Wednesday, May 22, 2024

How Does Hiv Attack The Immune System

How Antiretroviral Drugs Affect The Body

Immunology wars: The battle with HIV

While there is no cure for HIV, antiretroviral therapy can reduce the amount of the virus in the blood to very low levels. By doing this, it keeps the person healthy and prevents the transmission of the virus to other people.

A very low, or undetectable, viral load means that the risk of transmission to others is virtually zero, which has led to the phrase: undetectable = untransmittable .

Experts encourage all people with HIV, regardless of their CD4 T-cell count, to start taking antiretroviral drugs as soon as possible after their diagnosis. Early treatment is key to a good outcome.

As with other medications, antiretroviral drugs can cause side effects in some people. However, modern drugs tend to produce fewer and less severe side effects than older drugs.

Possible side effects of antiretroviral drugs include:

  • fatigue
  • dizziness
  • pain

Some side effects may last for a few days or weeks after the person starts treatment. Others may start later or last longer.

If a person experiences severe side effects that make them consider stopping treatment, they can talk to their healthcare provider. Stopping treatment or skipping doses can lead to drug resistance and limit a persons treatment options.

Some people can reduce some side effects by taking the medication 2 hours before going to bed. Other people may prefer to take it in the morning to prevent sleep disturbances.

Certain HIV drugs may also lead to less obvious changes, such as:

Effects Of Antiretroviral Drugs On The Body

Antiretroviral therapy helps people who have HIV live longer, healthier lives and lowers their risk of spreading the virus. The drugs can have side effects, many of which go away with time. Overall, the benefits outweigh the risks.

There are several kinds of antiretroviral drugs, and your doctor might combine them in different ways. Side effects can vary from drug to drug or from person to person.

Common side effects of these drugs include:

  • Upset stomach and vomiting

Review Of The Literature

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a disease caused by a retrovirus, the human immunodeficiency virus , which attacks and impairs body’s natural defence system against disease and infection. Malnutrition is defined as the cellular imbalance between supply of nutrients and energy and the body’s demand for them to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions . Nutrition and HIV are strongly related and complement each other. HIV causes immune impairment leading to malnutrition which leads to further immune deficiency, and contributes to rapid progression of HIV infection to AIDS. A malnourished person after acquiring HIV is likely to progress faster to AIDS, because his body is weak to fight infection whereas a well-nourished person can fight the illness better. It has been proved that good nutrition increases resistance to infection and disease, improves energy, and thus makes a person stronger and more productive. Wasting syndrome is defined by loss of more than 10% of the usual body weight with a lack of other detectable cause of wasting other than the HIV infection itself . Nutritional improvement measures must be initiated before a patient reaches this stage.

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Report On A Child Living With Aids

disorder the affects the human immune system, and it is caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus . In the initial stages, a person infected with AIDS might experience some influenza like illness for a brief period, which is normally followed by a long period without any symptoms. As the disorder progresses it affects the immune system more and more making a person more prone to opportunistic infections, and tumors which would usually not affect a person who has a working immune system. AIDS is caused

What Are The Treatment Options For Hiv


Antiretroviral drugs, which are drugs specifically designed to treat retroviruses, are used to treat acute HIV infection:

  • Antiretroviral therapy is a combination of antiretroviral drugs prescribed to people living with HIV.
  • ART reduces the amount of virus in the body , thereby reducing the risk of transmission. It does not cure HIV infection, but when used properly, it can slow the progression of the disease from one stage to the next.
  • ART should begin as soon as possible after HIV diagnosis.
  • Missing doses or discontinuing and restarting treatment can result in drug resistance, limiting future treatment options.

A healthcare professional or trained HIV counselor can provide counseling and assist people in locating an appropriate doctor who can advise them on treatment regimens. Moreover, peer support and other support groups can be extremely beneficial in the treatment of HIV.

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Autoimmune Disease And Allergies

You may have recurrent inflammation and an immune response even at times when you do not have an infection. Autoimmune diseases, such as thyroid disease, lupus, or multiple sclerosis, occur when the body’s immune system attacks itself. In some types of hypothyroidism, for example, the body can attack cells that produce thyroid hormone, interfering with the production and function of the hormone.

Allergies are an inflammatory response to a non-threatening substance, like pollen or certain foods. These illnesses can develop at least partially as the result of genetic factors, but it is not always clear why someone develops these conditions.

Your genes are the blueprint for your bodys cells and tissues. That same blueprint patterns your immune function, including your T-cell receptors, the type of MHC molecules produced, and your antibody response. An overactive immune system can cause recurrent pain, swelling, and may even cause life-threatening allergic reactions.

How Does Hiv Affect Your Skin

Human immunodeficiency virus is a virus that compromises a persons immune system. Its spread through unprotected sexual contact with someone who has HIV or through contact with infected blood.

HIV can lead to AIDS, which stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With a weakened immune system, your body is at higher risk for serious infections, illnesses, and certain cancers.

Unfortunately, HIV cant be cured. If you contract the virus, youll have it for the rest of your life. But the good news is that HIV can be treated to slow progression and prevent AIDS. When treated early and consistently, people with HIV can live long, healthy lives.

An important element of HIV care is skin care. Your skin is your largest organ, and an estimated 90% of people living with HIV will have an HIV-related skin condition at some point.

If you have HIV, find expert skin care at Z-Roc Dermatology in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Khongruk Wongkittiroch, DO and Matthew Zarraga, DO offer compassionate, effective diagnosis and treatment for sores, lesions, skin cancer, and more. In the meantime, here is some helpful information about HIV and how it affects your skin.

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Exploration Of Hiv Essay

Exploration of HIV HIV infection is a worldwide outbreak a deadly disease affecting people everywhere. The spread of HIV infection has occurred on such a scale, and the impact of the disease is potentially so devastating to world health, that only a concerted, global response is appropriate. What is HIV? The human immunodeficiency virus is an organism known as a retrovirus. Like any virus, HIV must use the cells of another organism its host to survive

Alternative Adaptive Immune System

Coronavirus Attacks the Immune System like HIV

Evolution of the adaptive immune system occurred in an ancestor of the jawed vertebrates. Many of the classical molecules of the adaptive immune system exist only in jawed vertebrates. A distinct lymphocyte-derived molecule has been discovered in primitive jawless vertebrates, such as the lamprey and hagfish. These animals possess a large array of molecules called Variable lymphocyte receptors that, like the antigen receptors of jawed vertebrates, are produced from only a small number of genes. These molecules are believed to bind pathogenic antigens in a similar way to antibodies, and with the same degree of specificity.

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Hiv Invasion Of Immune Cells

HIV infects T cells via high-affinity interaction between the virion envelope glycoprotein and the CD4 molecule. The infection of T cells is assisted by the T-cell co-receptor called CXCR4 while HIV infects monocytes by interacting with CCR5 co-receptor . As illustrated in Figure 2, after gp120 binds to CD4 on the T cell . Nucleocapsids containing viral genome and enzymes enters the target cell . Following the release of viral genome and enzymes from the core protein, viral reverse transcriptase catalyses reverse transcription of ssRNA to form RNA-DNA hybrids . To yield HIV dsDNA the viral RNA template is partially degraded by ribonuclease H and the second DNA strand is synthesized . The viral dsDNA is translocated into the nucleus and integrated into the host genome by the viral integrase enzyme . Transcription factors transcribe the proviral DNA into genomic ssRNA , which is exported to cytoplasm . In the cytoplasm, host-cell ribosomes catalyse synthesis of viral precursor proteins . The viral precursor proteins are cleaved into viral proteins by viral proteases . HIV ssRNA and proteins assemble beneath the host-cell plasma membrane forming virion buds from it . Maturation occurs either in the forming buds or after budding from the host cell . During maturation, HIV proteases cleave the poly-proteins into individual functional HIV proteins. The mature virions are able to infect another host cell.

Figure 1. Figure 2.

Aids: The Silent Killer

commonly known sexually transmitted diseases. The last stages of HIV, Human Immunodeficiency Virus, are what we know as AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. HIV is similar to other viruses like the flu or common cold except the human immune system cannot destroy the virus. The virus can hide in the cells of the body for long periods of time and attacks important parts of the immune system like T-cells or CD4 cells. Once HIV destroys a lot of CD4 cells the human body can no longer fight against

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How Do I Know If I Have Hiv

The only way to know for sure if you have HIV is to get tested. Testing is relatively simple. You can ask your health care provider for an HIV test. Many medical clinics, substance abuse programs, community health centers, and hospitals offer them too. You can also buy a home testing kit at a pharmacy or online.

To find an HIV testing location near you, use the HIV Services Locator.

HIV self-testing is also an option. Self-testing allows people to take an HIV test and find out their result in their own home or other private location. You can buy a self-test kit at a pharmacy or online. Some health departments or community-based organizations also provide self-test kits for free.

Read the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations fact sheet on the OraQuick In-Home HIV Test, the only FDA-approved in-home HIV test.

The coronavirus pandemic has made it more difficult for some people to access traditional places where HIV testing is provided. Self-testing allows people to get tested for HIV while still following stay-at-home orders and social distancing practices. Ask your local health department or HIV service organization if they offer self-testing kits.


Hiv Effects On The Kidneys

Coronavirus could attack immune system like HIV by ...

High blood pressure and diabetes are both related to HIV, and both are major causes of kidney disease. The healthy diet and exercise habits that are good for your heart will help keep your blood pressure and blood sugar under control. That helps protect your kidneys, too.

Some HIV medications can damage your kidneys. If you already have kidney problems, your doctor may want to avoid those drugs or keep a close eye on their effects.

Your doctor will need to check your kidneys regularly because you might not notice the signs of kidney disease.

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I: Etiology And Epidemiology Of Hiv/aids

UNAIDS reports that reaching Fast-Track Targets will avert nearly 28 million new HIV infections and end the AIDS epidemic as a global health threat by 2030.

If the world does not rapidly scale up in the next five years, the epidemic is likely to spring back with a higher rate of new HIV infections than today.

UNAIDS, 2014a

Your client, Mr. Glover, has been diagnosed with HIV. You dont know much about HIV and are concerned whether you can catch HIV by working with him or even shaking hands. You recognize your need to be better educated so you can give appropriate care without bias or fear. You know that quality care can be given when you have a sound understanding of the disease, risk factors, diagnostics, clinical symptoms, and treatments. Becoming culturally sensitive to the unique needs of your patients requires you to better understand your patients values, definitions of health and illness, and preferences for care.

How Is Hiv Treated

Treatments for HIV typically involve antiretroviral therapy. This isnt a specific regimen, but instead a combination of three or four drugs. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has currently approved nearly 50 different medications to treat HIV.

Antiretroviral therapy works to prevent the virus from copying itself. This maintains immunity levels while slowing the progression of HIV.

Before prescribing medication, a healthcare provider will take the following factors into consideration:

  • a persons health history
  • the levels of the virus in the blood

HIV doesnt cause a lot of outward or noticeable symptoms until the disease has progressed. For this reason, its important to understand how HIV is transmitted and the ways to prevent transmission.

HIV can be transmitted by:

  • having sex, including oral, vaginal, and anal sex
  • sharing needles, including tattoo needles, needles used for body piercing, and needles used for injecting drugs
  • coming into contact with body fluids, such as semen, vaginal fluid, blood, and breast milk

HIV is not transmitted by:

  • breathing the same air as a person living with HIV
  • getting bitten by a mosquito or other biting insect
  • hugging, holding hands with, kissing, or touching a person living with HIV
  • touching a door handle or toilet seat thats been used by an HIV-positive person

Keeping this in mind, some of the ways a person can prevent HIV include:

Symptoms can take years to appear, which is why its so important to get tested regularly.

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Epidemiology Of Hiv And Aids

Epidemiology is the study of how disease is distributed in populations and the factors that influence the distribution. Epidemiologists try to discover why a disease develops in some people and not in others. Clinically, AIDS was first recognized in the United States in 1981, including the state of Washington. In 1983 HIV was discovered to be the cause of AIDS. Since then, the number of AIDS cases has continued to increase both in the United States and in other countries.

People who are infected with HIV come from all races, countries, sexual orientations, genders, and income levels. Globally, most of the people who are infected with HIV have not been tested, and are unaware that they are living with the virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older are living with HIV infection, including 168,000 who are unaware of their infection. This is a decline from 25% in 2003 and 20% in 2012, and it is a positive sign because studies have shown that people with HIV who know that they are infected avoid behaviors that spread infection to others also, they can get medical care and take antiviral medications that could eventually reduce HIV spread by as much as 96% .

Through 2011 the cumulative estimated number of deaths of people with diagnosed HIV infection ever classified as stage 3 in the United States was 648,000 . Nearly 39 million people with AIDS have died worldwide since the epidemic began .

Womans Own Immune System Has Possibly Cured Her Of Hiv

Managing Life with HIV: A Virus that Attacks the Immune System

A woman in Argentina has become only the second documented person whose own immune system may have cured her of HIV.

Researchers have dubbed the 30-year-old mother, who was first diagnosed with HIV in 2013, the Esperanza patient, after the town in Argentina where she lives. In English, esperanza means hope.

I enjoy being healthy, the Esperanza patient, who spoke on condition of anonymity due to the stigma associated with the virus, told NBC News in Spanish over email. I have a healthy family. I dont have to medicate, and I live as though nothing has happened. This already is a privilege.

This is really the miracle of the human immune system that did it.

Dr. Xu Yu, Ragon Institute

The co-authors of the study, which was in the Annals of Internal Medicine, said they believe their findings will indeed bring hope to the estimated 38 million people globally living with the virus and to the ever-expanding HIV-cure research field. The case serves as one of two proofs of concept that a so-called sterilizing cure of the virus is apparently possible through natural immunity.

This is really the miracle of the human immune system that did it, said Dr. Xu Yu, a viral immunologist at the Ragon Institute in Boston, who in partnership with Dr. Natalia Laufer, a physician scientist at INBIRS Institute in Buenos Aries, Argentina, led the exhaustive search for any viable HIV in the womans body.

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How Is Hiv Transmitted

HIV is transmitted when HIV-infected blood, sexual bodily fluids or breast milk enters another persons bloodstream. This occurs most common during unprotected sex or intravenous drug use, when needles or other injecting equipment are shared.

HIV is mainly spread in three ways:

HIV is rarely transmitted in the following ways:

  • Blood transfusions and organ transplants: The risk of HIV from a blood transfusion is extremely low today, with estimates ranging from 1 in 200,000 to 1 in 2,000,000 transfusions. The risk of HIV from an organ transplant is comparable. Accepted donors and their blood are thoroughly tested to rule out HIV and other blood-borne germs.
  • Healthcare settings: As a result of needlestick accidents and other significant blood exposures, there is a very small, but real, risk of healthcare workers contracting HIV from patients. The risk of patients contracting an infection from healthcare workers is extremely low.
  • Casual contact: HIV is not transmitted through casual contact. Outside the body, it dies quickly and is easily killed by soap and disinfectants such as bleach. There is no risk of HIV infection due to the following:

Donating blood

Food or objects handled by people with HIV/AIDS

Spending time in the same house, office, or public place with a person with HIV/AIDS

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