Monday, May 23, 2022

How Do You Acquire Hiv

Tattoos And Body Piercings

How do you get HIV?
  • There are no known cases in the United States of anyone getting HIV this way.
  • However, it is possible to get HIV from tattooing or body piercing if the equipment used for these procedures has someone elses blood in it or if the ink is shared. This is more likely to happen when the person doing the procedure is unlicensed because of the potential for unsanitary practices such as sharing needles or ink.
  • If you get a tattoo or a body piercing, be sure that the person doing the procedure is properly licensed and that they use only new or sterilized needles, ink, and other supplies.

How Do You Get Hiv

HIV is carried in semen , vaginal fluids, anal mucus, blood, and breast milk. The virus gets in your body through cuts or sores in your skin, and through mucous membranes . You can get HIV from:

  • having vaginal or anal sex

  • sharing needles or syringes for shooting drugs, piercings, tattoos, etc.

  • getting stuck with a needle that has HIV-infected blood on it

  • getting HIV-infected blood, semen , or vaginal fluids into open cuts or sores on your body

HIV is usually spread through having unprotected sex. Using condoms and/or dental dams every time you have sex and not sharing needles can help protect you and your partners from HIV. If you do have HIV, treatment can lower or even stop the chances of spreading the virus to other people during sex. If you dont have HIV, theres also a daily medicine called PrEP that can protect you from HIV.

HIV can also be passed to babies during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. A pregnant woman with HIV can take medicine to greatly reduce the chance that her baby will get HIV.

HIV isnt spread through saliva , so you CANT get HIV from kissing, sharing food or drinks, or using the same fork or spoon. HIV is also not spread through hugging, holding hands, coughing, or sneezing. And you cant get HIV from a toilet seat.

Is There A Cure For Hiv

There is no cure for HIV. But if you acquire the virus, there are drugs that help suppress the level of HIV in the body and prevent its spread to other people. Doctors use a combination of drugs called HAART to treat HIV/AIDS. Although it is not a cure, HAART has greatly reduced the number of deaths from HIV-related complications in the United States. HIV has become like a chronic disease, and people living with HIV receiving successful treatment can live a long and healthy life.

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How Is Hiv Diagnosed

Diagnosis of HIV infection during infancy depends on the detection of the virus. Since all infants born to HIV-infected mothers have a positive antibody test at birth because of the passive transfer of the HIV antibody across the placenta, virological testing is used to confirm the diagnosis.

For infants born to HIV-infected mothers, viral diagnostic testing is usually performed within the first 2 days of life, at 1 to 2 months of age, and at 4 to 6 months of age. A diagnosis of HIV infection can be made with two positive virologic tests obtained from different blood samples.

For children over 18 months, adolescents, or adults, diagnosis is made by testing the blood for the presence of HIV antibody.

Other Types Of Transmission

How You Can and Cannot Contract HIV Infection

In the past, HIV was spread by transfusion with blood products, such as whole blood or the “factor” used by hemophiliacs. Many people acquired HIV this way. The blood supply is now much more strictly tested and controlled in most countries. The odds of acquiring HIV from receiving blood or blood factor in countries like the US, the UK, and Canada are extremely low. For example, statistics from the US show that a person is more likely to be killed by a lightning strike than they are to acquire HIV from a blood transfusion. However, not every country screens all blood donations for HIV.

It is also possible to get HIV from skin grafts or transplanted organs taken from people living with HIV. Again, the risk is considered very low, as these “body products” must be strictly tested in the same way as blood products. Semen donations collected by sperm banks for artificial insemination are also considered “bodily products” and rigorously tested in high-resource countries. Private semen samples that are not processed by sperm banks or similar organizations may not have been tested. It is important for anyone receiving a private donor’s sperm for artificial insemination to have the donor tested for HIV.

If you are getting breast milk from a milk bank, it is important to ask if the bank tests the milk for HIV. Also, if your baby is getting breast milk from a wet nurse, it is important to make sure that she tests negative for HIV before giving her milk to your baby.

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How Hard Is It To Contract Hiv From

Many people have questions about scenarios they have heard could lead to HIV transmission. For example, a lot of people are told at some point that you can get HIV from using a toilet seat. In reality, the likelihood of that happening is so minuscule, it isnt worth considering. For HIV to be transmitted in that manner, two people who both had open wounds that made contact with the toilet seat would have to use the same seat seconds after each other. Even then, the chances of infection would still be small. A slightly more realistic way that people worry about contracting HIV is through kissing. However, its still only a tiny bit more realistic. A person would again have to have open sores in their mouth, and it would take a lot of saliva to transmit the virus.

Most people are unlikely to have to worry about how hard is it to contract HIV during their day-to-day lives. You wont accidentally contract it from sharing a glass with someone. You wont get it from touching someone in a non-sexual manner, unless you both have open wounds. Before believing anything you hear about how hard is it to contract HIV, its always best to research. You can quickly dispel some common myths by Googling them.

How Long Does It Take To Develop The Disease

There is no fixed period between the first contact with HIV and the development of the disease. Signs and symptoms resulting from infection with HIV develop in stages. Many infected individuals may have no symptoms for several years. But others may develop symptoms within three years from the time of infection.

Symptoms of HIV infection are fever, swollen lymph glands in the neck and armpits, sweating, aches, fatigue, unexplained weight loss and diarrhea.

Within eight years, about 50 percent of all infected people develop specific conditions categorized as AIDS. These conditions include a lung disease called “pneumocystis carinii pneumonia,” skin tumours called “Kaposi’s sarcoma,” fungal and viral infections such as candidiasis and herpes zoster, and severe diarrhea.

Some AIDS patients also suffer from dementia resulting in problems with memory and thinking. AIDS patients are prone to various infections of the brain, just as they suffer from an unusually high number of cancers, bacterial and viral infections of other parts of the body.

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What If There Is An Actual Or Suspected Exposure To Hiv

The decision to begin a post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection is based on the judgment of a health care professional and should be a joint decision with the exposed worker. PEP often involves taking a combination of 2 or 3 antiretroviral drugs for about 4 weeks. PEP can help reduce, but not eliminate, a personĂ¢s risk of infection. The PEP should begin as soon as possible, as it may be less effective if started more than 72 hours after exposure.

Occupational Groups Risking Exposure to the AIDS Virus

The occupational groups listed below risk exposure to HIV in the workplace. The table that follows suggests preventive measures for these groups. For many situations, using all protective barriers listed in the table is not necessary, but workplaces should always make them available in case of emergency response scenarios.

Surgeons, Nurses and Nurses Aides

Surgeons, nurses and nurses’ aides should take precautions to avoid needlestick injuries, cuts with sharp instruments and exposure through skin lesions to potentially infectious blood and body fluids.

Physicians and Laboratory Workers

These people continuously handle infectious samples. Doctors, in diagnosing HIV patients, carry out physical examinations and collect blood samples. Laboratory technicians analyze potentially infected samples.

Ambulance Workers

Dental Workers

Embalmers

Embalming the bodies of persons with a HIV infection presents a risk because HIV can live for hours in a deceased body.

Cleaners

What Is Hiv And Aids

how hiv causes low CD4 cells (hiv and cd4 cells)

The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a virus that infects the immune system. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome . AIDS is the most advanced stage of the HIV infection and causes the immune system to become vulnerable to other infections. HIV can also be known as “the AIDS virus.”

The full name for AIDS describes several of the characteristics of the disease.

Acquired indicates that it is not an inherited condition.

Immune Deficiency indicates that the body’s immune system breaks down.

Syndrome indicates that the disease results in a variety of health problems.

It takes on average, 5-10 years for the initial HIV infection to progress to AIDS if not treated. While there is presently no cure or vaccine for HIV, with proper medical care, HIV can be managed and a near-normal lifespan can be expected with early treatment.

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How Do You Get Or Transmit Hiv

You can only get HIV by coming into direct contact with certain body fluids from a person with HIV who has a detectable viral load. These fluids are:

  • Blood
  • Semen and pre-seminal fluid
  • Rectal fluids
  • Vaginal fluids
  • Breast milk

For transmission to occur, the HIV in these fluids must get into the bloodstream of an HIV-negative person through a mucous membrane open cuts or sores or by direct injection.

People with HIV who take HIV medicine daily as prescribed and get and keep an undetectable viral load have effectively no risk of sexually transmitting HIV to their HIV-negative partners.

Are Some Groups At Higher Risk Than Others

Another thing to consider when thinking about how hard is it to contract HIV is that some people can have a higher risk of infection than others. Keep in mind that sex is not the only way that HIV is transmitted. There are some lifestyles or professions that might mean someone is at a higher risk of transmission. For example, drug users who share needles with others have a higher risk of contracting HIV. People who work in medical professions are often in high-risk scenarios as there is a risk of transmission when dealing with bodily fluids and sharp objects. Regarding sexual activity, those who have unprotected sex with multiple partners are engaging in risky behavior. Some groups have higher rates of infection than others. For example, in the UK, the two groups with the highest HIV rates are gay and bisexual men and black men.

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Women Who Inject Drugs Or Share Needles

Women who use injection drugs or share needles or syringes and other injection equipment are at high risk for HIV. In fact, sharing needles is the second most common way that HIV is spread. Use of injected drugs also raises your risk for risky behaviors, such as not using a condom during sex. In a study of U.S. cities with high levels of HIV, 72% of women who injected drugs reported having sex without a condom in the past year.

If you use injection drugs, talk to your doctor about medicine, called pre-exposure prophylaxis , to prevent getting HIV.

What About Blood Or Breast Milk

HIV Resources &  FAQ

HIV is sometimes passed on from mother to child during pregnancy. It can also happen during birth or when breastfeeding. However, the risk of this can be reduced, providing that the mother has received a diagnosis. Pregnant women who take HIV medication can reduce the risk of infecting their child. They may also have a C-section instead of a natural birth. HIV medication is also given to babies for several weeks after birth. In countries where safe drinking water is accessible, formula milk is recommended.

There are also other ways HIV could be contracted through contact with positive blood. These include health workers accidentally being exposed to infected fluids and blood transfusions. However, both of these are very unlikely, especially in developed countries. There are some countries where the risk of infection from a blood transfusion is higher for example, some countries in Africa or the former Soviet Union.

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How Can I Protect Myself

The best way to protect yourself from HIV is to not have sex and not share needles.

If you decide to have sex, reduce your risk of getting HIV by:

Understanding how HIV spreads can help you make safer choices about sex. Talk to your doctor if you have any questions about HIV and if you want to get tested.

Women Who Inject Drugs

In many cases, women are more susceptible to HIV infection because of gender-based violence . Women may be pressured to share needles and engage in high-risk sexual activities. Women , are also more likely to conceal their drug-taking behaviour because of societal discrimination, and the threat of losing custody of their children. This discourages them from accessing medical care and HIV services.19 Other studies have shown that women who inject drugs are more likely to experience sexual violence from police and law enforcement agencies.20 In 2013, global HIV prevalence among women who inject drugs was 13%, compared to 9% among men who inject drugs.21

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How Does Hiv Affect The Growth And Development Of A Child

Studies show that HIV infection in children can retard physical and mental development. HIV positive children are found to have neurological problems, cognitive development stagnation, learning difficulties, and speech and language problems. Also, the virus can have a physiological effect, wherein the child has difficulty in gaining weight.

That said, the child may not necessarily show a delay in both cognitive and motor development. They can also have only one developmental delay, and it may appear early or by the age of two .

HIV can make a child vulnerable to various illnesses. However, it can be controlled through preventive measures and by ensuring the child is not exposed to unhygienic practices in hospitals or elsewhere. Also, timely treatment can help prolong the childs life.

Do you have any experience to share with us? Let us know in the comment section below.

References:

How Do People Get Aids

What Happens If You Get HIV / AIDS?

AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a disease that makes it hard for the body to fight off infectious diseases. The human immunodeficiency virus causes AIDS by infecting and damaging part of the bodys defenses against infection, namely the white blood cells known as CD4 helper lymphocytes .

How does someone become infected? HIV can be spread through any type of unprotected sex if one of the partners has the virus. This can happen when body fluids such as semen , vaginal fluids, or blood from an infected person get into the body of someone who is not infected. Someone can become infected even if only tiny amounts of these fluids are spread. Everyone who has unprotected sex with an infected person is at risk of contracting HIV, but people who already have another sexually transmitted disease are even more at risk.

HIV can be spread sexually from a guy to a girl, a girl to a guy, a guy to a guy, and a girl to a girl.

Sharing needles to inject drugs or steroids is another way that HIV can be passed to other people. Sharing of needles for tattoos, piercings, and body art can also lead to infection. Someone with HIV who shares a needle also shares the virus, which lives in the tiny amounts of blood attached to the needle. Sharing needles also can pass hepatitis and other serious infections to another person.

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Are Hiv Medicines Used At Other Times To Prevent Hiv Transmission

Yes, HIV medicines are also used for post-exposure prophylaxis and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

  • Post-exposure prophylaxis PEP means taking HIV medicines within 72 hours after a possible exposure to HIV to prevent HIV infection. PEP should be used only in emergency situations. It is not meant for regular use by people who may be exposed to HIV frequently. For more information, read the ClinicalInfo fact sheet on Post-Exposure Prophylaxis .
  • Prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Pregnant women with HIV take HIV medicines for their own health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. After birth, babies born to women with HIV receive HIV medicine to protect them from infection with any HIV that may have passed from mother to child during childbirth. For more information, read the ClinicalInfo fact sheet on Preventing Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV.

Ways Hiv Can Be Transmitted

How is HIV passed from one person to another?

Most people who get HIV get it through anal or vaginal sex, or sharing needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment . But there are powerful tools that can help prevent HIV transmission.

Can I get HIV from anal sex?

You can get HIV if you have anal sex with someone who has HIV without using protection .

  • Anal sex is the riskiest type of sex for getting or transmitting HIV.
  • Being the receptive partner is riskier for getting HIV than being the insertive partner .
  • The bottoms risk of getting HIV is very high because the rectums lining is thin and may allow HIV to enter the body during anal sex.
  • The top is also at risk because HIV can enter the body through the opening at the tip of the penis , the foreskin if the penis isnt circumcised, or small cuts, scratches, or open sores anywhere on the penis.

Can I get HIV from vaginal sex?

You can get HIV if you have vaginal sex with someone who has HIV without using protection .

Can HIV be transmitted from a mother to her baby?

HIV can be transmitted from a mother to her baby during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding. However, it is less common because of advances in HIV prevention and treatment.

Can I get HIV from sharing needles, syringes, or other drug injection equipment?

You are at high risk for getting HIV if you with someone who has HIV. Never share needles or other equipment to inject drugs, hormones, steroids, or silicone.

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