The World Making Progress In Its Fight Against Hiv/aids

    The 1990s saw a substantial increase in the number of people infected with HIV and dying of AIDS.

    Between 1996 and 2001 more than 3 million people were infected with HIV every year. Since then the number of new infections began to decline and in 2019 it was reduced to below 2 million. The lowest number of new infections since 1990.

    The number of AIDS-related deaths increased throughout the 1990s and reached a peak in 2004, 2005 when in both years close to 2 million people died. Since then the annual number of deaths from AIDS declined as well and was since halved. 2016 was the first year since the peak in which fewer than 1 million people died from AIDS.

    The chart also shows the continuing increase in the number of people living with HIV. The rate of increase has slowed down compared to the 1990s, but the absolute number is at the highest ever with more than 36 million people globally living with HIV.

    Hiv/aids Is One Of The Worlds Most Fatal Infectious Disease

    Young Gay Men and HIV/AIDS: A Global Epidemic (Infographic)

    Almost 1 million people die from HIV/AIDS each year in some countries its the leading cause of death

    HIV/AIDS is one of the worlds most fatal infectious diseases particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa, where the disease has had a massive impact on health outcomes and life expectancy in recent decades.

    The Global Burden of Disease is a major global study on the causes of death and disease published in the medical journal The Lancet.1 These estimates of the annual number of deaths by cause are shown here. This chart is shown for the global total, but can be explored for any country or region using the change country toggle.

    In the chart we see that, globally, it is the second most fatal infectious disease.

    According to the Global Burden of Disease study, almost one million people died from HIV/AIDS in 2017. To put this into context: this was just over 50% higher than the number of deaths from malaria in 2017.

    Its one of the largest killers globally but for some countries particularly across Sub-Saharan Africa, its the leading cause of death. If we look at the breakdown for South Africa, Botswana or Mozambique which you can do on the interactive chart we see that HIV/AIDS tops the list. For countries in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa, deaths from HIV/AIDS are more than 50% higher than deaths from heart disease, and more than twice that of cancer deaths.

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    Snapshots Of An Epidemic: An Hiv/aids Timeline

    Were it not for the profound sadness I feel for being so close to immense tragedy, I would consider my work for amfARan organization poised on the frontiers of medical researchthe most exciting, enviable, and rewarding of all.Mathilde Krim, Ph.D., Founding Chairman, amfAR

    Unexplained cases of enlarged lymph nodes among gay men are observed and studied by physicians and researchers in New York City, including Dr. Mathilde Krim.

    Drs. Michael S. Gottlieb, Joel D. Weisman, et al., report five cases of homosexual men with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, a rare form of pneumonia usually found only in severely immunosuppressed patients. The report is published in the June 5, 1981, issue of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report . Drs. Gottlieb and Weisman later are among amfARs founding directors. The July 3, 1981, MMWR reports 26 cases of Kaposis sarcoma , a rare cancer, in homosexual men in both New York and California. The New York Times publishes the first news article about the mysterious new disease. Initial use of the term gay-related immune deficiency or gay cancer by the media and others mistakenly suggests an inherent link between homosexuality and the new disease. The first AIDS service organization, Gay Mens Health Crisis , is founded in New York City. U.S.

    YEAR-END STATISTICS A total of 159 cases of the new disease are recorded in the U.S.

    Us Response To The Global Epidemic

    The U.S. President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief is the U.S. Governmentâs response to the global HIV/AIDS epidemic and represents the largest commitment by any nation to address a single disease in history. Through PEPFAR, the U.S. has supported a world safer and more secure from infectious disease threats. It has demonstrably strengthened the global capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to new and existing risksâwhich ultimately enhances global health security and protects Americaâs borders. Among other global results, PEPFAR provided HIV testing services for more than 50 million people in Fiscal Year 2021 and, as of September 30, 2021, supported lifesaving ART for nearly 18.96 million men, women, and children. PEPFAR also enabled 2.8 million babies to be born HIV-free to parents living with HIV.

    In addition, the National Institutes of Health represents the largest public investment in HIV/AIDS research in the world. NIH is engaged in research around the globe to understand, diagnose, treat, and prevent HIV infection and its many associated conditions, and to find a cure.

    Read more about the U.S. Governmentâs global HIV/AIDS activities.

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    Latin America And The Caribbean

    The epidemic in Latin America is a complex patchwork of HIV spread through sex between men, sex between men and women, and injecting drug use. When the region is taken as a whole, incidence is not increasing, with an estimated 150,000 adults and children becoming infected during 2000. However, this is not a uniform pattern: several Central American countries have seen a recent rise in levels of infection. In contrast, Brazil has demonstrated lower than anticipated HIV incidence , with a combination of concerted prevention efforts, including those involving men who have sex with men, and a rights-based approach to antiretroviral provision with access to therapy enshrined in the constitution.

    AIDS mortality has declined, especially in Brazil with the impact of antiretroviral therapy, and consequently Latin and Central America has experienced a rise in prevalence. By the end of 2000, some 1.4 million adults and children were estimated to be living with HIV or AIDS, compared with 1.3 million at the end of 1999.

    Rates are generally high in the Caribbean where heterosexual spread of HIV is the predominant mode of transmission. Five countries have HIV prevalence rates of over 1% of the adult population. In Haiti by the end of 1999, the prevalence rate among the adult population exceeded 5%, the only country with such rates outside the African continent.

    The Global Distribution Of Deaths From Hiv/aids

    Global Aids Conference: Organisers warn global epidemic is not over

    In some countries HIV/AIDS is the cause of more than a quarter of all deaths

    Globally, 1.5% of deaths were caused by HIV/AIDS in 2019.

    This share is high, but masks the wide variations in the toll of HIV/AIDS across the world. In some countries, this share was much higher.In the interactive map we see the share of deaths which resulted from HIV/AIDS across the world. Across most regions the share was low: across Europe, for example, it accounted for less than 0.1% of deaths.

    But across some countries focused primarily in Southern Sub-Saharan Africa the share is very high. More than 1-in-4 of deaths in South Africa were caused by HIV/AIDS in 2019. The share was also very high across Botswana Mozambique Namibia Zambia Kenya and Congo .

    Death rates are high across Sub-Saharan Africa

    The large health burden of HIV/AIDS across Sub-Saharan Africa is also reflected in death rates. Death rates measure the number of deaths from HIV/AIDS per 100,000 individuals in a country or region.

    In the interactive map we see the distribution of death rates across the world. Most countries have a rate of less than 10 deaths per 100,000 often much lower, below 5 per 100,000. Across Europe the death rate is less than one per 100,000.

    Across Sub-Saharan Africa the rates are much higher. Most countries in the South of the region had rates greater than 100 per 100,000. In South Africa and Mozambique, it was over 200 per 100,000.

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    Middle East And North Africa

    HIV/AIDS prevalence among the adult population in the Middle East and North Africa is estimated less than 0.1 between 1990 and 2018. This is the lowest prevalence rate compared to other regions in the world.

    In the MENA, roughly 240,000 people are living with HIV as of 2018 and Iran accounted for approximately one-quarter of the population with HIV followed by Sudan . As well as, Sudan , Iran and Egypt took up more than 60% of the number of new infections in the MENA . Roughly two-thirds of AIDS-related deaths in this region happened in these countries for the year 2018.

    Although the prevalence is low, concerns remain in this region. First, unlike the global downward trend in new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths, the numbers have continuously increased in the MENA. Second, compared to the global rate of antiretroviral therapy , the MENA region’s rate is far below . The low participation of ART increases not only the number of AIDS-related deaths but the risk of mother-to-baby HIV infections, in which the MENA shows relatively high rates compared to other regions, for example, southern Africa , Asia and the Pacific .

    Key population at high risk in this region is identified as injection drug users, female sex workers and men who have sex with men.

    Hiv/aids Annual Surveillance Statistics

    The following tables provide annual data on new diagnoses of HIV , concurrent HIV/AIDS and AIDS, as well as the number of persons living with HIV and AIDS and the number of deaths among persons with HIV and AIDS. The data are shown for New York City overall and by sex, race, age, borough, area-based poverty level, risk factor, and United Hospital Fund neighborhood.

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    Fact Sheet: World Aids Day 2008

    President And Mrs. Bush Have Taken Unprecedented Action In The Fight Against Global HIV/AIDS, With PEPFAR Supporting Lifesaving Antiretroviral Treatment For More Than 2.1 Million People

    On December 1, 2008, President and Mrs. Bush marked World AIDS Day 2008 with Pastor Rick Warren at the Newseum and discussed the success of this Administration’s global HIV/AIDS initiative. President and Mrs. Bush have made a historic commitment to the fight against global HIV/AIDS. Since 2001, the Administration has delivered more than $148 billion to fight HIV/AIDS both at home and abroad. Once again, this year, the White House will display the red ribbon on the North Portico to represent the continued battle against HIV/AIDS and to affirm the matchless value of every human life.

    The United States Is Helping To Turn The Tide Against Global HIV/AIDS

    The President’s Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief is the largest commitment by any nation to combat a single disease in human history. When the President launched this initiative in 2003, approximately 50,000 people in all of sub-Saharan Africa were receiving anti-retroviral treatment.

    PEPFAR supports a comprehensive prevention portfolio. In addition to the balanced, evidenced-based ABC approach, the United States also supports programs that address mother-to-child transmission, blood safety and safe medical injections, male circumcision, injecting drug users, HIV-discordant couples, alcohol abuse, and other key issues.

    # # #

    The First World Aids Day

    Global HIV/AIDS Overview

    At the beginning of the 1980s, before HIV had been identified as the cause of AIDS, the infection was thought to only affect specific groups, such as gay men in developed countries and people who inject drugs. The HIV virus was first isolated by Dr Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Dr Luc Montagnier in 1983 at the Institut Pasteur. In November that year, WHO held the first meeting to assess the global AIDS situation and initiated international surveillance. It was then that the global health community understood that HIV could also spread between heterosexual people, through blood transfusions, and that infected mothers could transmit HIV to their babies.

    United Nations commemorative stamp to raise awareness of HIV and the AIDS epidemic

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    Hiv Remains A Devastating Pandemic

    Although human immunodeficiency virus first came to our attention thirty-seven years ago, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome which it causes is, without treatment, 100% fatal with devastating consequences for millions of people . More than 35 million people have already died of AIDS-related conditions and HIV/AIDS is ranked the third largest pandemic after the 14th century Black Death and the 1918 influenza pandemic. HIV continues to spread, and an estimated 37 million people are living with HIV globally . Ending the pandemic of HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is necessary and feasible but poses important challenges.

    In this article we examine the concepts of 90-90-90, epidemic control and ending AIDS. We review the global situation including innovations that will likely have a major impact and make recommendations regarding the global HIV response. Although there has been considerable debate on the topic of controlling HIV and ending AIDS, very few articles have examined the issue in depth from both an epidemiologic and political perspective. Specifically, this paper reviews the epidemiologic criteria for ending AIDS while placing it in the political context of the global HIV response. We provide a framework for understanding the history of the HIV response while addressing the issue of treatment as prevention, economics of ending AIDS, major innovations, and last mile issues.

    Aids Research And Society

    In June 2001, the United Nations held a Special General Assembly to intensify international action to fight the HIV/AIDS pandemic as a global health issue, and to mobilize the resources needed towards this aim, labelling the situation a “global crisis”.

    Regarding the social effects of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, some sociologists suggest that AIDS has caused a “profound re-medicalisation of sexuality“.

    There has been extensive research done with HIV since 2001 in the United States, The National Institutes of Health which is an agency funded by the U.S department of Health and Human Services has substantially improved the health, treatment, and lives of many individuals across the nation. The human immunodeficiency virus is generally the precursor to AIDS. To this day there is no cure for this virus However, treatment, education programs, proper medical care, and support have been made available.

    NIH, is coordinated by the Office of AIDS Research and this research carried out by nearly all the NIH Institutes and Centers, in both at NIH and at NIH-funded institutions worldwide. The NIH HIV/AIDS Research Program, represents the world’s largest public investment in AIDS research. Other agencies like the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases have also made substantial efforts to provide the latest and newest research and treatment available.

    • Heterosexual men accounted for 8% of new HIV diagnoses.
    • Heterosexual women accounted for 16% of new HIV diagnoses.

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    Historical Data For Selected Countries

    HIV/AIDS in World from 2001 to 2014 adult prevalence data from CIA World Factbook

    HIV in World in 2014
    Region/Country

    The global epidemic is not homogeneous within regions, with some countries more affected than others. Even at the country level, there are wide variations in infection levels between different areas and different population groups. New HIV infections are falling globally on average , but continue to rise in many parts of the world.Sub-Saharan Africa is by far the worst-affected region, and targeted interventions in the region have decreased the spread of HIV. New infections fell in eastern and southern Africa by 38% from 2010 to 2020, but HIV in western and central Africa has not received the same attention, and as a result has made less progress. HIV rates have declined slightly in Asia and the Pacific, with HIV decreasing in Mainland Southeast Asia, but increasing in the Philippines and Pakistan. From 2010 to 2020, HIV infections increased by 21% in Latin America, 22% in the Middle East and North Africa, and 72% in Eastern Europe and central Asia.

    Most people in North America and western and central Europe with HIV are able to access treatment and live long and healthy lives.Annual AIDS deaths have been continually declining since 2005 as antiretroviral therapy has become more widely available.

    2020 HIV Regional data

    Region

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