Although Strides Have Been Made In The Hiv Response Children Are Still Affected By The Epidemic
Of the estimated 38.4 million people living with HIV worldwide in 2021, 2.73 million were children aged 019. Each day in 2021, approximately 850 children became infected with HIV and approximately 301 children died from AIDS related causes, mostly because of inadequate access to HIV prevention, care and treatment services.
As of 2021, roughly 14.9 million children under the age of 18 had lost one or both parents to AIDS-related causes. Millions more have been affected by the epidemic, through a heightened risk of poverty, homelessness, school dropout, discrimination and loss of opportunities, as well as COVID-19. These hardships include prolonged illness and death. Of the estimated 650,000 people who died of AIDS-related illnesses in 2021, 110,000 of them were children under 20 years of age.
In 2021, around 160,000 children aged 09 were newly infected with HIV, bringing the total number of children aged 09 living with HIV to 1.02 million . Nearly 86 per cent of these children live in sub-Saharan Africa. One bright spot on the global horizon is the rapid decline of approximately 52 per cent in new HIV infections among children aged 09 since 2010 due to stepped-up efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. However, the number of new HIV infections among adolescents has declined at a slower rate of about 40 per cent.
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States With The Highest Rates Of Hiv
These numbers are based on the CDCs HIV Surveillance Report.
California has the highest number of people living with HIV of 128,153, a rate of 389.7 people with HIV per 100,000 residents. Of those living with HIV in California, the largest group is White with 48,155 people and the second-largest is Hispanic/Latino with 48,029.
New York has the second-highest number of people living with HIV of 126,495, a rate of 760.2 per 100,000. This rate is more than double that of Californias. The largest group living with HIV in New York is Black/African American with 47,164 people living with the virus.
Florida has 110,034 people living with HIV, the third-highest number in the United States. Floridas HIV rate is 612.3 per 100,000. The group with the highest number of people living with HIV is Black/African American with 49,943.
Texas has the fourth-highest number of people living with HIV in the United States of 88,099, translating to a rate of 382.9 per 100,000 people. The largest group living with the virus is Black/African American with 31,915 people, followed by Hispanic/Latino with 29,758.
Georgia has 52,528 people living with HIV, a rate of 608.8 per 100,000. This is the fifth-highest in the country. A majority of those infected with the virus are Black/African American, totaling 35,974.
Here are the 10 states with the highest rates of HIV:
What About Hiv Around The World
HIV disease continues to be a serious health issue for parts of the world. Worldwide, there were about 2.1 million new cases of HIV in 2015. About 36.7 million people are living with HIV around the world, and as of June 2016, 17 million people living with HIV were receiving medicines to treat HIV, called antiretroviral therapy . An estimated 1.1 million people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2015. Sub-Saharan Africa, which bears the heaviest burden of HIV/AIDS worldwide, accounts for 65% of all new HIV infections. Other regions significantly affected by HIV/AIDS include Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.
CDC’s Global AIDS websiteexplains what CDC is doing in the global fight against HIV.
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Risk Factors Contributing To The Black Hiv Rate
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Access to healthcare is very important in preventing and treating HIV/AIDS. It can be affected by health insurance which is available to people through private insurers, Medicare and Medicaid which leaves some people still vulnerable. Historically, African-Americans have faced discrimination when it comes to receiving healthcare.
Homosexuality is viewed negatively in the African-American Community. “In a qualitative study of 745 racially and ethnic diverse undergraduates attending a large Midwestern university, Calzo and Ward determined that parents of African-American participants discussed homosexuality more frequently than the parents of other respondents. In analyses of the values communicated, Calzo and Ward reported that Black parents offered greater indication that homosexuality is perverse and unnatural”.
Looking Back And Moving Forward
In 2021, AIDS turned 40 while the world was immersed in another pandemic. It helped shed light on the tremendous scientific progress we made in understanding, treating, and preventing HIV. A virus that was once a death sentence is now a chronic manageable condition. While there is no cure, with care and treatment as directed by a healthcare provider, people living with HIV can live longer, healthier lives.28,29
Now we must all focus our attention on reducing HIV discrimination and disparities and helping break the barriers to equitable care so that those most in need have access to these advancements in prevention and care.
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Hiv Care & Viral Suppression
92% of people newly diagnosed with HIV in 2019 entered care within one month of their diagnosis .
Between January and June 2020, 77% of persons diagnosed were virally suppressed within six months .
Among all people living with HIV in San Francisco, 67% have their virus under control in 2020. . People who are virally suppressed have better health outcomes and do not transmit HIV to other people.
The proportions of persons with HIV who received care and were virally suppressed in 2019 were higher in San Francisco than in California and the U.S. .
Black/African Americans had a lower proportion of linkage to care and viral suppression. Trans women, persons aged 30-39 years, MSM-PWID, and persons experiencing homelessness at diagnosis had a lower proportion of viral suppression. .
Among persons diagnosed with AIDS in the years 2012-2019, survival probability at 36 months was lower among Black/African Americans and Whites compared to Latinx and Asians/ Pacific Islanders. .
Lessons From Past National Strategies
Since the late 1980s, two US presidents have each released a national plan for responding to the AIDS crisis. These efforts, although well intentioned, have largely been unsuccessful, and they highlight plan-construction errors that should be avoided in the future. The first plan was released under President Reagan, who in 1987 created the Presidential Commission on the HIV Epidemic. The commission issued 597 recommendations, calling for increased HIV testing, stronger legal protection for people with HIV, prevention and treatment of substance abuse, and expansion of the workforce providing HIV care and treatment.2,3 Unfortunately, because of President Reagan’s lukewarm commitment to ensuring implementation of the commission’s recommendations, their report was largely ignored.
In December 1996, President Clinton released the first National AIDS Strategy. The strategy outlined six goals: strengthen HIV-related research reduce the number of new HIV infections give persons with HIV access to high-quality services, both medical and supportive eliminate HIV-related discrimination support international efforts to address the HIV epidemic and ensure that research advances are translated into care and prevention programs. Although the plan had specific objectives, it lacked a timeline for meeting targets and did not clearly identify federal offices responsible for each goal, making the strategy’s impact difficult to assess.2
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Hiv/aids In The United States
The AIDS epidemic, caused by HIV , found its way to the United States between the 1970s and 1980s, but was first noticed after doctors discovered clusters of Kaposi’s sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia in homosexual men in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco in 1981.Treatment of HIV/AIDS is primarily via the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs, and education programs to help people avoid infection.
Initially, infected foreign nationals were turned back at the United States border to help prevent additional infections. The number of United States deaths from AIDS has declined sharply since the early years of the disease’s presentation domestically. In the United States in 2016, 1.1 million people aged over 13 lived with an HIV infection, of whom 14% were unaware of their infection.Gay and bisexual men, African Americans, and Latino Americans remain disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in the United States.
Advances In Hiv Treatment
HIV is not the same disease that it was 30 or even 20 years ago. In 1996, a 20-year-old newly infected with HIV had an average life expectancy of 10 years. By 2013, the same 20-year-old could expect to live well into their 70s.
So effective are current antiretroviral therapies that the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS reported a 60% drop in HIV-related deaths since the peak of the pandemic in 2004. In fact, HIV is no longer on the World Health Organization’s list of top 10 causes of death. As of 2020, HIV/AIDS was the 19th leading cause of death worldwide.
Even so, in some low-income countries where access to healthcare is poor, HIV remains among the most common causes of death, even above stroke, tuberculosis, malaria, and infant mortality.
With a greater push toward universal drug coverage, UNAIDs and others are hoping that the number of HIV-related deaths will continue to drop even in the most hard-hit population. According to the World Bank, around 73% of the 38 million people living with HIV today have been able to access antiretroviral therapy.
HIV-related deaths have dropped by around 60% since the height of the pandemic in 2004. This is due to the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy and increased access to treatment across the planet.
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Preventing The Transmission Of Hiv
Its important for people especially those who have a high risk of contracting HIV to be tested frequently. Starting HIV treatment early is important for best outcomes. Approximately 44 percent of people ages 18 to 64 in the United States have reported receiving an HIV test. HIV education is mandatory in 34 states and in Washington, D.C.
From a public health perspective, preventing transmission of HIV is as important as treating those who have it. There has been remarkable progress in that regard. For example, modern-day antiretroviral therapy can reduce the chances of an HIV-positive person transmitting the virus by 100 percent, if the therapy is taken consistently to reduce virus to an undetectable level in the blood.
There has been a sharp decline in transmission rates in the United States since the mid-1980s. While men who have sex with men represent only 4 percent of the male population in this country, they comprise around 70 percent of those who newly contracted HIV.
Condom use remains an inexpensive, cost-effective first line of defense against HIV. A pill known as Truvada, or pre-exposure prophylaxis , also offers protection. A person without HIV can protect themselves from contracting the virus by taking this once-a-day pill. When taken properly, PrEP can reduce the risk of transmission by more than
Of that amount, $6.6 billion is for aid abroad. This expenditure represents less than 1 percent of the federal budget.
A New Pattern Emerges
On June 5, 1981, CDC published a report in the MMWR describing requests for the drug pentamidine to treat a deadly disease called Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in five previously healthy young men in Los Angeles. After the reports publication, health officials also noticed a spike in cases of Kaposis sarcoma external icon among gay men in New York. Health officials were alarmed that outbreaks of both PCP and KS, which were rare, deadly diseases associated with immune suppression, appeared in the same part of the population.
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New Hiv Infection Rates
New HIV infection rates have dropped over the years. The world has seen a 52% reduction in new HIV infections since the epidemic peaked in 1997. In 1997, 3 million people reported new HIV infections, compared with only 2.1 million in 2010 and 1.5 million in 2020.
This is because people in resource-poor countries now have significantly improved access to HIV treatments. Preventing vertical transmission of HIV, which refers to when the infection passes from a birthing parent to their fetus, has also contributed to lowering transmission rates. Additionally, the medical community has added new HIV prevention tools and methods.
However, the unequal distribution of HIV treatment and prevention strategies still leaves many vulnerable populations behind. Important barriers to improving access to care include stigma, discrimination, social inequities, and exclusion.
Before the COVID-19 pandemic, many people with HIV or at risk of HIV still did not have access to prevention, care, and treatment. The pandemic caused a greater disturbance in the distribution of health services in many countries. Some countries report a 75% disruption of HIV services.
According to UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, the benefits of providing HIV services outweigh the risk of dying from COVID-19.
HIV spreads through contact with bodily fluids from people who have the virus. Bodily fluids that carry HIV include:
It is not possible to contract HIV through:
- sharing foods or beverages
Hiv Prevalence Rate Ratios By Race/ethnicity 2019
The rate of Black males living with an HIV diagnosis is 5.6 times that of White males.
The rate of Hispanic/Latino males living with an HIV diagnosis is 2.9 times that of White males.
The rate of Black females living with an HIV diagnosis is 17.2 times that of White females.
The rate of Hispanic/Latina females living with an HIV diagnosis is 4.9 times that of White females.
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Impact On Gay And Bisexual Men
- While estimates show that gay and bisexual men comprise only about 2% of the U.S. population, male-to-male sexual contact accounts for most new HIV infections and most people living with HIV .58
- Annual new infections among gay and bisexual men declined overall between 2015 and 2019 but remained stable among Black and Latino gay and bisexual men.59
- Blacks gay and bisexual men accounted for the largest number of new diagnoses among this group in 2019, followed by Latino gay and bisexual men .60 Additionally, according to a recent study, Black gay and bisexual men were found to be at a much higher risk of being diagnosed with HIV during their lifetimes compared with Latino and white gay and bisexual men.61 Young Black gay and bisexual men are at particular risk â Black gay and bisexual men ages 20-29 accounted for 51% of new diagnoses among that age group and 13% of all diagnoses.62
In 2019 It Was Estimated That There Are 105200 People Living With Hiv In The Uk
- 94% of these people are diagnosed, and therefore know that they have HIV. This means that around 1 in 16 people living with HIV in the UK do not know that they have the virus.
- 98% of people diagnosed with HIV in the UK are on treatment, and 97% of those on treatment are virally suppressed which means they cant pass the virus on. Of all the people living with HIV in the UK, 89% are virally suppressed.
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Estimated Number Of People Living With Hiv
The Agency estimates that approximately 62,050 people were living with HIV at the end of 2018 . This estimate represents a 3% increase from the estimated 58,291 at the end of 2016 .
The estimated prevalence rate in Canada at the end of 2018 was 167 per 100,000 population .
Figure 10. HIV Prevalence: Estimated number of people living with HIV in Canada
This graph shows estimated number of people living with HIV by year. The vertical axis shows point estimates for number of people living with HIV, along with the associated low estimate and high estimate. The horizontal axis shows the calendar years.
Of the estimated 62,050 people living with HIV in Canada at the end of 2018:
- Nearly half were among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men. .
- 14.0% were people who inject drugs, and 33.4% were heterosexuals.
- About one in four PLHIV was female and this proportion has been consistent over the past 6 years.
- One in ten was Indigenous. This proportion remained stable compared to the 2016 estimates.
Figure 11. Proportion of people living with HIV, by key population, Canada, 2018
This pie chart shows the estimated percentage of people living with HIV by key population in 2018.
Pop Culture Opens Up Conversations
In 1985, actor Rock Hudson became the first major public figure to announce he had AIDS. Before he died that same year, he donated $250,000 to help establish the organization later known as amfAR, the Foundation for AIDS Research. Friend and actress Elizabeth Taylor was the national chairperson until her death in 2011.
In 1987, Princess Diana also made international headlines after she shook hands with an HIV-positive man.
Pop culture icon Freddie Mercury, singer for the band Queen, passed away from AIDS-related illness in 1991. Since then, many other public figures have revealed that theyre HIV-positive, including:
- tennis star Arthur Ashe
- former basketball star and entrepreneur Magic Johnson
- Pedro Zamora, a cast member on MTVs The Real World: San Francisco
- actor Charlie Sheen, who announced his status on national television in 2015
- hairstylist and television personality Jonathan Van Ness
- actor and singer Billy Porter
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