Thursday, May 19, 2022

How Many People Have Hiv In The World

Hiv Rates By Country 2021

World AIDS Day | WHO calls for global solidarity to maintain HIV services during COVID-19 and beyond

HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is a virus that is spread through certain body fluids, such as blood, and weakens a persons immune system by attacking cells that help fight off infection, specifically the CD4 cells. If HIV advances, it can lead to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, if not treated.

Unlike most other viruses, the human body cannot fight off HIV completely therefore, once it is contracted, the individual has it for life. Luckily, it can be controlled and its progression can be slowed significantly. There are three stages of HIV:

  • Acute HIV infection
  • Clinical latency
  • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
  • Men Who Have Sex With Men

    Men who have sex with men account for 70% of all new HIV infections in the United States. According to the CDC, there were approximately 8,000 deaths among gay and bisexual men diagnosed with HIV in 2018.

    In addition to physiological vulnerabilities to infection , high rates of homophobia and stigmatization drive many MSM to avoid HIV testing, treatment, and care. These factors translate to a higher rate of HIV mortality.

    According to a 2011 study in the American Journal of Public Health, MSM with HIV are about 160 times more likely to die from an AIDS-related complication than men who exclusively engage in penile-vaginal sex.

    Most Upsetting Hiv Statistics 2020

    • 36.9 million people are infected with HIV worldwide
    • Around 770,000 people have perished worldwide due to AIDS-related illnesses
    • 23.3 million people worldwide used antiretroviral therapy against AIDS in 2018
    • The rate of deaths caused by AIDS has been reduced by over 55% since 2004
    • 63 out of 10,000 people who use an infected needle will get HIV.

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    Tuberculosis Among People Living With Hiv

    Tuberculosis is the leading HIV-associated opportunistic infection in low- and middle- income countries, and it is a leading cause of death globally among people living with HIV. Death due to tuberculosis still remains high among people living with HIV, however the number of deaths is decreasing. Most of the global mortality due to TB among those with HIV is from cases in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    In the charts here we see the number of tuberculosis patients who tested positive for HIV the number receiving antiretroviral therapy and the number of TB-related deaths among those living with HIV.

    People who use ART are living longer

    ART not only saves lives but also gives a chance for people living with HIV/AIDS to live long lives. Without ART very few infected people survive beyond ten years.3

    Today, a person living in a high-income country who started ART in their twenties can expect to live for another 46 years that is well into their 60s.4

    While the life expectancy of people living with HIV/AIDS in high-income countries has still not reached the life expectancy of the general population, we are getting closer to this goal.5

    ART prevents new HIV infections

    There is considerable evidence to show that people who use ART are less likely to transmit HIV to another person.7 ART reduces the number of viral particles present in an HIV-positive individual and therefore, the likelihood of passing the virus to another person decreases.

    We need to increase ART coverage

    Infographic: World Aids Day 2021

    Basic Statistics

    Although AIDS-related deaths have declined in recent years, the epidemic still killed 680,000 people in 2020.

    2021 40 years since AIDS was discovered in 1981.

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a chronic and potentially life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus .

    HIV attacks the immune system, weakening it to the point where it cannot fight infections.

    According to UNAIDS, there were 37.7 million people living with HIV around the world as of 2020.

    Some 1.5 million people were infected with HIV in 2020 according to the World Health Organization .

    World AIDS Day, commemorated annually on December 1, is dedicated to raising awareness of the AIDS pandemic and mourning those who have died of the disease.

    Global HIV/AIDS

    HIV/AIDS has killed up to 36.3 million people and infected 79.3 million over the past 40 years.

    While deaths have dropped by nearly 50 percent since 2010, some 680,000 people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2020.

    New HIV infections

    In 2020, approximately 1.5 million people acquired HIV, with women and girls accounting for about half of new infections. Every week, some 5,000 young women between the ages of 15 and 24 are infected, according to UNAIDS.

    More than half of the worlds HIV-positive population live in Eastern and Southern Africa. In 2020, the regions had some 670,000 new infections and 310,000 AIDS-related deaths.

    A global breakdown of AIDS cases and deaths is presented in the table below.

    • Sex education

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    Countries With The Highest Rates Of Hiv/aids

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a virus that weakens the human immune system, sometimes leading to AIDS. If detected early, HIV can be managed to prevent it from progressing to the final stage of AIDS. HIV attacks CD4 cells exposing the infected person to opportunistic infections. Proper diagnosis, treatment, and medical care are essential factors to effective management and control of AIDS which has no permanent cure. While HIV is majorly a sexually transmitted disease, the virus can be transmitted through blood transfusion and during birth or breastfeeding, as well as through a few other means.

    Hiv Testing And Counselling In South Africa

    South Africa has made impressive progress in recent years in getting more people to test for HIV. In 2017, South Africa reached the first of the 90-90-90 targets, with 90% of people living with HIV aware of their status, up from 85% in 2015.57

    This progress follows the launch of two nationwide testing initiatives: the national HIV testing and counselling campaign in 2010 and the HTC revitalisation strategy in 2013, which focused on getting people from the private sector, farms and higher education to test.58 Thanks to campaigns such as these, more than 10 million people in South Africa test for HIV every year.59

    Yet the progress made in getting people to test has been uneven. In South Africa women are much more likely to test than men. This is partly because PMTCT programmes enable women to access HIV testing services during routine antenatal appointments.60

    In addition, recent research has shown that men often see health facilities as being womens places and so feel that testing for HIV is non-masculine. Men also report worrying that queuing outside a testing facility will be taken as evidence that they are living with HIV, and talk of avoiding testing because they are terrified of a positive result.61 As a result of the testing discrepancy between sexes, 93% of women living with HIV in 2018 were aware of their status compared to 88% of HIV-positive men.62

    CASE STUDY: The impact of HIV testing within churches

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    Hiv Statistics In Australia

    This snapshot of the latest HIV data for Australia is drawn from the Kirby Institutes 2016 Annual Surveillance Report :

    • At the end of 2015, an estimated 25,313 people were living with HIV in Australia, of whom an estimated 2,619 were unaware of their HIV-positive status. In Australia, HIV transmission continues to occur primarily through sexual contact between men.
    • In 2015, 1,025 people were diagnosed with HIV. The number of newly diagnosed HIV infections in Australia has remained stable for the past three years, with 1,025 cases in 2015, 1,082 in 2014, 1030 in 2013 and 1,064 in 2012.
    • Over a quarter of new HIV diagnoses in Australia in 2015 were diagnosed late, emphasing the ongoing importance of regular HIV testing.
    • The annual number of AIDS diagnoses in Australia peaked at 953 cases in 1994. After 1994, AIDS diagnoses declined rapidly due to the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapies which delay progression from HIV to AIDS and few people are now diagnosed with AIDS.

    Of all HIV diagnoses made in Australia in 2015:

    • 68% of transmissions occurred among men who have sex with men
    • 5% of transmissions were attributed to either male-to-male sex or injecting drug use
    • 20% of transmissions were attributed to heterosexual sex, and
    • 3% of transmissions were attributed to injecting drug use
    • for 4% of transmissions, the mode of transmission was undetermined.

    Treatments access:

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people:

    People from high HIV prevalence countries:

    Is It Possible To Never Get Hiv

    Many HIV patients are living longer

    The majority of people who have been exposed to HIV for years do not become infected. In some cases, they may have engaged in unprotected sex with an infected person more than once. People with HIV are said to be resistant to the disease in these cases. HIV cannot be spread by these people because they are never infected.

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    Efforts Towards Reducing Hiv/aids Prevalence

    Countries with the highest rates of HIV infection have taken several measures towards reducing the rate of infection among the population. Awareness programs are conducted to educate the public about HIV/AIDS. Antiretroviral therapies have been provided at low costs to treat HIV positive patients. Pregnant women who test positive for HIV are monitored strictly to prevent mother-to-child transmission of the infection. Other remedial measures have also been implemented to curb HIV/AIDS in these countries.

    Hiv And Tuberculosis In South Africa

    South Africa has the world’s sixth largest tuberculosis epidemic, and the disease is the leading cause of death in the country.120 South Africas HIV epidemic fuels the TB epidemic because people living with HIV are at a far higher risk of developing TB due to weakened immune systems. It is estimated that 60% of people living with HIV in South Africa are also co-infected with TB. In 2017 there were 193,000 new cases of TB among people living with HIV and 56,000 people living with HIV died due to a TB-related illness.121

    In light of this, the South African National AIDS council combined the HIV and STI strategy with the national TB strategy to improve the integration of these two services. One of the aims of this strategy is to get more people living with HIV on isoniazid preventative therapy , a preventative medicine for TB.122 But as of 2017, only around half of people living with HIV in the country had access to IPT.123

    The TB treatment success rate has improved in recent years, and stood at 83% in 2016.124

    We cannot fight AIDS unless we do much more to fight TB.

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    Continue Learning About Hiv And Aids

    Important: This content reflects information from various individuals and organizations and may offer alternative or opposing points of view. It should not be used for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. As always, you should consult with your healthcare provider about your specific health needs.

    What About Hiv Around The World

    Basic Statistics

    HIV disease continues to be a serious health issue for parts of the world. Worldwide, there were about 2.1 million new cases of HIV in 2015. About 36.7 million people are living with HIV around the world, and as of June 2016, 17 million people living with HIV were receiving medicines to treat HIV, called antiretroviral therapy . An estimated 1.1 million people died from AIDS-related illnesses in 2015. Sub-Saharan Africa, which bears the heaviest burden of HIV/AIDS worldwide, accounts for 65% of all new HIV infections. Other regions significantly affected by HIV/AIDS include Asia and the Pacific, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Eastern Europe and Central Asia.

    CDC’s Global AIDS websiteexplains what CDC is doing in the global fight against HIV.

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    Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision

    In 2010, research emerged from sub-Saharan Africa suggesting that voluntary medical male circumcision can reduce the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission by up to 60%.89 This led the South African government to rapidly roll out a national VMMC programme, which aimed to reach 80% of HIV-negative men by 2016.

    However, this target has been missed. In 2017 around 32% of adult men were estimated to have been medically circumcised. The highest proportion of circumcisions have been carried out on young men , with 43% undergoing VMMC.90

    Despite being off-target, South Africa is continuing to increase the number of circumcisions. In 2018 more than 572,000 circumcisions were performed, compared to 485,500 in 2015.91 Across the country the VMMC programme has mostly been well received with 78% of women preferring their partner to be circumcised, according to the 2011 youth sex survey.92

    In 2019 It Was Estimated That There Are 105200 People Living With Hiv In The Uk

    • 94% of these people are diagnosed, and therefore know that they have HIV. This means that around 1 in 16 people living with HIV in the UK do not know that they have the virus.
    • 98% of people diagnosed with HIV in the UK are on treatment, and 97% of those on treatment are virally suppressed which means they cant pass the virus on. Of all the people living with HIV in the UK, 89% are virally suppressed.

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    Hiv Prevention Programmes In South Africa

    South Africa aims to reduce the annual number of new infections to under 100,000 by 2022.73

    The government plans to achieve this by intensifying prevention efforts in the 27 districts that account for 82% of all people living with HIV and for the majority of new infections. It has also committed to achieving zero new infections due to mother-to-child transmission by 2022.74

    In addition, the 2017-2022 South African National LGBTI HIV Plan commits to reaching 95% of people from the LGBTI community with HIV prevention and ensuring 90% of LGBTI people living with HIV know their status.75

    A number of South Africas HIV prevention strategies being implemented to reach these targets are outlined below.

    Hiv Among People Who Acquire Hiv Through Heterosexual Sex

    How coronavirus disrupted the fight against HIV/Aids | COVID-19 Special

    How many people living with HIV in Canada acquired HIV through heterosexual sex?

    According to national HIV estimates, 20,750 people living with HIV in Canada acquired HIV through heterosexual sex in 2018. This represents 33.4% of all people with HIV in Canada.

    In 2016, the Public Health Agency of Canada separated heterosexual transmission into two categories those born in an HIV-endemic country and those born in a non HIV-endemic country . According to the Public Health Agency of Canada This separation is no longer considered appropriate, for reasons of increasing data incompleteness. The Public Health Agency of Canada is working with communities and with provinces and territories to find ways to better reflect the HIV situation in these communities.

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    Are Some Regions Of The United States More Impacted By Hiv Than Others

    Yes. HIV is largely an urban disease, with most cases occurring in metropolitan areas with 500,000 or more people. The South has the highest number of people living with HIV, but if population size is taken into account, the Northeast has the highest rate of people living with HIV.

    *Rates per 100,000 people.

    Funding For Hiv In South Africa

    South Africa largely funds its HIV programmes domestically, only receiving 12% of its HIV funding from external sources in 2018.126

    South Africas National Strategic HIV, STI and TB Plan 2017-2022 is predicted to cost 207 billion rand in total. In light of this, in 2017 the South African government increased its budget allocation for HIV and AIDS, despite general budget reductions across the health sector.127

    Still the South African National AIDS Council has predicted there will be some funding gaps. However, it is unclear how severe these will be, especially since there is a level of uncertainty around the availability of international funding for HIV and AIDS in the coming years.128

    An encouraging sign came with the announcement from the US Presidents Emergency for AIDS Relief that it will be providing 10 billion rand in funding for 2019/2020, an increase from 2018 and 2017 funding levels.129

    Treatment and care make up the biggest proportion of the costs, outlined in the NSP. In recent years South Africa has been working hard to negotiate better prices for ARVs, having previously been paying more than most other low- and middle-income countries despite having the worlds largest procurement programme.130 In September 2017 UNAIDS announced a breakthrough pricing agreement, which will allow the single pill regime of Dolutegravir to be sold at around $75 per person per year in south Africa and 90 other low- and middle-income countries.131

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    Key Points: Hiv Incidence

    HIV incidence declined 8% from 2015 to 2019. In 2019, the estimated number of HIV infections in the U.S. was 34,800 and the rate was 12.6 .

    , the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among persons aged 1324 and persons aged 45-54, but remained stable among all other age groups. In 2019, the rate was highest for persons aged 25-34 , followed by the rate for persons aged 35-44 .

    , the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among persons of multiple races, but remained stable for persons of all other races/ethnicities. In 2019, the highest rate was for Blacks/African American persons , followed by Hispanic/Latino persons and persons of multiple races .

    , the annual number of new HIV infections in 2019, as compared to 2015, decreased among males, but remained stable among females. In 2019, the rate for males was 5 times the rate for females .

    , the annual number of HIV infections in 2019, compared with 2015, decreased among males with transmission attributed to male-to-male sexual contact, but remained stable among all other transmission categories. In 2019, the largest percentages of HIV infections were attributed to male-to-male sexual contact

    For more details on recent HIV incidence statistics, see Estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence in the United States, 2015-2019.

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